3Two examples of how antisocial behavior happens Prejudice:Automatic PrejudiceSocial Influences:Social Inequalities,Ingroup BiasEmotions and Prejudice:Scapegoat TheoryCognitive Roots:Forming CategoriesMemory: vivid casesJust-world fallacyAggression:Biological Influences (genetic, neural, biochemical)Psychological and Social-Cultural Factors:Frustration-aggressionReinforcementFamily ModelingMedia ModelsSocial Scripts
4Social Relations Prejudice Components of PrejudicePrejudice: An unjustified (usually negative) attitude toward a group (and its members).Discrimination: Unjustified behavior selectively applied to members of a group.Stereotype: A generalized belief about a group, applied to every member of a group.Beliefs (stereotypes)Emotions (hostility, envy, fear)Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: you can ask students to flesh out the word “attitude” here: this is not just a feeling, it is also a predisposition to act in a certain way.Predisposition to act (to discriminate)
5Levels of Prejudice can Change Generation XGeneration YBaby BoomersThe Silent GenerationSupport for interracial datingNo animation.Notice that attitudes about interracial dating change not just over time (longitudinally) but even more by generation (cohort).The Greatest Generation
6Social Relations Prejudice Remains Attitudes about gay marriage have not come as far as attitudes about interracial marriage.Increased prejudice toward all Muslims and Arabs after 9/11 has still not subsided much.Women are still judged and treated unfairly.Automatic, subtle, and institutional prejudice still occurs even when people state that they have no prejudice in principle (but may have unconscious prejudiced reactions).Click to reveal bullets.
7Automatic PrejudiceStudy: People were more likely to misperceive a tool as a gun when preceded by an African-American face, when both were presented quickly followed by blank screen or “visual mask.”Not a gunClick to show the face and wrench again.Instructor: You may want to have students try, at home or on screen, an “Implicit Association Test” such as this one: https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/
8Prejudice based on Gender People may prefer a feminine faceBut this preference doesn’t counteract gender prejudice:Preference for male babies, even abortion or infanticide of femalesBlaming women for adulterySeeing assertiveness or ambition as attractive in men, abrasive in womenClick to reveal bullets after face pictures show up.Although people, including most women, expressed a preference for a face with feminine features, this preferential feeling doesn’t translate into preferential treatment or respect for girls and women.
9Social Relations Social Roots of Prejudice Social Inequality, when some groups have fewer resources and opportunities than others:May result from prejudice, but can also make it worse…May be used to justify people as deserving their current position:it breeds contempt for the people better off, disrespect for people less well off.Click to reveal bullets.The “Just World Fallacy” concept is presented twice, here and under cognitive factors; this presentation will cover the concept just once, under cognitive factors.“Those doing well must have done something right, so: those suffering must have done something wrong.”
10Us vs. Them: Ingroups, Outgroups Even if people are randomly assigned to groups:Part of our natural drive to belong to a group leads to ingroup bias (favoring one’s own group), misjudging other groups, and quickly categorizing strangers: “with me or against me.”No animation.This bias can lead people to magnify all cognitive errors in relation to that group: selectively remembering, or even misremembering/confabulating, negative information about the other group (the Democrat vs. Republican example in the book).
11Social Relations Emotional Roots of Prejudice Scapegoat Theory: The observation that, when bad things happen, prejudice offers an outlet for anger by finding someone to blame.Experiments show a link: Prejudice increases during temporary frustration (and decreases when experiencing loving support)Link to fear: Prejudice seems absent in people with inactive fear responses in the amygdala.Click to reveal bullets.Natural disasters have been blamed on gays, liberals, atheists, etc., but this may be politically motivated as much as emotionally motivated.
12Social Relations Cognitive Roots of Prejudice Forming Categories:The Other-Race EffectThe Power of Vivid Cases:Availability heuristic ignores statisticsAutomatic animation.“Just World” Belief:People must deserve what they getFed by hindsight bias, cognitive dissonance
13Social Relations: Cognitive Roots of Prejudice The Other-Race Effect We also are hypersensitive to difference, seeing mixed-race faces as belonging to the other group:Which faces areReality:Caucasians said:Click through to show all stages of animated example.This tendency to see other ethnic groups as all looking alike (and then presumably all having other traits in common) is due in part to lack of experience in seeing differences among faces of other ethnic groups.This is the own-race bias, or other-race effect.Other-race effect: We tend to see uniformity in the appearance of other groups, and may assume other similarities such as traits;These presumed similarities form stereotypes.
14Judging Based on Vivid Cases If we see dramatic examples of terrorism carried out by people who are Muslim, we may form a false association, when in fact:9/11 hijackersAutomatic animation.Since it’s getting close to the final exam, see if students can recall:1) What is it called when vivid cases overrule statistics in our thinking?--The Availability Heuristic.2) What process makes us not likely to look for counterexamples to our stereotypes?--Confirmation Bias.The stereotype “Muslim = terrorist” sticks in some people’s minds even though the vast majority of Muslims do not fit this stereotype.
15Belief that the World is Just Social Relations: Cognitive Roots of PrejudiceBelief that the World is JustThe Just-World Fallacy: Believing that justice generally happens, that people get the benefits and punishments they deserve.Implication: If people are rich, privileged, they must have earned it;So, if people are poor, outcast, they must not deserve better.Believing that justice happens… leads to blaming the victim.Click to reveal bullets.
16Thinking Habits Reinforcing Prejudice The Availability Heuristic: Stereotypes are built on vivid cases rather than statisticsThinking Habits Reinforcing PrejudiceCognitive dissonance: “My culture and family treats minorities this way, can we be wrong?”Confirmation Bias: we are not likely to look for counterexamples to our stereotypes.Click to reveal four bubbles.Hindsight Bias: “they should have known better,” blames victims for misfortunes.
17Definition: Behavior with the intent of harming another person. Social RelationsAggressionDefinition: Behavior with the intent of harming another person.Aggression can have many forms and purposes:Aggression can be physical, verbal, relational: e.g. punching, insulting, shooting, betraying.Aggression can be planned or reactive.Aggression can be driven by hostile rage or can be a coldly calculated means to an end.Click to reveal bullets.The “other” that I have inserted into the definition: Social/Relational aggression, not fitting neatly into “physical” or simply “verbal” behavior: Examples include gossip, exclusion, scapegoating, deceiving, manipulating, betraying.
18The Biology of Aggression Social RelationsThe Biology of AggressionThere is not one genetically universal style or amount of aggressiveness in human behaviorBut there are biological factors which may explain variation in levels of aggression:Genetic factors (including Heredity)Neural factors, esp. Brain ActivityBiochemistry, esp. hormones and alcoholClick to reveal bullets.
19Genetic Influences on Aggression Social RelationsGenetic Influences on AggressionThere is evidence that aggression is tied to genes, even if we’re not sure which ones:Aggression can be selectively bred in animals and then passed on to the next generationIdentical twins are more similar in their levels of aggression than fraternal twins or siblingsMales are more prone to aggression, and differ by a chromosome (female XX vs. male XY)Click to reveal bullets.
20Biochemistry of Aggression Social RelationsBiochemistry of AggressionThe male hormoneTestosterone levels are correlated with irritability, assertiveness, impulsiveness, and low tolerance for frustration.Traits linked to testosterone levels, such as facial width, also are linked to aggressiveness.Violent criminal males have high testosterone levels along with low serotonin levelsReducing testosterone reduces aggression, in both humans and animalsClick to reveal bullets.Low serotonin levels are linked to depression and irritability.Many men report reduction in anger problems when taking antidepressants, which raise serotonin levels.
21Biochemistry of Aggression Social RelationsBiochemistry of AggressionAlcoholAlcohol may chemically or psychologically make the following more likely:Disinhibited aggressive behaviorAggressive responses to frustrationViolent crimes, especially spousal abuseLack of attention to peacemaking optionsInterpreting neutral acts as provocationsClick to reveal bullets.
22Neural Influences Social Relations Brain Activity and Aggression Evidence of brain links to aggression:One monkey learned to subdue the aggression of another, by turning on an electrode implanted in an aggression-inhibiting brain areaA woman became rude and violent after painless stimulation of her amygdalaUnderactive frontal lobes (which inhibit impulses) are linked to aggression, violenceClick to reveal bullets.
23Psychosocial Factors and Aggression Social RelationsPsychosocial Factors and AggressionLevels of aggression are influenced by:Aversive conditions and feeling frustrated;Getting reinforced for aggressive behavior;Having aggression modeled at home or in the mediaAdopting social scripts for aggression from culture and the media.Click to reveal bullets.This slide can serve as a summary of the section or, if you want more detail, as a table of contents slide for the upcoming five slides.
24Aversive/Unpleasant Conditions Aggression is often a response to frustration and other aversive conditions and events.Violence increases during hot years, hot days.Also aversive: pain, heat, crowding, foul odors.Click to reveal bullets and Frustration-Aggression Principle bubble.Frustrations: Events in which one is surprisingly blocked from achieving a goal.Frustration-Aggression Principle:After repeated frustrating events,Anger can build, and find a target, and then:Aggression can erupt, possibly against someone who was not the initial cause of the frustration.
25Reinforced/Rewarded Aggression Sometimes aggression works! Bullies win control and obedience, Robbers gain wealth, tacklers who injure receivers get bonuses.Aggression, like any behavior, increases in frequency and intensity after it is reinforced.Parents and Aggression- Replacement Training can guide youth by rewarding other, prosocial behaviors that still meet personal needs.Click to reveal bullets.Aggression Replacement Training was developed by Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University in the early 1980s.
26Family, Cultural Models for Aggression Parents dislike aggressive behavior in their children, but unfortunately: They may have modeled that behavior, such as yelling, as their kids watched them handle frustration.Some cultures model aggression and violence as a solution to personal and societal injustice.Models for aggression are also conveyed through media, in the form of social scripts.Click to reveal bullets.A comment on the first bullet and a preview of conflict reduction/peacemaking: Parents can stop modeling aggression, and start modeling prosocial/assertive coping, at any time. This means refusing to yell and spank even when you feel your child “deserves” it, because doing so will not work in the long run to get respectful behavior from the children. It means ending the aggression even when the other person continues.
27Aggression in Media: Social Scripts Aggression portrayed in video, music, books, and other media, follows and teaches a script.When confronted with new situations, we may rely on social scripts to guide our responses. Many scripts proscribe aggression.Social Scripts: Culturally constructed directions on how to act, downloaded from media as a “file” or “program” in the mind.Effects of Social ScriptsClick to reveal bullets.Watchers of TV crime see the world as more threatening (needing a aggressive defense?)Randomly assigned to watch explicit pornography, study participants suggested shorter sentences for rapists and accepted the myth that victims may have enjoyed the rape.Studies: Exposure to one aggressive story increases other forms of aggressive behavior.
28More Media Effects on Aggression Video Games and AggressionMore Media Effects on AggressionExposure to violence in media, especially in pornography, seems to increase, rather than release, male aggressive impulses.Media can portray minorities, women, the poor, and others with less power as being weak, stupid, submissive, and less human, and thus deserving their victimhood.People randomly assigned to play ultraviolent video games showed increases in hostilityPeople playing a game helping characters, showed increased real-life helpingPeople have acted out violent acts from video games; People playing the most violent games tended to be the most aggressive; but what came first, aggressiveness or games?Click to reveal bullets.