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Social Psychology PowerPoint® Presentation by Jim Foley

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1 Social Psychology PowerPoint® Presentation by Jim Foley
© 2013 Worth Publishers

2 Module 37: Antisocial Relations

3 Two examples of how antisocial behavior happens
Prejudice: Automatic Prejudice Social Influences: Social Inequalities, Ingroup Bias Emotions and Prejudice: Scapegoat Theory Cognitive Roots: Forming Categories Memory: vivid cases Just-world fallacy Aggression: Biological Influences (genetic, neural, biochemical) Psychological and Social-Cultural Factors: Frustration-aggression Reinforcement Family Modeling Media Models Social Scripts

4 Social Relations Prejudice
Components of Prejudice Prejudice: An unjustified (usually negative) attitude toward a group (and its members). Discrimination: Unjustified behavior selectively applied to members of a group. Stereotype: A generalized belief about a group, applied to every member of a group. Beliefs (stereotypes) Emotions (hostility, envy, fear) Click to reveal bullets. Instructor: you can ask students to flesh out the word “attitude” here: this is not just a feeling, it is also a predisposition to act in a certain way. Predisposition to act (to discriminate)

5 Levels of Prejudice can Change
Generation X Generation Y Baby Boomers The Silent Generation Support for interracial dating No animation. Notice that attitudes about interracial dating change not just over time (longitudinally) but even more by generation (cohort). The Greatest Generation

6 Social Relations Prejudice Remains
Attitudes about gay marriage have not come as far as attitudes about interracial marriage. Increased prejudice toward all Muslims and Arabs after 9/11 has still not subsided much. Women are still judged and treated unfairly. Automatic, subtle, and institutional prejudice still occurs even when people state that they have no prejudice in principle (but may have unconscious prejudiced reactions). Click to reveal bullets.

7 Automatic Prejudice Study: People were more likely to misperceive a tool as a gun when preceded by an African-American face, when both were presented quickly followed by blank screen or “visual mask.” Not a gun Click to show the face and wrench again. Instructor: You may want to have students try, at home or on screen, an “Implicit Association Test” such as this one:

8 Prejudice based on Gender
People may prefer a feminine face But this preference doesn’t counteract gender prejudice: Preference for male babies, even abortion or infanticide of females Blaming women for adultery Seeing assertiveness or ambition as attractive in men, abrasive in women Click to reveal bullets after face pictures show up. Although people, including most women, expressed a preference for a face with feminine features, this preferential feeling doesn’t translate into preferential treatment or respect for girls and women.

9 Social Relations Social Roots of Prejudice
Social Inequality, when some groups have fewer resources and opportunities than others: May result from prejudice, but can also make it worse… May be used to justify people as deserving their current position: it breeds contempt for the people better off, disrespect for people less well off. Click to reveal bullets. The “Just World Fallacy” concept is presented twice, here and under cognitive factors; this presentation will cover the concept just once, under cognitive factors. “Those doing well must have done something right, so: those suffering must have done something wrong.”

10 Us vs. Them: Ingroups, Outgroups
Even if people are randomly assigned to groups: Part of our natural drive to belong to a group leads to ingroup bias (favoring one’s own group), misjudging other groups, and quickly categorizing strangers: “with me or against me.” No animation. This bias can lead people to magnify all cognitive errors in relation to that group: selectively remembering, or even misremembering/confabulating, negative information about the other group (the Democrat vs. Republican example in the book).

11 Social Relations Emotional Roots of Prejudice
Scapegoat Theory: The observation that, when bad things happen, prejudice offers an outlet for anger by finding someone to blame. Experiments show a link: Prejudice increases during temporary frustration (and decreases when experiencing loving support) Link to fear: Prejudice seems absent in people with inactive fear responses in the amygdala. Click to reveal bullets. Natural disasters have been blamed on gays, liberals, atheists, etc., but this may be politically motivated as much as emotionally motivated.

12 Social Relations Cognitive Roots of Prejudice
Forming Categories: The Other-Race Effect The Power of Vivid Cases: Availability heuristic ignores statistics Automatic animation. “Just World” Belief: People must deserve what they get Fed by hindsight bias, cognitive dissonance

13 Social Relations: Cognitive Roots of Prejudice The Other-Race Effect
We also are hypersensitive to difference, seeing mixed-race faces as belonging to the other group: Which faces are Reality: Caucasians said: Click through to show all stages of animated example. This tendency to see other ethnic groups as all looking alike (and then presumably all having other traits in common) is due in part to lack of experience in seeing differences among faces of other ethnic groups. This is the own-race bias, or other-race effect. Other-race effect: We tend to see uniformity in the appearance of other groups, and may assume other similarities such as traits; These presumed similarities form stereotypes.

14 Judging Based on Vivid Cases
If we see dramatic examples of terrorism carried out by people who are Muslim, we may form a false association, when in fact: 9/11 hijackers Automatic animation. Since it’s getting close to the final exam, see if students can recall: 1) What is it called when vivid cases overrule statistics in our thinking? --The Availability Heuristic. 2) What process makes us not likely to look for counterexamples to our stereotypes? --Confirmation Bias. The stereotype “Muslim = terrorist” sticks in some people’s minds even though the vast majority of Muslims do not fit this stereotype.

15 Belief that the World is Just
Social Relations: Cognitive Roots of Prejudice Belief that the World is Just The Just-World Fallacy: Believing that justice generally happens, that people get the benefits and punishments they deserve. Implication: If people are rich, privileged, they must have earned it; So, if people are poor, outcast, they must not deserve better. Believing that justice happens… leads to blaming the victim. Click to reveal bullets.

16 Thinking Habits Reinforcing Prejudice
The Availability Heuristic: Stereotypes are built on vivid cases rather than statistics Thinking Habits Reinforcing Prejudice Cognitive dissonance: “My culture and family treats minorities this way, can we be wrong?” Confirmation Bias: we are not likely to look for counterexamples to our stereotypes. Click to reveal four bubbles. Hindsight Bias: “they should have known better,” blames victims for misfortunes.

17 Definition: Behavior with the intent of harming another person.
Social Relations Aggression Definition: Behavior with the intent of harming another person. Aggression can have many forms and purposes: Aggression can be physical, verbal, relational: e.g. punching, insulting, shooting, betraying. Aggression can be planned or reactive. Aggression can be driven by hostile rage or can be a coldly calculated means to an end. Click to reveal bullets. The “other” that I have inserted into the definition: Social/Relational aggression, not fitting neatly into “physical” or simply “verbal” behavior: Examples include gossip, exclusion, scapegoating, deceiving, manipulating, betraying.

18 The Biology of Aggression
Social Relations The Biology of Aggression There is not one genetically universal style or amount of aggressiveness in human behavior But there are biological factors which may explain variation in levels of aggression: Genetic factors (including Heredity) Neural factors, esp. Brain Activity Biochemistry, esp. hormones and alcohol Click to reveal bullets.

19 Genetic Influences on Aggression
Social Relations Genetic Influences on Aggression There is evidence that aggression is tied to genes, even if we’re not sure which ones: Aggression can be selectively bred in animals and then passed on to the next generation Identical twins are more similar in their levels of aggression than fraternal twins or siblings Males are more prone to aggression, and differ by a chromosome (female XX vs. male XY) Click to reveal bullets.

20 Biochemistry of Aggression
Social Relations Biochemistry of Aggression The male hormone Testosterone levels are correlated with irritability, assertiveness, impulsiveness, and low tolerance for frustration. Traits linked to testosterone levels, such as facial width, also are linked to aggressiveness. Violent criminal males have high testosterone levels along with low serotonin levels Reducing testosterone reduces aggression, in both humans and animals Click to reveal bullets. Low serotonin levels are linked to depression and irritability. Many men report reduction in anger problems when taking antidepressants, which raise serotonin levels.

21 Biochemistry of Aggression
Social Relations Biochemistry of Aggression Alcohol Alcohol may chemically or psychologically make the following more likely: Disinhibited aggressive behavior Aggressive responses to frustration Violent crimes, especially spousal abuse Lack of attention to peacemaking options Interpreting neutral acts as provocations Click to reveal bullets.

22 Neural Influences Social Relations Brain Activity and Aggression
Evidence of brain links to aggression: One monkey learned to subdue the aggression of another, by turning on an electrode implanted in an aggression-inhibiting brain area A woman became rude and violent after painless stimulation of her amygdala Underactive frontal lobes (which inhibit impulses) are linked to aggression, violence Click to reveal bullets.

23 Psychosocial Factors and Aggression
Social Relations Psychosocial Factors and Aggression Levels of aggression are influenced by: Aversive conditions and feeling frustrated; Getting reinforced for aggressive behavior; Having aggression modeled at home or in the media Adopting social scripts for aggression from culture and the media. Click to reveal bullets. This slide can serve as a summary of the section or, if you want more detail, as a table of contents slide for the upcoming five slides.

24 Aversive/Unpleasant Conditions
Aggression is often a response to frustration and other aversive conditions and events. Violence increases during hot years, hot days. Also aversive: pain, heat, crowding, foul odors. Click to reveal bullets and Frustration-Aggression Principle bubble. Frustrations: Events in which one is surprisingly blocked from achieving a goal. Frustration-Aggression Principle: After repeated frustrating events, Anger can build, and find a target, and then: Aggression can erupt, possibly against someone who was not the initial cause of the frustration.

25 Reinforced/Rewarded Aggression
Sometimes aggression works! Bullies win control and obedience, Robbers gain wealth, tacklers who injure receivers get bonuses. Aggression, like any behavior, increases in frequency and intensity after it is reinforced. Parents and Aggression- Replacement Training can guide youth by rewarding other, prosocial behaviors that still meet personal needs. Click to reveal bullets. Aggression Replacement Training was developed by Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University in the early 1980s.

26 Family, Cultural Models for Aggression
Parents dislike aggressive behavior in their children, but unfortunately: They may have modeled that behavior, such as yelling, as their kids watched them handle frustration. Some cultures model aggression and violence as a solution to personal and societal injustice. Models for aggression are also conveyed through media, in the form of social scripts. Click to reveal bullets. A comment on the first bullet and a preview of conflict reduction/peacemaking: Parents can stop modeling aggression, and start modeling prosocial/assertive coping, at any time. This means refusing to yell and spank even when you feel your child “deserves” it, because doing so will not work in the long run to get respectful behavior from the children. It means ending the aggression even when the other person continues.

27 Aggression in Media: Social Scripts
Aggression portrayed in video, music, books, and other media, follows and teaches a script. When confronted with new situations, we may rely on social scripts to guide our responses. Many scripts proscribe aggression. Social Scripts: Culturally constructed directions on how to act, downloaded from media as a “file” or “program” in the mind. Effects of Social Scripts Click to reveal bullets. Watchers of TV crime see the world as more threatening (needing a aggressive defense?) Randomly assigned to watch explicit pornography, study participants suggested shorter sentences for rapists and accepted the myth that victims may have enjoyed the rape. Studies: Exposure to one aggressive story increases other forms of aggressive behavior.

28 More Media Effects on Aggression
Video Games and Aggression More Media Effects on Aggression Exposure to violence in media, especially in pornography, seems to increase, rather than release, male aggressive impulses. Media can portray minorities, women, the poor, and others with less power as being weak, stupid, submissive, and less human, and thus deserving their victimhood. People randomly assigned to play ultraviolent video games showed increases in hostility People playing a game helping characters, showed increased real-life helping People have acted out violent acts from video games; People playing the most violent games tended to be the most aggressive; but what came first, aggressiveness or games? Click to reveal bullets.

29 The Many Origins of Aggression
No animation.

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