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Knowledge Management Capturing and managing knowhow Skills transfer Synergy.

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1 Knowledge Management Capturing and managing knowhow Skills transfer Synergy

2 2 KM-Its Importance! Knowledge Management focuses on the development and use of knowledge to support the achievement of strategic objectives; Knowledge Management addresses the identification, growth and re-use of a company’s intellectual capital to enable business growth; Knowledge Management policy alters the company’s culture to put the knowledge in first during the next development cycle before the product or service is rolled-out to the customer.

3 3 Knowledge Management -Its edge over information gathering! Data: Bare Facts Information: Organised Data Knowledge: Interpreted Information Data Information Knowledge Goals Its focus is to gather primarily “active” not “archive” knowledge

4 4 Introducing Knowledge Management Platform To foster an environment of responsibility to share our wealth of knowledge within the company; To capture tacit knowledge- knowledge held in people’s minds-around the customer or product data and store it in the searchable knowledge platform; To encourage collaboration - for example, “I don’t know it; but I can work with someone who does.’; To break barriers of holding knowledge. The knowledge needs to be contributed voluntarily, giving to get, encouraging contributions without insecurity; To support sustainability of knowledge as knowledge taught and then rarely used may become lost. If it is captured, it will be available in rare situations. Maximise the way in which usage knowledge becomes organised Minimise reliance on unorganised knowledge Optimise the way in which individuals can interact to share and exchange knowledge

5 Setting up a KM Centre The practicalities of designing, installing and getting people to use the Knowledge Management Centre fall into four main categories: Knowledge Management Audit KM Platform Capturing the knowledge User Interaction

6 Stage 1- The Knowledge Management Audit

7 Stage 1: The Knowledge Management Audit It is essentially a sound investigation into the organisation’s knowledge ‘health’. It looks at: What are the organisation’s knowledge needs? What knowledge assets or resources does the organisation have and where are they? What gaps exist in the organisation’s knowledge? How does knowledge flow around the organisation? What blockages are there to that flow e.g. to what extent do its people, processes and technology currently support or hamper the effective flow of knowledge?

8 Stage 1: The Knowledge Management Audit It includes: A review of all types of knowledge held within and used by the organisation; Classifies this knowledge into what is essential, desirable to know, generic information against business objectives; Classifies this knowledge into different spheres; Identifies areas for resistance; Supports the development of an action plan around these areas of resistance.

9 Stage 1: The Knowledge Management Audit Among the key benefits of a knowledge management audit are: It helps the organisation clearly identify what knowledge is needed to support overall organisational goals and individual and team activities; It gives tangible evidence of the extent to which knowledge is being effectively managed and indicates where improvements are needed; It provides an evidence-based account of the knowledge that exists in the organisation, and how that knowledge moves around in, and is used by the organisation; It provides a map of what knowledge exists in the organisation and where it exists, revealing both gaps and duplication; It reveals pockets of knowledge that are not currently being used to good advantage and therefore offer untapped potential; It provides a map of knowledge and communication flows and networks, revealing both examples of good practice and blockages and barriers to good practice; It provides an inventory of knowledge assets, allowing them to become more visible and therefore more measurable and accountable, and giving a clearer understanding of the contribution of knowledge to organisational performance.

10 Stage 2- The Knowledge Platform

11 Stage 2: The Knowledge Platform The Knowledge Management Platform may be part of the overall Management Information System (MIS) and developed together with MIS Expertise, simple to use with no entry barriers to any level of employee.

12 Stage 2: The Knowledge Management Platform It includes: All data that is considered to be of importance against established criteria; Internal systems; External products and services; Company thesaurus; Knowledge repositories e.g. the organisation's intranet, key information databases and collections; Knowledge from projects, operating manuals; Employee/unit input of information; Information from Audits that could be shared.

13 Stage 2: The Knowledge Management Platform It also includes: Making the Knowledge Management platform personalised and promoting a personal knowledge longevity by keeping and displaying the person’s name alongside the knowledge he or she contributed; Acknowledge those entering knowledge; Question and answer forum addressed to pre-established mentors; Over time, user names can be tagged with a hierarchy of levels, for example, depending on the volume and quality of entries they have made or questions they have answered; Recording of mentors’ skills so that users can search for someone who has the skills to answer to their queries; Items of knowledge can also get graded on usefulness depending on access volume and user ratings- for example, one star to five stars; A search engine; Intranet forums for story telling; A login report in the Knowledge Management software which will allow management to monitor easily who is using the system, how often are employees making entries, the length of the entries made and so on.

14 14 Stage 3- Capturing the Knowledge

15 Stage 3: Capturing the Knowledge- Sample Process Knowledge Management Meetings Representatives from every department attend this Knowledge Management Meeting The representatives bring in any new Knowledge they have come across over the last few months, from any level of employee The information is assessed against pre- established criteria by appointed vettors. Knowledge Management Executive to co- ordinate with respective expert to vet the knowledge as per area of expertise Only once information is approved, would it be available for all to access Knowledge is directly entered by the contributing unit with identification of the individual contributing the knowledge.

16 Once Information is vetted, it is included on the Knowledge Management platform Assessment of usage of that data is conducted within stipulated periods If information is not supporting the business need, it is placed into a different folder, as secondary data There will be information on processes, systems etc that are monitored to ensure compliance Updating of Knowledge Stage 3: Capturing the Knowledge- Sample Process Training and development kicks in

17 Updating of Knowledge As per revised documentsAs per new knowledge flowing in As per further outcomes achieved following implementation of processes, systems etc which had been mentioned in the Knowledge Management Platform Once a process, system etc lasts the test of time and against criteria, and is consider of value- adding, it will be assessed as to whether it acts as a best practice Stage 3: Capturing the Knowledge

18 18 Stage 4 - User Interaction

19 Stage 4: User Interaction The organisation needs to build the motivation of moving tacit knowledge into the Knowledge Management platform and retrieve knowledge

20 Stage 4: User Interaction The organisation first needs to effectively communicate what the Knowledge Management strategy is-why it’s necessary, how it will help the company and the benefits to the employees. The Company would need to build a campaign to nurture the willingness for employees to contribute: “If you care, please contribute” Internal communications need to reinforce the ongoing use, benefits and ‘heralding’ the employees who have contributed the most to the system giving users visibility within the organisation; The system could also feedback into the performance management reviews and the career paths; Beyond communication, incentives are useful to reinforce the link between pooling knowledge and benefiting the company. However, it is important that the incentives are non-competitive, because the company needs to encourage everyone to contribute, not just the best.

21 Ultimate Goal Ultimately the company identifies the knowledge gap by: Conducting a knowledge needs analysis to identify the knowledge requirements to deliver a particular current objective; Analysing future requirements in terms of systems, people and technology.

22 Performance Optimisation in the Hospitality Industry Managing Change

23 Understanding Change Understanding and managing change are the dominant themes of management today. Adapting to the ever-changing present is essential for success in the unpredictable future. Limits to growth must be recognised: growth should not be forced beyond them. Changes that give clear competitive advantage are particularly desirable. Changes made in isolation will often have disappointing results.

24 Understanding Change Valuable changes in thinking by managers and staff will be revealed by changes in behaviour. In reviewing internal processes and performance a sense of discontent may be put to constructive use. All changes should bring direct or indirect benefits to customers and employees

25 Planning change Change in one area should be supported by change in others. The strategic reasons for change should be widely publicized. Only change that is people based will work in the long- term. Everyone involved in the change programme should be consulted. Planned changes should not all be made in one go. Change needs fall into high, medium, and low priorities

26 Planning change Everything and everyone that needs to change should be noted. Individual responsibilities must be made crystal clear. Teams are the prime engines of almost every change. Management and communication of information is the fuel of successful change.

27 Approaching Change - The five change paradigms de Caluwé & Vermaak (2004)

28 Green: Change through learning Blue: Change through design Red: Change through people White: Change through emergence Yellow: Change through addressing interests Adapted from de Caluwé & Vermaak 2004 Power Interests Energy Commitment Trust Agreement Business case Project management Plan, do review A rational best way Outputs Learning Development Understanding Systems thinking End goal envisioned but not fixed Can’t be ‘managed’ Complexity Self organisation Emergence Sensemaking Creative tensions Behaviour change Motivation Rewards & punishment Involvement HR systems Role: The Negotiator Method: Stakeholder management Evaluation: Joint reviews & satisfaction survey Role: The Expert Method: Project management Evaluation: Review & audit Role: The facilitator Method: Communication & learning events Evaluation: Review, learning, understanding Role: The Catalyser Method: Challenge, co-evolve, mirror Evaluation: Stories, sense make Role: The HR Expert Method: People management Evaluation: Survey, appraisal, audit

29 Change Through Design Rational project management approach to organisational life Due process – plan, do, review Outputs indicators, clearly defined goals Best possible solution (within pre-defined constraints) If the plan/business case makes logical sense then people will do it What you know Tools: SWOT, Benchmarking, BPR, TQM, Restructuring Change agent – Expert – Specialist – Competence “Prediction is very difficult, especially about the future” Niels Bohr

30 Change Through Addressing Interests Interests, conflicts & power are the currency People will change if it’s in their best interest Push and pull influencing styles Coalitions, power blocs, negotiations are the norm Who you know not what you know What’s feasible - compromise & at of the possible Sponsorship is a key factor Key questions where’s the: – Power – Interests – Energy – Commitment – Trust – Agreement Role of the Change agent – Power broker/mediator – Independent (but can they be?)

31 Change Through Emergence Change cannot be managed Complexity Self organisation Emergence Not controllable Sensemaking Energy enabling removal of obstacles Creative tensions Go with the flow Unpredictable outcomes Change agent – Spotter – Pointer – Stake in ground – Principles

32 Change Through People Behaviour change Motivation Rewards & punishment Involvement Bartering – exchange People-Organisation fit Human Resource Management End goal can be flexed Change agent – Motivator – Manager of Human Resources

33 Change Through Learning Learning Development Understanding Individual, team& organisational learning Systems thinking End goal envisioned but not fixed Change agent – Facilitator – Coach – Mentor “In a time of drastic change it is the learners who inherit the future. The learned usually find themselves equipped to live in a world that no longer exists” Eric Hoffer

34 Forces Driving Change Readiness, Capacity & Resistance

35 The Change ‘Force-Field’ Driving forces Restraining forces Current State AB Desired state UnfreezeChangeRefreeze Source; Lewin 1941

36 Change Force-Field Drivers for Change Resistance to Change Dissatisfaction with Present State External Pressures Need to Improve Effectiveness Fear of Unknown Lack of Perceived Benefits Disruption of Routine Lack of Trust Parochial Self Interest Effective Change STATUSSTATUS QUOQUO

37 Sustain ReinforceRealiseMobilise The Linear Change Chain Unfreeze Phase Set the direction. Create the desire and will to change Trial early changes & build confidence Secure widespread shift in behaviour Underpin with changes in structure & people processes Strive for continuous performance improvement Content Ref. Malcolm Higgs

38 Assessing Readiness to Change Forces in the Individual Forces in the Situation Self esteem Knowledge, skills Motivation for Achievement Tolerance of uncertainty Market conditions Security of company Status of department Attitude towards risk Perceived Security

39 People Respond Differently To Change…. EMOTIONAL How does this affect the people/things I care about? Will we still be true to our values? I’m not supporting anything developed by them which I haven’t contributed to RATIONAL How will this work? I do not believe the change will actually improve performance I can not see how the savings will be made! Is this “doable” POLITICAL The change will reduce my power base! Will not let the centre tell me how to run my business What does this mean for me/my career path Who will win from this?

40 Human Responses to Change MOODMOODMOODMOOD TIME Sudden Awareness Denial Confusion Immobilisation Acceptance Acceptance Adaptation

41 Performance/Self Esteem Time Transitions Curve Shock Denial Anger Panic Depression Acceptance Experimentation Integration

42 Transition Endings Neutral Zone Beginnings Accept Let Go Mourn Losses Confusion Insecurity Creativity Renewed Energy Purpose New Identity William Bridges “Organization Transitions”

43 Resistance To Change – How ? Overt Challenges/opposition Disagreements/arguments Covert “Proving” new ways won’t work Saying “yes” but doing “no” Half-hearted energy Subtle People not “hearing” Not “understanding” “Forgetting” to use new methods or procedures Not “noticing” problems


45 Evaluating Change Effectiveness

46 Evaluation based on the five paradigms ParadigmOutcomesRepresentative measurement/feedback mechanisms Change through Design Clear measurable outcomesCost, quality, time Project management methodology Benchmarking Change through Interests Satisfying key stakeholdersSatisfaction surveys Negotiated agreement Resources in the right place Change through Emergence Movement towards overarching vision Feedback, surveys, open space conferences, values audit Change through Learning Organisational information flows Organisational learning and responsiveness Knowledge cafes, feedback mechanisms such as focus & discussion groups and double-loop learning methods, skills audits, team building Change through People Behaviour change Motivation Employee satisfaction surveys Discussion, absenteeism, staff turnover

47 Staff Consultation From A to Z

48 Acceptance It all begins with acceptance.

49 Benefits Everyone must benefit from employee engagement. One for all, all for one. CustomersEmployees OrganizationLeadership

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