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HUMAN OCEAN ADAPTATIONS Sophia Goto, Speros Ganatsios, Bryan Lee.

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Presentation on theme: "HUMAN OCEAN ADAPTATIONS Sophia Goto, Speros Ganatsios, Bryan Lee."— Presentation transcript:

1 HUMAN OCEAN ADAPTATIONS Sophia Goto, Speros Ganatsios, Bryan Lee

2 THE RISE OF OCEAN LEVELS The rise of ocean levels are due to three main causes Water Thermal Expansion Melting glaciers Ice Loss

3 ADAPTATIONS TO RISING OCEANS For centuries humans have adapted to floods and other water disasters. Popular methods to mitigate the destructive aftermath of such events include constructing levees, dams, and dikes.

4 LEVEES Levees are one of the most popular methods to stop floods and rising waters. The word levee comes from the French word lever meaning to stand or to rise. The first man made levees was built in New Orleans in True to their name, levees work simply by having a raised bank, preventing lower water levels from leaking through.

5 SINKING CITIES As a result of natural causes and human exploitation of resources, certain cities have begun to sink. The four cities we researched were - Venice - New Orleans -Jakarta -Kutubdia

6 FROM FLOATING CITY TO DIVER’S PARADISE The sinking of Venice occurs for 3 main reasons Groundwater leaking to the surface Adriatic plate subducting under the Apennines Mountains Sediment compaction in the ground

7 HOW TO STOP A CITY FROM SINKING - Detailed satellite images collect data once a month to determine amount Venice has sunk - MOSE Project, a network of floodgates --Raising sidewalks and shores -http://www.euronews.com/2013/10/12/successful-first-test-for- venice-mose-project-floodgates/

8 HURRICANE KATRINA Due to dissipating tropical waves, a storm grew near the Bahamas. Due to warm sea temperatures and low wind levels, it developed into a tropical depression and became Hurricane Katrina. Winds blowing to the North blew it into Florida.

9 NEW ORLEAN’S LEVEES The levees and flood walls in New Orleans were meant to stop the floods brought on by Hurricane Katrina, but were instead decimated by it due to poor maintenance.

10 NEW ORLEAN’S NOW -Today, New Orleans has devoted billions to the construction of levees that have proved resilient against floods during the 2012 floods brought on by Hurricane Isaac. -However, recent discoveries have been made showing New Orleans is sinking due to the overexploitation of oil and other ground based resources, rendering these relatively new levees obsolete. -Vulnerabilities include rising sea levels, increased flooding, frequent and intense storms, and increased impact on fisheries

11 NEW ORLEANS

12 JAKARTA- A POTENTIAL ATLANTIS -Jakarta sinks at a rate of about 15 cm per year (Venice sinks at about 20 cm per 100 years) -Forty percent of Jakarta is below sea level -Mainly caused by underground water extraction

13 ALL HANDS ON DECK -A thirty metre wall has been constructed around the entire city to protect from floods. (The wall continually sinks along with the city) -The Jakarta Flood Canal was constructed to collect water from the rivers and decrease the amount of water in the floods. (It malfunctioned during the 2013 Jakarta Floods) -The Netherlands granted Jakarta 4 million dollars to construct a dike in the Jakarta bay to pump out water. ( Estimated to be finished in By then Jakarta will be 2 metres lower than it is now.) video:

14 KUTUBDIA -Kutubdia was once a 250 sq km island, but now is only 37 sq km due to erosion and ocean level rise. -Salinity of ocean water hinders growth of crops -The 95 thousand inhabitants of the island could become “Environmental Refugees.”

15 A LOST ISLAND -The population of Kutubdia mainly consists of lower income workers, and therefore receives no aid from the government in this matter. -Most people living on Kutubdia must move to literally survive. Floods and tidal waves claim hundreds of lives from the island each year. -Is it better to let Kutubdia sink or spend money to protect what is left of the island?

16 QUESTIONS What are the main reasons for ocean level rise? A)Overfishing, Thermal Expansion, and Ice Loss B)Thermal Expansion, Melting Glaciers, and Ice Loss C)Tsunamis, Volcano eruptions, and global warming D)Thermal expansion, Melting Glaciers, and Tsunamis

17 QUESTIONS What are the main reasons for ocean level rise? A)Overfishing, Thermal Expansion, and Ice Loss B)Thermal Expansion, Melting Glaciers, and Ice Loss C)Tsunamis, Volcano eruptions, and global warming D)Thermal expansion, Melting Glaciers, and Tsunamis

18 QUESTIONS What is ice loss? A)The loss of ice due to increasing global temperatures B)The increased sliding of ice sheets into the ocean due to lubrication by freshwater C)The loss of ice due to industrial extraction

19 QUESTIONS What is ice loss? A)The loss of ice due to increasing global temperatures B)The increased sliding of ice sheets into the ocean due to lubrication by freshwater C)The loss of ice due to industrial extraction

20 QUESTIONS Why is the city of Venice is sinking? A)The ground beneath the city is settling B)Tectonic plates moving C) The wood floats that hold the buildings are deteriorating D)D)increase of flooding E) A,B,D

21 QUESTIONS Why is the city of Venice is sinking? A)The ground beneath the city is settling B)Tectonic plates moving C) The wood floats that hold the buildings are deteriorating D)D)increase of flooding E) A,B,D

22 QUESTIONS In general, what is the main cause for a hurricane? A)Dissipating Tropical Wave B)Change of Air Pressure C)Great Ocean Current D)Differences in temperature

23 QUESTIONS In general, what is the main cause for a hurricane? A)Dissipating Tropical Wave B)Change of Air Pressure C)Great Ocean Current D)Differences in temperature

24 QUESTIONS What is the main cause of the sinking in Jakarta? A) seasonal floods B) high tides C) groundwater extraction D) rising sea levels E) climate change

25 QUESTIONS What is the main cause of the sinking in Jakarta? A) seasonal floods B) high tides C) groundwater extraction D) rising sea levels E) climate change

26 QUESTIONS What measures does Bangladesh take to defend Kutubdia against rising ocean levels? A)A thirty metre wall surrounding the island B)A floodgate system capable of monitoring water levels C)Technologically enhanced man-made levees D)No measures are being taken to protect Kutubdia.

27 QUESTIONS What measures does Bangladesh take to defend Kutubdia against rising ocean levels? A)A thirty metre wall surrounding the island B)A floodgate system capable of monitoring water levels C)Technologically enhanced man-made levees D)No measures are being taken to protect Kutubdia.

28 QUESTIONS How do levees serve to prevent floods? A)They collect excess water and drain it out through underground tunnel systems B)They are raised above the water level and physically stop the water when it gets too high C)They are placed at the water level and physically block water all the time

29 QUESTIONS How do levees serve to prevent floods? A)They collect excess water and drain it out through underground tunnel systems B)They are raised above the water level and physically stop the water when it gets too high C)They are placed at the water level and physically block water all the time

30 QUESTIONS What caused Hurricane Katrina? Hurricane Katrina was caused by the interaction of a dissipating storm south of the Bahamas known as Tropical Depression Ten and another tropical wave. This reaction created a tropical storm on August 23, 2005.

31 QUESTIONS How will the MOSE project help Venice from sinking? The MOSE project is a network of flood gates that can separate the Adriatic Sea from the Venetian Lagoon, which prevents water from the sea going into Venice.

32 CRITICAL QUESTION Should we let water reclaim the land, or should we continue to increase protection against ocean level rise?

33 WORKS CITED /Simulator1%5B1%5D_0.JPG?itok=pNrAOcqK https://www.nrdc.org/water/files/ClimateWaterFS_NewOrleansLA.pdf https://www.uwec.edu/jolhm/EH3/Group7/WhyNOVulnerable.htm


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