4Effects of child abuse fear anxiety depression anger hostility inappropriate sexual behaviorpoor self esteemtendency toward substance abuse anddifficulty with close relationshipsBrowne & Finkelhor, 1986
5Clinical findings of adult victims of sexual abuse include problems in interpersonal relationships associated with an underlying mistrust.Generally, adult victims of incest have a severely strained relationship with their parents that is marked by feelings of mistrust, fear, ambivalence, hatred, and betrayal.Tsai and Wagner, 1978.
6Young girls who are forced to have sex are three times more likely to develop psychiatric disorders or abuse alcohol and drugs in adulthood, than girls who are not sexually abused.Sexual abuse was also more strongly linked with substance abuse than with psychiatric disorders.It was also suggested that sexual abuse may lead some girls to become sexually active at an earlier age.Kenneth S. Kendler, M.D., et al,
7In the adult retrospective study Victimization was reported by 27 percent of the women and 16 percent of the men.The median age for the occurrence of reported abuse was 9.9 for boys and 9.6 for girls.Victimization occurred before age eight for 22 percent of boys and for 23 percent of girls.Source: Finkelhor et al., 1990.
8In the adult retrospective study Most of the abuse of both boys and girls was by offenders 10 or more years older than their victims.Girls were more likely than boys to disclose the abuse.Forty-two percent of the women and thirty-three percent of the men reported never having disclosed the experience to anyone.Source: Finkelhor et al., 1990.
9Kids who experience trauma Have their scope of the world change
10Child Sexual Abuse no universal definition a central characteristic of any abuse is the dominant position of the perpetrator that allows him or her to force or coerce a child into sexual activitymay include any sexual contact or contact with sexual intent with a child.is not solely restricted to physical contact; such abuse could include non-contact abuse, such as exposure, voyeurism, and child pornography
11Myths and Misconceptions About Child Sexual Abuse The total stranger represents the greatest potential sexual abuse threat to a childSexual abuse occurs most frequently in low-socioeconomic, uneducated, non-white populationsChild sexual abuse is rareIncest occurs only once per victimSexual Abuse is only committed by step-parents
12The IssueEvery 10 seconds a child is abusedNational Committee to Prevent Child abuseEach day in the United States, more than 3 children die as a result of child abuse in the homeChildhelp USAThe Rate of Child Abuse is ten times the rate of cancerA National Call to ActionWithout intervention abused children are 67% more likely to be arrested as a teenChild Welfare League of America
13The FactsThe rate of child abuse is estimated to be 3 times greater than is reported. – probably more1 in 4 girls is sexually abused before the age of 18.1 in 6 boys is sexually abused before the age of 18.1 in 5 children are solicited sexually while on the internet.Nearly 70% of all reported sexual assaults occur to children ages 17 and under.An estimated 39 million survivors of childhood sexual abuse live in the US
14The Facts Abused kids are 25% more likely to experience teen pregnancy Abused teens are 3 times less likely to practice safe sex.
15The FactsKids who have been abused are 2.5 % more likely to abuse alcohol3.8% more likely to develop drug addictions2/3 of people in drug tretamen treport being abused as a child
16The Facts 14% of men in prison reported being abused as a child 36% of women in prison report being abused as a childKids who have been abused are 30% mose likely to commit a violent crime
17Sex Offenders Hurt Kids till they are Stopped! Nearly 70% of child sex offenders have between 1 and 9 victims; at least 20% have 10 to 40 victims.An child molester may have as many as 400 victims in his lifetimeThe average male, adolescent sex offender could effect 380 victims during his lifetime, if not treated.Abel, G., Mittleman, M. and Baker, J. (1985)
18258 Million Cost of child abuse and neglect in United States per day Source: Prevent Child Abuse Texas
20We Are Not in Kansas Anymore The trauma appears as a whirlwind on the horizon of a child or adolescent’s life and turns their world abruptly upside down. The traumatic tornadoengulfs reality,distorts reason,devours trust,fractures intimacy,twists emotions into knots,consumes self esteemand leaves the child in a disruptive aftermath that is choked in lies, half truths, manipulation and secrets
21Are kids safe at home?30-40% of victims are abused by a family member.Another 50% are abused by someone outside of the family whom they know.Approximately 40% are abused by other kids.Between 6 and 10% are abused by strangers
22They are younger than you think The median age for reported abuse is 9 years old.More than 20% of children are sexually abused before the age of 8.Force is used in nearly 50% of the time in children under 12
23Most children don't tell, even if they have been asked Over 30% of victims never disclose the experience to ANYONE.Young victims may not recognize their victimization as sexual abuse.Almost 80% initially deny abuse or are tentative in disclosing.More than 20% eventually recant even though the abuse occurred.False reports constitute only 1% to 4% of all reported cases.
24ConsequencesFamily response (especially mom) to the abuse is one of the most important aspects of healingSexually abused children who keep it a secret or who "tell" and are not believed are at greater risk than the general population for psychological, emotional, social, and physical problems often lasting into adulthood.Children who have been victims of sexual abuse are more likely to experience physical health problems and report more somatic complaints
25Victims of child sexual abuse report: ConsequencesVictims of child sexual abuse report:more symptoms of PTSD, more sadness, and more school problems than non-victims.are more likely to experience major depressive disorder as adults.more likely to develop eating disorders as adolescents.
26ConsequencesAdolescents and adults who are abused in childhood are significantly more likely to drink alcohol and/or use illicit drugs than their peers.Adolescents and adults who were victims of childhood maltreatment have been consistently found to be more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors.
27The Link Between Abuse As a Child & Future Criminal Behavior 14.4% of all men in prison in the United States were abused as children36.7% of all women in prison report being abused as childrenChildren who experience child abuse & neglect are 59% more likely to be arrested as a juvenile,28% more likely to be arrested as an adult, and30% more likely to commit violent crime.US Department of Justice Reports
28Sexual ConsequencesChildren who have been victims of sexual abuse exhibit long-term and more frequent behavioral problems, particularly inappropriate sexual behaviors.Women who report childhood rape are 3 times more likely to become pregnant before age 18.An estimated 60% of teen first pregnancies are preceded by experiences of molestation.
29Physical Consequences From bruises to deathShaken Baby SyndromeMay not be immediately noticeableMay include brain, eye, spinal cord damageImpaired Brain DevelopmentRegions of the brain fail to developCognitive, language and academic problems
30Physical Consequences Poor Physical HealthRelationship between abuse/neglect and poor healthAllergies, high blood pressure, arthritis, asthma have all been linked to childhood household dysfuction
31Psychological Consequences ImmediateIsolationFearInability to TrustCould lead to life long consequences
32Psychological Consequences InfancyDepression and withdrawal have been observed in children as young as 3Brain development issues
33Psychological Consequences Poor mental / emotional health80% of young adults who have been abused met the criteria for at least 1 psychiatric disorder.DepressionAnxietySuicide attemptsSilverman, Reinherz and Giaconia, 1996
34Psychological Consequences MOREPanic disorderDissociative disorderADD/ ADHDPTSDAttachment disordersTeicher, 2000; De Bellis and Thomas 2003
35Psychological Consequences Cognitive DifficultiesChildren placed out of the home scored lower in areas of cognitive capacity, language development ad academic achievementUS Dept. Health and Human Services, 2003
36Psychological Consequences Cognitive DifficultiesRelationship between poor academic performance and classroom functioning and child maltreatmentZolotor, Kotch, Dufort, Winsor and Catellier 1999
37Psychological Consequences Social DifficultiesChildren who experience rejection or neglect are more likely to develop antisocial traitsParental neglect is also associated with borderline P/O and violent behaviorSchore, 2003
38Behavioral Consequences Kids who have experienced abuse are found have behavioral problems twice the rate of kids who have not.
39Behavioral Consequences AdolescenceKids who have been abused/neglected are 25% more likely to have problems such as delinquency, teen pregnancy, low academic performance, drug use and mental health problems.Kelly, Thornberry and Smith 1997
40Behavioral Consequences AdolescenceThey are more likely to engage in sexual risk takingJohnson, Rew and Sternglanz, 2006
41Behavioral Consequences Juvenile Delinquency and Adult Criminal BehaviorAbused/neglected kids are 11 time more likely to be arrested as a juvenile and 2.7 times more likely to be arrested for violent and criminal behavior as a adult (National Institute of Justice)
42Behavioral Consequences Alcohol and DrugsNational Institute on Drug Abuse report:2/3 of people in drug treatment report being abused a s a child
43Behavioral Consequences Abusive Behavior1/3 of abused and neglected children will eventually abuse their own childrenPrevent Child Abuse America, 2003
44THERAPY WITH CHILDREN INVOLVES Providing a safe place for the child and establishing a relationshipGoing at a pace that is set by the child and working within the child’s systemConfidentialityProcessing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that result from the trauma
45Treatment Issues Require Extensive training and experience in child abuse and family violenceTreatment professionals who specialize in this fieldCoordination of treatment services for victims and their families
46Treatment Issues Require Coordination of efforts and sharing of information between CPS Investigators, Law Enforcement, Medical, Prosecutors, Therapists and other professionalsUnderstanding of the legal process and its impact on the victim and family