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Unit 11 You have to get me out of here. Warm-up Discussion Text Study Exercise.

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1 Unit 11 You have to get me out of here

2 Warm-up Discussion Text Study Exercise

3 Warm-up I. Dangerous Sports Dangerous Sports II. Emergencies & First Aid ProceduresEmergencies & First Aid Procedures III. Do You Know? Do You Know?

4 I.Dangerous Sports skydiving, scuba diving, potholing parachuting bungee jumping

5  Are they the sports for you?  Are they dangerous?  Why are there still a lot of people trying them?  What are they good for?  If you bungee jump once, would you like to try it again? I.Dangerous Sports

6 III.Do You Know? Work in groups. List the dos and don’ts. First aid: if one’s leg is broken Dos Don’ts

7 III.Do You Know? First aid: if a big artery becomes open Discuss in groups. Dos Don’ts

8 Mountaineer's Essentials 1) AT LEAST ONE COMPLETE CHANGE OF CLOTHING including extra for such contingencies as rain & cold weather. 2) EXTRA FOOD. Include extra rations in your minimum. This is your insurance policy in case something goes really wrong.

9 3) SUNGLASSES. Every time you set out for a strange area it's good to have a pair along. If you are planning on desert, alpine or winter camping, it's a rare occasion that you will not need them. Even Eskimos worry about snow blindness. 4) A KNIFE. A substantial pocket-knife is the order of the day. No need for Bowie knife and the big sheath knife for those who are out to tackle bears with bare hands. A good Swiss army knife is excellent or a Buck for bigger job.

10 5) FIRE STARTERS; jelly, ribbon, tablets or impregnated peat bricks. There are emergencies where a fire is both necessary and difficult to start. Every kit MUST include a supply of starters of one kind or another. 6) EMERGENCY MATCHES. Fire starters alone don't a fire make. You need matches. Long wooden ones are best & soaked in wax to make them weather proof and keep them in a waterproof container. background

11 7) A FIRST AID KIT. See the proper chapter on how to build one. 8) A FLASHLIGHT. Everyone should carry his own and add extra batteries & bulbs just in case. 9) MAPS. You should have a map when going to all but the most familiar places. It's not only a safety factor but can add a lot of enjoyment to your trip, helping you to find the best spots and sights. 10) A GOOD QUALITY COMPASS even two might help in case the first one goes berserk.

12 11) A SPACE BLANKET. It did not exist in the first writing up of this list. Today it's an invaluable safety precaution. Weighing only 2 ounces it opens up to a full 56"X84". It reflects up to 90% of a sleeper's body heat while at the same time keeping out rain, rain and snow. Not to be used as camping blanket but ESSENTIAL as emergency gear for all kinds of use including signalization background

13 What is High Altitude? Altitude is defined on the following scale High (8, ,000 feet [2, ,658 meters]), Very High (12, ,000 feet [3, ,487 meters]), and Extremely High (18,000+ feet [5,500+ meters]). background

14 What Causes Altitude Illnesses? At sea level: – The concentration of oxygen: about 21% – the barometric pressure: averages 760 mmHg. As altitude increases, the concentration remains the same but the number of oxygen molecules per breath is reduced. At 12,000 feet (3,658 meters) the barometric pressure is only 483 mmHg, so there are roughly 40% fewer oxygen molecules per breath. background

15 In order to properly oxygenate the body, your breathing rate (even while at rest) has to increase. This extra ventilation increases the oxygen content in the blood, but not to sea level concentrations background

16 Acclimatization The major cause of altitude illnesses is going too high too fast. Given time, your body can adapt to the decrease in oxygen molecules at a specific altitude. This process is known as acclimatization and generally takes 1-3 days at that altitude. – The depth of respiration increases. – Pressure in pulmonary arteries is increased, "forcing" blood into portions of the lung which are normally not used during sea level breathing. – The body produces more red blood cells to carry oxygen, – The body produces more of a particular enzyme that facilitates – the release of oxygen from hemoglobin to the body tissues. background

17 How to prevent Altitude Illnesses? If possible, don't fly or drive to high altitude. Start below 10,000 feet (3,048 meters) and walk up. If you do fly or drive, do not over-exert yourself or move higher for the first 24 hours. If you go above 10,000 feet (3,048 meters), only increase your altitude by 1,000 feet (305 meters) per day and for every 3,000 feet (915 meters) of elevation gained, take a rest day. Eat a high carbohydrate diet (more than 70% of your calories from carbohydrates) while at altitude. The acclimatization process is inhibited by dehydration, over- exertion, and alcohol and other depressant drugs. background

18 "Climb High and sleep low." This is the maxim used by climbers. You can climb more than 1,000 feet (305 meters) in a day as long as you come back down and sleep at a lower altitude. If you begin to show symptoms of moderate altitude illness, don't go higher until symptoms decrease (“Don't go up until symptoms go down"). If symptoms increase, go down, down, down! Keep in mind that different people will acclimatize at different rates. Make sure all of your party is properly acclimatized before going higher. background

19 Stay properly hydrated. Acclimatization is often accompanied by fluid loss, so you need to drink lots of fluids to remain properly hydrated (at least 3-4 quarts per day). Urine output should be copious and clear. Take it easy; don't over-exert yourself when you first get up to altitude. Light activity during the day is better than sleeping because respiration decreases during sleep, exacerbating the symptoms. Avoid tobacco and alcohol and other depressant drugs including, barbiturates, tranquilizers, and sleeping pills. These depressants further decrease the respiratory drive during sleep resulting in a worsening of the symptoms. background

20 What is hypothermia? Hypothermia causes a widespread decrease in the body’s core temperature which impairs intellectual, muscular and cardiac functions.In mountaineers and walkers it can strike two sets of people. – those who are experienced and have suitable equipment who are caught out by bad weather at high altitude – those people who venture onto the hills ill- equipped to cope with the changeable conditions. background

21 What if falling into a crevasse? On Denali there is an ever-present danger of falling into a crevasse, so climbers should never travel unroped. When a climber falls into a crevasse his/her partners must immediately move into self-arrest positions to prevent the climber from falling any deeper into the crevasse. background

22 While the rescuer farthest from the fallen climber remains in self-arrest, the rescuer closer by immediately sets up an anchor on the rope. This is done by hammering a picket or deadman into the snow. (An ice axe won't work.) The rescuer then attaches a sling to the rope with a tension knot, and the sling is attached to the anchor via a locking carabiner. background

23 The knot should then be slid down the rope toward the fallen climber so as to take up tension on the rope. Meanwhile, the end rescuer can ease the load off him/herself. For safety reasons, a second backup anchor should be placed and attached to the carabiner on the end of the knot. When the rope is secured the rescuers should assess the condition of the fallen climber. If the climber is uninjured, he/she can then begin to climb out of the crevasse under his/her own power, using jumar ascenders or tension knots. background

24 Can A GPS Replace a Compass? A compass and a satellite-based Global Positioning System receiver are complementary tools. A compass does one thing a GPS unit cannot–point toward magnetic north. GPS units equipped with an electronic compass are gradually coming to market. Still, GPS receivers are battery-powered devices that potentially could run out of power. A compass, relying solely on the earth's magnetic forces, has no such limitations. Thus, even if you own a GPS unit, you will always want to carry a compass as well.

25 GPS receivers are splendid devices. They are designed to measure direction of movement by calculating the difference between your current position and last position. They can also tell you your position without relying on visible landmarks for bearings, which is necessary for a compass must. On days of snow or heavy fog, that's a big plus. background

26 Another GPS advantage: When following a bearing via compass, obstructions sometime cause you to stray from your ideal line of travel. This requires you to keep careful track of any deviations you take from your bearing, to the point of counting the paces you take while sidestepping the obstacle. Once past the obstacle you might need to adjust your compass bearing, but key landmarks may no longer be in view. With a GPS unit, however, you can easily obtain a new bearing and reset your compass with a revised line of travel. Bottom line: When you want to know which direction you are facing–an important piece of knowledge–you must have a compass. background

27 I. AuthorAuthor II. ColoradoColorado III. TellurideTelluride IV. Rocky MountainRocky Mountain V. CaliforniaCalifornia VI. Ophir WallOphir Wall VII. I.V.I.V. Background Information

28 Lissa Hall Johnson (1955—), a well-established writer for young adults and the general American public. She is a book producer for Focus on the Family, writing and editing a variety of projects. She is the creator of the Brio Girl series for which she has written and edited. She is currently looking for the fiction book of the century to launch a fiction line at Focus. Formerly on the Adventures in Odyssey creative team, she’s the author of 15 novels for teens and the middle-grade reader. She has also written for many periodicals including Brio, Breakaway, Focus on the Family, and Reader's Digest. I.Author

29 Ø Colorado State, central United States, one of the Rocky Mt. states. It is bordered by Wyoming (N), Nebraska (N, E), Kansas (E), Oklahoma and New Mexico (S), and Utah (W). Ø Area, 104,247 sq mi (270,000 sq km). Ø Pop. (2000) 4,301,261. Ø Capital and largest city, Denver. Ø Statehood, Aug. 1, 1876 (38th state). Ø Nickname, Centennial State. Ø Motto, Nil Sine Numine [Nothing without Providence]. Ø State bird, lark bunting. Ø State flower, Rocky Mountain columbine. Ø State tree, Colorado blue spruce. Ø Abbr., Colo., CO. II.Colorado

30 The Town of Telluride: Colorful, Historic, Unique Nestled in a box canyon surrounded by 13,000-foot peaks of the San Juan Mountains, the Town of Telluride is just six blocks wide and twelve blocks long. Due to its significant role in the history of the American West, the core area of Telluride was designated a National Historic Landmark District in This listing is the highest level of historic status available to sites designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior. Telluride is one of only four other Colorado communities with this honor. These sites are so special that, in theory, they are eligible for consideration as National Parks. With its colorful Victorian-era homes, clapboard storefronts, boutiques, art galleries, gourmet restaurants, historic buildings and much more, Telluride is a delight to explore. III.Telluride

31 The Town of Telluride is located in the southwest corner of Colorado in the spectacular San Juan Range of the Rocky Mountains. Telluride lies approximately 100 highway miles northeast from the Four Corners, which is the intersection of Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and Utah. Telluride is the county seat for San Miguel County. III.Telluride

32 "Telluride is one of 10 coolest Mountain Towns." Mens Journal Nov 2005 "Telluride is a cosmopolitan and confident alpine escape unlike any other in one of the most pristine, primordial and spectacular settings in North America." Denver Post, June 6, 2004 "Telluride is an eclectic, down-to-earth treasure nestled in a stunning box canyon rimmed with 13,000 foot peaks. " Ski Magazine, October 2003 III.Telluride

33 Rocky Mountains, major mountain system of W North America and easternmost belt of the North American cordillera, extending more than 3,000 mi (4,800 km) from central N.Mex. to NW Alaska; Mt. Elbert (14,431 ft/4,399 m) in Colorado is the highest peak. The Rockies are located between the Great Plains on the east (from which they rise abruptly for most of their length) and a series of broad basins and plateaus on the west. The mountains form the Continental Divide, separating rivers draining to the Atlantic and Arctic oceans from those draining to the Pacific. The major Atlantic-bound rivers rising in the Rockies include the Rio Grande, Arkansas, Platte, Yellowstone, Missouri, and Saskatchewan. Those draining to the Arctic include the Peace, Athabasca, and Liard rivers. Flowing to the Pacific Ocean are the Colorado, Columbia, Snake, Fraser, and Yukon rivers. IV.Rocky Mountains

34 V.California Ø California State, most populous state in the United States, located in the Far West; bordered by Oregon (N), Nevada and, across the Colorado River, Arizona (E), Mexico (S), and the Pacific Ocean (W). Ø Area, 158,693 sq mi (411,015 sq km). Ø Pop. (2000) 33,871,648. Ø Capital, Sacramento. Ø Largest city, Los Angeles. Ø Statehood, Sept. 9, 1850 (31st state). Ø Nickname, Golden State. Ø Motto, Eureka [I Have Found It]. Ø State bird, California valley quail. Ø State flower, golden poppy. Ø State tree, California redwood. Ø Abbr., Calif.; CA

35 VI.Ophir Wall Ophir Wall, a 700 foot wall of red and gray, conglomerate granite.

36 I.V. is the abbreviation for intra-venous injection. VII. I.V.

37 Text Appreciation

38 Text Analysis Katie Kemble’s story not only tells us how a young woman directed her won rescue, but shows what people should do to survive in critical situations. Theme of the Text

39 Part 1 (Paras. 1— ): Part 2 (Paras. ): Part 3 (Paras. ): Structure of the Text 3 4—27 28—38 Katie, paired with Ric, was ready for the climbing of Ophir Wall. After severely hurt, Katie firmly and successfully directed her rescue. Katie got her chance of using the leg again and the experience bound Ric together with her in their life.

40 Text Study

41 The skies above the old Colorado mining town of Telluride were a bright Rocky Mountain blue that Saturday, May 27, The sky was as blue as usual, typical of the Rocky Mountain climate, in Telluride, the old mining town in Colorado. That day was Saturday, May 27, noun the sky; the upper air the kind of blue color you usually find above the Rocky Mountain

42 the reds and yellows of the evening sky The room was decorated in bright greens and blues. A light blue would be a nice color for the curtain.

43 Katie Kemble, a 34-year-old nurse and owner of a climbing school, had taken time off from her work to come here. to have a period of time as a break from work Katie Kemble, who was a 34-year-old nurse and also the owner of a climbing school, had had a break from her work to come and conquer Ophir Wall. article omitted before noun phrases denoting identity or position

44 D.H. Lawrence, an author from Nottingham, wrote a book called “Sons and Lovers”. ( implying that readers have no idea of the author) D.H. Lawrence, (the) author of “Sons and Lovers”, died in ( implying that readers all know the author)

45 take off 1) to remove a piece of clothing He sat on the bed to take his boots off. 2) if an aircraft takes off, it rises into the air from the ground 3) to suddenly start being successful He became jealous when Jack's career started taking off. 4) to have a holiday from work on a particular day, or for a particular length of time I rang my boss and arranged to take some time off. Dad took the day off to come with me. 5) to copy the way someone speaks or behaves, in order to entertain people

46 discipline [n.] 1) training which produces obedience or self-control, often in the form of rules, and punishments if these are broken, or the obedience or self-control produced by this training; the ability to control yourself or other people, even in difficult situations: There should be better discipline in schools. I don't have enough (self) discipline to save money. Maintaining classroom discipline (= control of the students) is the first task of every teacher.

47 [v.] 1) to punish someone: A senior civil servant has been disciplined for revealing secret government plans to the media. 2) to teach someone to behave in a controlled way: I'm trying to discipline myself to eat less chocolate. She never disciplined her children, and they became uncontrollable. disciplined behaving in a very controlled way: Those children are well disciplined.

48 endurance the ability to keep doing something difficult, unpleasant or painful for a long time: Running a marathon is a test of human endurance. The pain was bad beyond endurance.

49 Its sheer granite face juts up hundreds of feet, with only a few handholds to bear a climber’s weight. The cliff is several hundred feet high. Its surface is all hard rock, and there are just a few things that climbers can hold safely. very steep to extend outward or upward absolute construction

50 sheer 1) used to emphasize how very great, important or powerful a quality or feeling is; nothing except: (=complete) The suggestion is sheer nonsense. His success was due to sheer willpower/determination. 2) extremely steep; almost vertical: a sheer mountain side a sheer drop of 100 metres 3) used to describe clothing or material which is so thin, light and delicate that you can see through it: She wore a dress of the sheerest silk.

51 jerk 1) to make a short sudden movement, or to cause someone or something to do this: The car made a strange noise and then jerked to a halt. The alarm clock went off, jerking Martin out of sleep. 2) to (force or cause someone or something to) suddenly behave differently, usually by becoming aware or active again: The shock of losing his job jerked him out of his settled lifestyle.

52 Then, with a loud crack, a rock bumped off Ophir’s face and hit the back of Katie’s left leg. to knock down off violently Then with a loud noise, a rock was thrown down from the cliff and hit the back of Katie’s left leg.

53 crack 1) a very narrow space between two things or two parts of something He squeezed into a crack between two rocks. He could see them through a crack in the door. She opened the door a crack and peeped into the room. 2) a thin line on the surface of something when it is broken but has not actually come apart There were several small cracks in the glass. 3)[countable] a weakness or fault in an idea, system, or organization The cracks in their relationship were starting to show.

54 4) [countable]a sudden loud sound like the sound of a stick being broken There was a sharp crack as the branch broke off. We could hear a crack of thunder in the distance. 5) [countable] informal: a clever joke or rude remark He's always making cracks about how stupid I am.

55 Through years of guiding difficult journeys, she had disciplined herself to control her emotions. In the years she worked as a guide in difficult climbs, she had learned to be calm when serious and dangerous events occurred. gerund phrase to control the way you behave and make yourself do the things you believe you should do

56 Forcing pain off from her mind, Katie carefully lifted the almost severed leg and straightened it out. to cut through, separating into two parts to make straight or level With great efforts, Katie managed to forget about her pain. Then she carefully raised the almost severed leg and stretched it.

57 sever 1) to break or separate, especially by cutting: The knife severed an artery and he bled to death. Electricity cables have been severed by the storm. 2) to end a connection with someone or something: The US severed diplomatic relations with Cuba in 1961.

58 see through to provide things, support ocolleger help for sb. until the end of a difficult time Jim’s parents promised to see him through his period of unemployment. A loan helped to see him through college.

59 Catch up with To finally start to cause trouble for sb. after they managed to avoid this for some time. He is afraid that some day the pain from his old wound would catch up with him. His connections with the underworld in the past are catching up with him.

60 soak 1) [I + adv/ prep.; T] to make very wet, or (of liquid) to be absorbed in large amounts: The wind had blown the rain in and soaked the carpet. You'd better wipe up that red wine you've spilt before it soaks (= is absorbed) into the carpet. 2) [I or T] to leave something in liquid, especially in order to clean it, soften it, or change its flavour: You can usually soak out a stain. Leave the beans to soak overnight. Soak the plum in wine for a few hours can bring brandy special flavor.

61 stagger 1) to walk or move with a lack of balance as if you are going to fall: After he was attacked, he managed to stagger to the phone and call for help. FIGURATIVE The company is staggering under a $15 million debt and will almost certainly collapse by the end of the year. 2) to cause someone to feel shocked or surprised because of something unexpected or very unusual happening: He staggered all his colleagues by suddenly announcing that he was leaving the company at the end of the month.

62 3) to arrange, especially hours of work, holidays or events, so that they begin at different times from those of other people: Some countries have staggered school holidays so that holiday resorts do not become overcrowded. 4) If a race has a staggered start, the competitors start at different times or in different positions.

63 As Ric struggled down the trail, he tried to ignore the gruesome sight of Katie’s leg, clutched in her left hand, only eight inches from his face. Ric, carrying Katie in his arms, moved with difficulty down the path (for climbers). Katie tightly held her leg in her left hand. The leg was only eight inches from his face, and the horrible sight made him sick. So all the way he tried hard to avoid seeing it. past participle phrase a reduced relative clause: which was clutched in her left hand

64 She thrust out both arms, fists clenched to expose the veins, and gave them precise technical details of what they must do. stretch out to suddenly and forcefully She stretched both her arms, clenched her fists so that the veins could be easily seen, and told them what they must do exactly to start an I.V. on her. absolute construction

65 thrust to push suddenly and strongly: She thrust the money into his hand. She thrust the papers at me (= towards me).

66 As the initial shock began to wear off, the nerve endings became more sensitive, causing even greater pain. As the effect of the shock of the accident diminished, Katie felt still greater pain. 随着最初的震惊逐渐平息,腿上的神经末梢 变得敏感起来,引起更大的疼痛。

67 wear off If a feeling or the effect of something wears off, it gradually disappears: Most patients find that the numbness from the injection wears off after about an hour. It was only after the effect of the accident began to wear off that she could think clearly.

68 ease 1) to move or to make something move slowly and carefully in a particular direction or into a particular position: She eased the key into the lock, anxious not to wake anyone. They eased the wardrobe carefully up the narrow staircase. 2) relieve a person of a burden, pain, or anxiety; make more comfortable to ease tensions / the pressure of water shortage The aspirins eased my headache. Ease sb of his burden / trouble He often wrote to his mother to ease her of her worry.

69 at (one ’ s) ease: comfortable, relaxed, without annoyance or embarrassment; oppo. ill at ~ set / put sb. at (their) ease: make sb. feel relaxed set / put sb. ’ s mind at ease / rest: do or say sth. to sb. which stops them worrying about sth. with ease: without difficulty, effortlessly take one ’ s ease: make oneself comfortable, relax

70 A few hours later Ric sat in recovery with Katie. After the operation, Ric was allowed to sit at Katie’s bedside. It was then that he could sit quietly, recovering from the shock, the exhaustion, and all the strain of the day. return to a good condition

71 frail [ant.] robust weak or unhealthy, or easily damaged, broken or harmed: a frail old lady I last saw him just last week and thought how old and frail he looked. the country's frail economy

72 fragile [ant.] durable easily damaged, broken or harmed: Be careful with that vase - it's very fragile. The assassination could do serious damage to the fragile peace agreement that was signed last month. I felt rather fragile (= weak) for a few days after the operation. HUMOROUS No breakfast for me, thanks - I'm feeling rather fragile (= ill, upset or tired) after last night's party.

73 A vein was taken from her right leg to fashion an artery for her left. A vein was removed from her good leg to turn into an artery for her injured leg. to shape or make, usu. with hands or with a few tools

74 fashion 1) to shape or make something, using your hands or only a few tools He fashioned a box from a few old pieces of wood. 2) [usually passive] to influence and form someone's ideas and opinions We are all unique human beings, fashioned by life experiences.

75 Words to differ

76 P297 missing, lost missing: applied only to concrete things, simply suggests being not in the proper or expected place E.g. The police is often requested to find ~ persons. His watch is ~. It may be lost, or left somewhere at home. I noticed he had a finger missing from his left hand.

77 lost lost: suggest coming to be without, as through carelessness, etc, and failing to find E.g. Her necklace has been missing for a whole year. Most probably it is lost forever. I shall look for my missing glasses more carefully. I hope it is not lost.

78 Shake, tremble, shiver shake: can apply to any such movement, often with a suggestion of roughness and irregularity, may also be used as a transitive verb tremble: suggests a quick and slight movement, with implications added of uneasiness or nervousness shiver: typically suggests the effect of cold that produces a momentary quivering, it may apply to a quivering that results from a vague fear

79 Shine, glow, shimmer, gleam glow: give out heat and/or light without flames or smoke shimmer: refer to a soft, trembling reflection of light as from a slightly disturbed body of water E.g. The sea shimmers in the moonlight. Silk shimmers in the bright light.

80 gleam suggests a steady, narrow ray of light, shining through a background of relative darkness, that makes objects bright E.g. His teeth ~ed while he smiled. A great full moon ~s in the purple sky. The searchlight sent its ~ into the night sky.

81 Further Understanding

82 Question: Which type of writing does the text fall into, description, narration, exposition or argumentation? Narration. In recounting the accident and rescue, the writer shows what kind of person Katie is, and conveys a central point and shares with the reader her view of what happened.

83 Question: What is the context of the story? (When, where and to whom does the story happen?) For what does the writer make it quite clear at the beginning of the story? It was May 27, Rock climbers Katie and with Ric were climbing Ophir Wall. The context is made clear at the beginning of the story so that the reader can better understand the whole narrative.

84 Question: Why does not the writer provide us with more details about what took place before 2:30 that afternoon? These details are not relevant enough to the purpose of the narrative. When selecting details, writers usually only use relevant and effective details, or things that contribute to bringing out the main idea of the narrative.

85 Question: From whose point of view is the story told? From a third person’s view. A third-person narrative may seem more objective and have a broad narrative scope. By comparison, a first-person narrative may be more graphic and lifelike, but the scope of the narrative may be limited.

86 Question: What made it possible for Katie to save not only her life but also her almost severed leg? Katie’s presence of mind plus her knowledge of self-rescue and critical care played the most important role.

87 Question: What was Katie’s motto? How do you understand it? Her motto was “Face the fear, know what you have to do and do it”. This means that whatever happens we must remain calm and should not panic. Only in this way are we able to make the fullest use of whatever knowledge we have of survival.

88 Is rock climbing an exciting sport? Is it risky? What kind of accident can happen? What kind of a person was Katie? What was she doing when the accident took place? What injury happened to her? How did she direct her own rescue? Why was the doctor surprised to find her lower leg warm? What kind of a person do you think Ric was? What made they two come together? Further Discussion About the Text

89 Narration To narrate is to give an account of an event or a series of events. In its broadest sense, narrative writing includes stories, real or imaginary, biographies, histories, news items, and narrative poems. Narration often goes hand in hand with description.

90 When planning a narrative, the writer should consider these five aspects:  context  selection of details  organization  point of view  purpose Narration

91 Description: painting a picture in words of a person, place, object, or scene. Exposition: expounding or explaining. Argumentation: convincing other people to agree with the writer’s point of view, to approve a policy or a course of action that he proposes, or to do something that he wants to be done. Other types of writing

92 Thank you

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