Suicide is not a disease. It is an expression of a host of emotions, hopelessness, guilt, sorrow, loneliness, rage, fear and shame. Never suicide is an instant decision and execution. It is a long term effect of so many conditions. Paradoxically, the act often occurs at a point when the individual appears to be emerging from the deepest phase of the depressive attack. Adolescence with its myriad adjustment problems, is one of the peak danger periods. The suicidal impulse may develop in early or later adolescence between the ages of 14-18 years. This is the most difficult time for the young person to adjust to a new status and to a new social expectation.
The aim of this lecture is to apprise you about suicide, its early detection along with its multifarious dimensions.
● Suicide ● Types of suicide ● Causes of suicide ● Risk factors of suicide ● Signs of suicidal intend ● Suicidal impact on others ● Measures to prevent suicide in training academy
Fatal : Non-Fatal : Attempted to suicide but outcome is not death (Para-suicide). Attempted to suicide and completed it. More common in men (for unemployment, loneliness, withdrawn from relationship, deprivation of love, drug abuse & physical illness). Those who do not actually complete suicide are believed to want to survive and to have made a suicide gesture for psychological ends (i.e. manipulation, a cry for help). More common in women under 25 (for acute personal crisis). Most suicidal acts are taken with ambivalent intention
Sociological Changing family structure Marital breakdown Changing cultural values and religious practices Unemployment Drugs Increased availability of methods of suicide Psychological Mental well being Personality Psychosocial Biological Genetics Psychiatric illness Physical illness Continue..
ID EGO SUPER EGO PRIMITIVE & UNCONSCIOUS EXECUTIVE OF THE PERSONALITY OR MEDIATOR IDEAL / LEARNED / MORAL PERSONALITY STRUCTURE GOAL
Continue.. PSYCHOSOCIAL VIEW Key stone of personality Basic self concept Social self concept Ideal self concept Transitory Self concept
All suicides have three interrelated and unconscious dimensions : Revenge/hate Depression / hopelessness Guilt A wish to kill A wish to die A wish to be killed
Following are the best predictors of suicidal intent : 1.Hopelessness 2.Mental illness 3.Physical illness 4.Substance disorder (alcoholism or drug dependence) 5.Previous psychiatric history 6.Family psychiatric history 7.Previous suicide attempts 8.Broken homes 9.Social status
Signs may be of overt or covert and written or oral : 1.Statement of hopelessness or worthlessness 2.Preoccupation with death 3.Suicidal reference in drawing, poems or any written form 4.Change in eating and sleeping habits 5.Withdrawal from friends, family and regular activities 6.Violent actions, rebellious behavior or running away 7.Drug and alcohol use Continue..
8.Unusual neglect of personal appearance 9.Marked personality changes, like persistent boredom, difficulty in concentrating or decline in quality of academic and professional work 10.Frequent complaints about physical symptoms often related to emotions, like stomachache, headache, fatigue etc. 11.Loss of interest in pleasurable activities 12.Not tolerating praise or rewards Continue..
An adolescent who is planning to commit suicide usually gives the following signs and symptoms : 1.Complain of being bad person or feeling “rotten inside” 2.Give verbal hints with statements such as, “I won’t be problem for you much longer”, “Nothing matters”, It’s no use”, “I won’t see you again” 3.Give away favorite possessions, clean his/her room, throw away important belongings etc. 4.Become suddenly cheerful after a period of depression 5.Have signs of psychosis (hallucinations of bizarre thoughts) 6.Have previous attempts 7.Serious depression and mood swing Continue..
8.Loss of energy and motivation 9.Loss of interest in daily activities 10.Fatigue 11.Poor self-esteem with self reproach 12.Guilty feelings 13.A sense of helplessness and hopelessness 14.Expression of suicidal intent 15.Conduct disorder 16.Disruptive and unsupportive family background 17.Relationship conflict Continue..
18.Poor coping skills 19.Psychiatric illness 20.The ready availability of lethal means to commit suicide 21.Recent bereavement 22.Chronic physical illness 23.Withdrawal and isolation 24.Friendliness 25.Feeling of not belonging 26.Embarrassment before peers
Suicide has a devastating emotional impact on surviving family members and friends : 1.Makes others feels abandoned, helpless and rejected 2.A family member or friend may have the added burden of discovering the body of suicide victim 3.Parents often suffer exaggerated feelings of shame & guilt 4.Survivors may avoid talking to others about the person who died 5.Others may avoid the survivors 6.Highly publicized suicide-those of celebrities may cause vulnerable persons, especially teens, to kill themselves
Training environment is one of the vulnerable factors to become depressed. The following steps can be taken by the officers/personnel related to training as a precaution to prevent suicide : 1.He/she should be educated enough regarding the sign and symptoms of the suicidal acts. 2.Need based assessment program can be arranged. 3.Counseling the individual cadet. 4.Be more alert when stressful situation occurs. 5.When cadets are terminated or relegated, due supervision should be given to them. Continue..
6.When cadets are lagging behind on any subject, special attention should be given to them. 7.When breaking any news to any cadet, somebody should accompany them. 8.Any emotional situation occurs, it should be handled maturely.
Suicide in most cases, resulting from frustration, depression, overt or marked anger, or a rebellious act. It is often intended as a warning or revenge to parents or loved ones or authority (an expression of dissatisfaction or displeasure with existing unpleasant situation) Suicide is not a disease. It is an expression of a host of emotions, depression, frustration, hopelessness, guilt, sorrow, loneliness, rage, fear and shame. Never suicide is an instant decision and execution. It is a long term effect of so many conditions. Continue..
Paradoxically, the act often occurs at a point when the individual appears to be emerging from the deepest phase of the depressive attack. Most people who are suicide-prone have long histories of gloominess, withdrawal, anxiety and other problems. They have suffered from personality sickness. Adolescence with its myriad adjustment problems, is one of the peak danger periods. The suicidal impulse may develop in early or later adolescence between the ages of 14-18 years. This is the most difficult time for the young person to adjust to a new status and to a new social expectation.
Suicide Rates in the United States Suicide ranks as one of the top ten causes of death in the United States. People over the age of 75 have the highest suicide rates, apparently due to the debilitating effects of physical illness, loss of social roles, and untreated depression.
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