Presentation on theme: "Change Management Any change is likely to cause discomfort to the people that are affected the most. As a result they are likely to react in some way."— Presentation transcript:
Change Management Any change is likely to cause discomfort to the people that are affected the most. As a result they are likely to react in some way.
Acceptance to change Passive resistance Regressive behaviour Non-learning behaviour Protests Working to rule Active resistance Minimal work Slowing down Personal withdrawal Intentional errors Sabotage
Reaction to change In addition to overt forms of resistance (strikes, stoppages, work to rules) there are many more cases of frustration in terms of absenteeism, low morale, low productivity and high labour turnover. These types of resistance is less dramatic, but more insidious than strikes.
Why is change resisted? It is essential to analyse why change is resisted, if management is to develop strategies to overcome resistance. Organisational barriers include:- Structural inertia The existing power structure Resistance from work groups The failure of a previous initative
Individual resistance (why?) Individual resistance is caused by a combination of factors which include. Economic Social Psychological
Strategies to overcome resistance to change It is useful to identify features used by successful organisations that are more receptive to change. People are informed and consulted as early as possible. The advantages of change are identified. Trust is built up. Retraining and other support is available. Feedback is encouraged. Clear objectives are set.
Strategies to overcome resistance to change cont Responsibility is allocated. Employees are involved in both planning and implementing change. change is incremental rather than dramatic. Management is willing to compromise. Employees do not feel that their autonomy or security is threatened.
Six Strategies (Kotter and Schlesinger) Education and communication Participation and involvement Facilitation and support Negotiation and agreement Manipulation and cooption Explicit and implicit threats
Source of resistanceSuggested strategy Fear of the unknown Poor timing Contrasting interpretations Insecurity Need for change not recognised Threat to vested interests Different personal ambitions Offer information and support Delay change – wait for a more appropriate time Information – group discussions Clarify intentions Demonstrate the problem/opportunity Enlist key people in planning change Extra incentives
Force field analysis Pressures for changeResistance to change Change the nature of the workforce Changing technology Knowledge explosion Quality of work life Product obsolescence Economic reasons Fear of the unknown Habit Security Organisational structure Resource limitation Threats of power Organisational culture
Bringing about change Increase those forces pushing for change Decrease those forces maintaining the status quo Use a combination of these two strategies It is possible that modifying the forces maintaining the status quo might produce less tension and resistance than increasing the forces for change.
Steps to change Unfreezing reducing those forces maintaining or organisation’s behaviour in its current state. Moving shifting the behaviour of the organisation to a new condition, which involves developing and implementing new attitudes, values and behaviours by changing structures. Re-freezing the organisation stabilises in a new state of equilibrium reinforced by new structures, culture and processes.
Champion for Change Change programmes benefit from having a champion to galvanise the plan for change. A champion should possess the following attributes. A vision with passion and commitment. Clear values Energy and stamina Charisma Communication skills Innovative ideas and approaches Be an achiever A delegator A persuader Teambuilding skills
Developing a change culture Change will be easy to introduce if acceptance of it is part of the culture of the organisation. The following are seen as essential to the process of building change culture. Build commitment. Develop a culture that supports change Get the people right by
Build commitment by:- Sharing information as widely as possible Allowing for suggestions, input and differences from widespread participation Breaking changes into manageable chunks and minimise surprises Making standards and requirements clear Being honest about the downside of change
Develop a culture that supports change by:- Recognising prevalent value systems Creating a blame free culture of empowerment and pushing down decision making Breaking down departmental barriers Designing challenging jobs Freeing time for risk and innovation Focussing on the interests of all stakeholders (including employees)
Get the people right by:- Recognising staff needs and dealing with conflict positively Being directional without being directive Involving everyone Earning commitment and trust developing relationships Understanding how teams work Recognising your limits and others strengths