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Do hydration packs modify hydration in all day skiing? Tracey J. Dickson, PhD; Gordon Waddington, PhD; Stephen Trathen, University of Canberra Roger Adams,

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Presentation on theme: "Do hydration packs modify hydration in all day skiing? Tracey J. Dickson, PhD; Gordon Waddington, PhD; Stephen Trathen, University of Canberra Roger Adams,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Do hydration packs modify hydration in all day skiing? Tracey J. Dickson, PhD; Gordon Waddington, PhD; Stephen Trathen, University of Canberra Roger Adams, PhD., University of Sydney

2 Background  Maintaining adequate hydration levels in endurance sport has been shown to impact positively on performance measures and may assist in reducing the incidence of injury (Shiffeffs, 2008; Judelso, et al, 2007; Seifert et al, 2006; Barr, 1999)  Environmental factors such as altitude and cold temperatures exacerbate fluid loss (Seifert et al, 2000)  A water deficit (e.g. 1-2% of body mass) will impair physical performance; a slightly larger loss will bring symptoms of tiredness, headache and general malaise (Maughan, 2003)

3 Methods (1) Ski patrollers were randomly allocated to either wear a backpack hydration system (Source Descender with 1.5 l of water), or undertake their normal hydration practice, and the alternate the next day, over 2 consecutive days of work-related skiing Equipment testing day

4 Methods (2) On each day patrollers wore a data-logging device (GPSport Spi Elite with heart rate monitor) located in the upper thoracic region, to record:  Heart rate  Speed  Acceleration  Location

5 Methods (3) Weight, BMI, body fat (using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis ) and body water were measured with digital scales prior to work commencing (approx. 7.30 a.m.) and at the conclusion of the day (approx. 5.00 p.m.) Participants maintained a record of their intake during the day: Food Fluids, including refilling of the hydration pack

6 GPSport Spi Elite data example Shows the route taken. Colour indicates speed range Dragging the mouse over the route reveals speed, heart rate and time of day Tri-axial accelerometer data showing body acceleration All data recorded at either 100 or 200 times/sec

7 Resort trail map & Patrollers’ huts

8 Results (1)  3 female and 14 males participants  = 45% of professional ski patrollers (the resort also uses volunteer patrollers)  Average hours worked each day: > 7.5 hours  Distance travelled per day (includes riding: lifts, shuttle buses and skidoos):  Range: 9 – 60 km (Mean: 32 km)  Maximum speeds:  Range: 25-104 kph (Mean: 25 kph)

9 Results (2)  There was a significant difference between morning and afternoon hydration levels in subjects when participants used the hydration system (p=0.03) (Paired samples t-test)  ‘Normal’ % body water range  Females 50-60%  Males 53-65%

10 Results (3)  There was no difference between the morning and afternoon in terms of average speed (kph) of the participants (p=.262)

11 Results (3)  The relative improvement in hydration when using the hydration pack was 0.5% of body mass  The relative reduction in hydration when the participant undertook their normal hydration practice was 0.12%

12 Discussion If professional skiers can experience a decrease in hydration, what is the impact upon recreational skiers? This research also raises questions related to access to water from a Systems Approach to design Experience design Product design (fashion & hydration) Work design Graphic & commun- ication design Building design Resort design Hydration

13 Discussion – design solutions (1)  Experience design  practice of designing products, processes, services, events, and environments with a focus placed on the quality of the user experience  => what is the desired quintessential experience desired by the visitor and how is this facilitated?  Resort and building design  Where is water available for fluid intake?  Where are the toilets available for fluid ‘out-take’?

14 Discussion – design solutions (2)  Product design  Are snowsport fashion design conducive to carrying water?  E.g. patroller’s vest weigh 3kg with the first aid equipment, with the water they were over 4.5 kg which could lead to neck and shoulder pain  Is it ‘cool’/fashionable to wear a hydration pack

15 Discussion – design solutions (3)  Work design  Is their sufficient time and opportunity in the day to obtain adequate hydration and resultant bladder evacuation?  Is there appropriate staff facilities to store extra fluids/food that can be accessed during the day?  Is there a work culture to support positive hydration?  Are there means to assess hydration throughout the day? Urine ‘colour chart’

16 Discussion – design solutions (4)  Graphic and communication design  If there is an identified need to increase hydration levels,  How is that communicated?  What are the most effective communication channels to reach the target audience? e.g.  Education, social marketing, viral marketing, twitter, SMS  Indentify barriers to communication, e.g.  Key stakeholders who manage or control the message  People who are misinformed  Ineffective communication strategies

17 Conclusion  Results suggest that wearing a hydration pack increases the hydration levels at the end of a day of skiing for work  Further research needs to be conducted to explore the impact of hydration levels on balance, injury risk and recovery in diverse snowsport populations, including recreational participants.  If there is a correlation between hydration, injury risk and recovery, then design solutions need to be investigated that draw upon interdisciplinary insights

18 Study limitations  Once participants knew which group they had been randomised to they may have ‘primed’ themselves by increasing their fluid intake when not wearing a pack, or become more aware of the need for hydration, thus reducing any difference between groups  As participation was voluntary it may be possible that those who participated were more interested or aware of their hydration needs

19 Acknowledgements  This project was funded by a ACT Healthpact grant and a University of Canberra Interdisciplinary Grant  Thanks to the patrollers and management of Perisher Resort for their assistance  Data collection supported by research assistant, Jared Gilkison

20 Contacts  Dr Tracey J Dickson (Tourism)   Assoc Professor Gordon Waddington (Health)   Mr Stephen Trathen (Design)   Dr Roger Adams (Statistics)   GPSports Systems 

21 References Barr SI (1999) Effects of dehydration on exercise performance. Can J Appl Physiol Apr; 24(2): 164-72. Judelson DA, Maresh CM, Anderson JM, Armstrong LE, Casa DJ, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS (2007), Hydration and muscular performance: does fluid balance affect strength, power and high-intensity endurance? Sports Med 37 (10): 907- 21 Maughan, R. J. (2003). Impact of mild dehydration on wellness and on exercise performance. Eur J Clin Nutr, 57(S2), S19-S23. Seifert, J. G., Luetkemeier, M. J., White, A. T., Mino, L. M., & Miller, D. (2000). Fluid balance during slalom training in elite collegiate alpine racers. Paper presented at the 2nd International Congress on Skiing and Science, St. Christoph, Austria. Seifert, J. G., E. R. Burke, A. White and M. J. Luetkemeier (2006). The effects of ad libitum fluid ingestion on fluid balance during alpine skiing in recreational skiers. Journal of Sports Sciences 24(2): 137(6). Shirreffs SM (2008), Symposium on “Performance, exercise and health” Hydration, fluids and performance. Proc Nutr Soc Nov 17: 1-6

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