Presentation on theme: "CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CPI SOIL ROOT SHOOT CROP YIELD."— Presentation transcript:
CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CPI SOIL ROOT SHOOT CROP YIELD
CPI = CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX RATING Sumber:. Crop Productivity Index (CPI) ratings provide a relative ranking of soils based on their potential for crop production. An index can be used to rate the potential yield of one soil against another over a period of time.
CPI = CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX RATING Sumber:. Productivity Index (PI) The PI is available in North Dakota, South Dakota and Minnesota. The productivity index (PI) model is a derived measure of soil productivity. The basic assumption of the PI model is that crop yield is a function of root development, which in turn is controlled by the soil environment.
PRODUKSI TANAMAN = F(FAKTOR PERTUMBUHAN ) FAKTOR-FAKTOR PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN There are a lot of things that hinder or promote the growth of plants depending on the sources available for their survival. Learn more about what plants need in order to sustain themselves. Read more at Buzzle: factors.htmlhttp://www.buzzle.com/articles/plant-growth- factors.html
UNSUR HARA – PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN There are several aspects of plant nutrition, which need to be considered for better growth of plants. The basic nutrients required for plant growth are divided into two main categories namely micronutrients and macronutrients. Read more at Buzzle: PRODUKSI TANAMAN = F(FAKTOR PERTUMBUHAN )
Air - Water A majority of growing plants contains as much as 90 percent water. Water is one of the most essential factors required in growth of plants. Water plays a crucial role for efficient photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration and transportation of minerals and other nutrients through the plant. Air mempengaruhi proses membukanya stomata daun, dan merupakan sumber tegangan yg mengarahkan pertumbuhan akar dalam tanah. Read more at Buzzle: PRODUKSI TANAMAN = F( Air)
CAHAYA - Light Adequate light is perhaps one of the most important factors influencing plant growth and it is he quantity, quality and duration of light exposure is what matters. Various light sources can be used to provide light to the plants and the sources of light can be classified as natural and artificial sources. The natural source of light is the sun whereas the artificial sources include various types of lighting equipment. Blue light is essential for the growth of the leaves whereas a combination of red and blue light promotes flowering of plants. The artificial light sources can be manipulated to adjust the intensity of the light as well. While it is always good to rely on the natural source of light, during extreme weather conditions and lack of sunlight artificial light is the best option. Also there are certain plants, which require less light for the growth, in such cases the light can be filtered using protective shelters for the plants to allow minimum required amount of sunlight exposure. Read more at Buzzle: PRODUKSI TANAMAN = F(FAKTOR PERTUMBUHAN )
Temperature Temperature sangat berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman. Temperature atmosfir dan temperatur tanah mempengaruhi pertumbuhan tanaman. Optimum temperature is one of the pre-requisites for many of the plant processes, like photosynthesis, respiration, germination, and flowering. Although the values differ for various plants usually cool season plants have 55-65oF as the optimum temperature for germination whereas warm-season plants germinate at 65-75oF. Kisaran suhu untuk fotosintesis dan respirasi yang optimum beragam dengan spesies tanaman dan persyaratan individualnya. Read more at Buzzle: PRODUKSI TANAMAN = F(FAKTOR PERTUMBUHAN )
CO2 DAN O2 The manufacturing of sugar by plants requires the presence of carbon dioxide and hence it is one of the vital elements for plant growth. It is a known fact that plants can use as much as 1500 parts per million of carbon dioxide. In case the natural carbon dioxide available in the air is not enough, there exist Carbon dioxide injectors that promote enhanced plant growth. Oxygen is essential for plant respiration and utilization of photosynthesis byproducts. Read more at Buzzle: factors.htmlhttp://www.buzzle.com/articles/plant-growth- factors.html PRODUKSI TANAMAN = F(FAKTOR PERTUMBUHAN )
Soil Soil with proper humidity, and the right balance of all the minerals and nutrients is one of the essential factors instrumental in plant growth. The type of soil and the quality and the nutrients required in it vary according to the plant species. The right pH balance, which measures the alkalinity or acidity of the soil and presence of certain chemicals, is also instrumental in the growth of plants. Read more at Buzzle: factors.htmlhttp://www.buzzle.com/articles/plant-growth- factors.html PRODUKSI TANAMAN = F(FAKTOR PERTUMBUHAN )
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN) Nutrients Localized concentrations of nutrients may alter the form of a root system - nitrogen and phosphorus have a marked effect, but not potassium. Excessive concentration of fertilizer salts will restrict root growth due to osmotic effects or specific toxicities such as with ammonia (NH 3 ) or nitrite (NO 2 ). Safe rates have been established for fertilizers banded with or close to the seed (OMAFRA Publ. 296) What changes occur to roots as a result of variation in nutrient conditions in the rooting zone ? Morphological changes : Root extension changed Localized supply altering root distribution. Sumber:
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN) Nutrient effects on the relative growth of roots and shoots: 1.Effects on root hair development - production and elongation 2.Plant growth controlling substances - especially cytokinin production (N deficiency results in decreased cytokinin production or at least decreased transport from the roots). Evidence of aerenchyma formation in maize roots growing in limited N supply. 3.Changes to membrane transport - uptake characteristics modified in zone with localized enhanced branching. Sumber:
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN) Soil Acidity – Pertumbuhan akar 1.The major causes of reduced root and shoot growth in acid soils are aluminum and manganese toxicity. Direct effects of hydrogen ion concentration are of lesser importance. 2.Aluminum toxicity affects primarily root growth whereas manganese toxicity affects primarily shoot growth. Deficiencies of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus may also be factors causing reduced growth on acid soils. 3.Solubility of aluminum in soil increases rapidly as soil pH decreases from 5.5 to 4.0. The species of aluminum (A1 3+, A10H 2+ ) also change. Solubility of manganese increases as pH decreases but is also highly dependent on oxidation- reduction potential in the soil. 4.Excessive aluminum inhibits root growth primarily by affecting meristematic activity. Aluminum toxicity results in short stubby roots. 5.There are, at least in some species, close relations between aluminum toxicity and calcium deficiency. 6.Excessive manganese affects shoot growth directly rather than root growth causing chlorotic or necrotic spots. 7.Plant species differ markedly in degree of adaptation to acid soils through either tolerance or avoidance mechanisms. Sumber:
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN) Mechanical Impedance 1.Roots will not grow into rigid pores which are smaller in diameter than the apical meristem of the root. They can however, exert considerable pressure to enlarge or create pores where the rooting medium is weak enough to allow this to occur. 2.The ability of roots to develop in soil is determined by the size and rigidity of soil pores. 3.Mechanical resistance to root penetration - soil strength - is determined by the number, diameter and continuity of soil pores, inter-particle bonding and moisture content. 4.When root growth is impeded there is an increase in the osmotic potential within the cells. The increase probably occurs because of the reduced growth rather than a physiological response to the impedance. Turgor pressure in the zone of cell expansion may also increase (Clark et al., 1996). 5.Physical factors alone cannot account for the marked reduction in root elongation produced by a relatively small resistance. There is good evidence of physiological response mechanisms. 6.Impedance affects apical cells and their subsequent elongation. Elongation will not return to the unimpeded rate until cells formed after the impedance is removed reach the elongation stage. 7.Roots sense physical contact and react to it very quickly. A temporary reduction is barley root elongation rate was observed for about 10 minutes after a root tip made contact with a physical object. If the object offered little resistance, root elongation increased to the original rate after about 20 min. If the root cap was removed, roots were not sensitive to contact, suggesting an important role for the root cap in the response to mechanical impedance. 8.Results from a number of studies suggest that changes in cell wall properties are important in the response of roots. Sumber:
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN) Soil Temperature 1.Root growth can be adversely affected by both sub- and supra-optimal soil temperatures. Work with monocots has often been confused because the shoot meristem remains below ground for a considerable time. Hence the effects on roots may also include indirect effects due to differences in shoot growth between treatments. At both high and low temperature the rate of cell extension is slowed. Changes in anatomical features result from low temperatures eg lignification of late metaxylem vessels. These observations suggest changes in enzymatic activity, possibly influenced by changes in the formation of plant hormones such as ABA and cytokinins. 2.Root growth depends on the supply of carbohydrate from the shoot. In monocot species the soil temperature governs shoot growth for a longer period than for dicots because the shoot apex stays below the ground surface for the early stages of vegetative growth rather than being lifted above the surface. In cool soils root growth may be more constrained in monocots than dicots because the expansion of the shoot is limited by soil temperature, whereas shoot growth in dicots will depend on air temperature. Sumber:
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN) Efek temperatur thd Pertumbuhan Akar Tanaman : Sumber: Aktivitas Akar Soil Temperature Keterangan Below optimumAbove optimum Cell division? reducedreducedThe length of the meristem and zone of expansion will be shorter. Changes in cell wall extensibility may reflect as much as be the cause of these effects. Cell elongationreduced Cell radial expansionincreased? Cell maturationCloser to apex for some cells, suberized closer to apex. Slower for late metaxylem in wheat Closer to apexThese may largely reflect the change in cell elongation Temperature effects can be expected because of effects on enzymes and enzyme systems. Root elongationless Root branchingdepressed unclear whether this is the result of the difference in length Carbohydratescarbohydrates may accumulate limitations may contribute to reduced growth At lower soil temperatures and fast rate of evaporation, can slow shoot growth Nutrientsuptake may be slowerlarge NO 3 supply may further decrease growth Growth control substances cytokinin production depressed Almost certainly affected, especially if meristem activity changes geotropism affected
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(PEMADATAN TANAH) Sumber: Pemadatan Tanah Tanah yg strukturnya bagus Tanah yg padat
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(AERASI TANAH) Aeration is simply the removal of hundreds of small soil plugs from a lawn, to help break up soil compaction and improve root growth. Turf grass in compacted soil grows slowly, lacks vigor and becomes thin or does not grow at all. Core aeration removes small cores of soil, depositing them on the surface of the turf. This improves the depth and extent of turf grass rooting. Core aeration will reduce soil compaction and enhance thatch breakdown, thus improving soil water uptake and decreasing water runoff and puddling. Core aeration allows air, water, and fertilizer to better reach the root zone. This stimulates root growth to create healthier, stronger turf grass plants. Sumber:
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(POROSITAS TANAH) An approach for using general soil physical condition–root growth relationships to predict seedling growth response to site preparation tillage in loblolly pine plantations L.A. Morris, K.H. Ludovici, S.J. Torreano, E.A. Carter, M.C. Lincoln, R.E. Will Forest Ecology and Management. Volume 227, Issues 1–2, 15 May 2006, Pages 169–177. Relationship between air- filled porosity and root growth used in model simulation in its original form (dashed line) plotted against root elongation and as relative root growth (solid line) normalized to 1 for maximum observed growth (adapted from Zou et al., 2001a).Zou et al., 2001a Sumber:
Sumber: Examples of rooting pattern and growth habit when roots are physically impeded or prevented from penetrating a root- restricting soil layer (R.G. Barber) PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(Fisika TANAH)
CPI = CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX RATING Sumber:. The index of crop production is the indicator of the level of crop production. It reflects changes in the production volume and production cycle. The index covers 21 major crops and 20 vegetables and fruits, accounting for 67.7% of total value of agricultural products. Monthly index is calculated, then quarterly and yearly indices are derived as the average of monthly series.
CPI = CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX RATING Sumber:. Data are from Output of Major Agricultural Production (EC_RL_001). The index is calculated using Laspeyres’ formula, with 1988 as the base year. Monthly production of base year (1988) is the average of total production of each crop for the entire year. Weight applied to each product is the relative value-added of each product to that of the entire agricultural sector as appeared in the national account disseminated by the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB). The formula used in the index calculation is as follows :
CPI = CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX RATING Sumber:. Dimana: = Crop production index for month t, = Quantity of crop product i of month t in the current year = Quantity of crop product i in the base year 1988 = Weight of product i in the base year 1988 n = Number of crop products covered in the calculation. The formula used in the index calculation is as follows :
ASPEK FISIK PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber:http://www.fao.org/docrep/V9926E/v9926e04.htm. Hubungan antara sumberdaya tanah dan sistem pertanaman A traditional view of the influence of soil is that it provides an opportunity, or a constraint on the type of cropping system that can be implemented and its productivity. Pandangan yg lebih bertanggung-jawab ialah bahwa ‘TANAH' mengkombinasikan berbagai sifat yg saling berhubungan dan secara langsung mempengaruhi prosedur pertanaman.
Sumber:http://www.fao.org/docrep/V9926E/v9926e04.htm. ASPEK FISIK PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN