“Education is a means to defeat poverty and inequity” It is a real and lasting possibility to reach a better and fairer society. Enrollment in Primary education reaches 97,7% of children and in Secondary education is 87,7% of teenagers.
Chilean Educational Changes 1960198019902012 6 years compulsory education 8 years compulsory education 12 years compulsory education (2003) Reform redefined two significant measures: descentralization of the education sector via the transfer of schools from Ministerial to municipal and private control; a new school funding system which introduced the school subsidy unit consisting of a voucher for each student. Reform redefined two measures of structural nature: full day classes (JEC) curricula reform emphasized: 1.to update the aims and content of primary and secondary education; 2.to promote high-quality education incorporating the most recent advances in teaching; 3.to support schools and their substantial degree of freedom to define their own study plans and programs. New Curricular Bases for primary education. SIMCE System of Measurement of Educational Quality was designed and developed. SIMCE English SIMCE for 3° medio students.
Enseñar siempre en el patio y en la calle como en la sala de clases. Enseñar con la actitud, el gesto y la palabra”. Gabriela Mistral, marzo 1923
According to United Nations, some results of the last reform are: study opportunities for children and young children belonging to poor sectors have substantially increased. Schools are better equipped to support the learning needs of students: Increase in the teachers’ salaries, greater availability of learning resources within schools (textbooks, didactic resources, computer and Internet access, libraries, among others); more demanding official curriculum.
School system Pre-school for children up to 5 years old (It is not compulsory as the 12 years of primary and secondary education). Primary education for children from 6 to 14 years old, divided in 8 grades Secondary education for teenagers from 15 to 18 years old, divided in 4 grades
Secondary school is also divided into: (11 grade -3°año medio -and 12 grade -4° año medio) Scientific-humanities approach: The students can choose in either science or humanities, which means they will get more lessons in the area of their choice. Technical-professional education: Students can receive “extra” education in the so called technical areas, such as electricity, mechanics, tourism, etc.
Administrative organization of the School system Municipals schools managed by the 341 municipalities all over the country. Subsidized schools, government subsidized, school recieves a voucher for each student attending classes. Private schools, without public voucher, parents or tutors pay for the children’s education. Corporations, Technical institutions managed by private entrepreneurs with government funding.
Higher education A system divided in public or state universities and private ones. Higher education system is for students from 18 years old. According to the reform of 1980, the system has three type of institutions: Universities Professional Institutes Technical Centers Expansion of Higher education: 1990: 250.000 students 2003: 550.000 students 2009: 626.000 students 2011:1.050.000 students
School Administration Principal (Director/Directora) a senior teacher who is the leader and manager of the school. Vice-principal (Sub-Director/a) A senior teacher who is responsible of administrative matters. Department chair (Coordinador/a o Jefe/a departamento) A teacher in charge of an specific Curricular area (English, Science, etc.) and who works with the groups of teachers every week.
Jefe/a de UTP (Technical Pedagogical area) a senior teacher who is in charge of currricular areas in the school. Inspector: A teacher or other professional with experience in the school system and in charge of the discipline situations inside the school. Librarian: A professional in charge of the library which is usually divided in different areas according to the ages of the students.
Usual grading system in secondary school and by higher education institutions Full Description: 1-7: 6-7: muy bueno (very good); 5-5.9: bueno (good); 4-4.9: (fair) Highest on scale: 7 Pass/fail level: 4 Lowest on scale: 1 Grading System
Students have english classes from 5° grade to 4° grade in Secondary Education, (5° to 12° grades). There are 2, 3 or 4 hours of classes a week depending on the levels. Each class lasts 45 minutes. There is a break after two hours of classes. A break lasts between fifteen and thirty minutes. At lunch time (13:00 to 14:00) the students have lunch at the school canteen, cafeteria or in the school’s yard.