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Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying By A.S. Hashim. MD.

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1 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying By A.S. Hashim. MD

2 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying Supplication بـســـم الله الرحمن الرحيم In the Name of God, Lord of Mercy and Lord of Grace

3 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying Nahjul Balaaghah Nahjul Balaaghah, a highly valued book, consists of: – 254 sermons, – 48 letters, and – 212 sayings of Imam Ali Nahjul Balaaghah is unique to Imam Ali None of the Sahaaba was ever able to produce anything like it: 1. neither in substance 2. nor in literary eloquence. No wonder Ali was referred to as: 1. Sayyid al-Bulaghaa' (Pinnacle of Literary Expression) and 2. Sayyid al-Fu'qahaa, (Pinnacle of the Jurisprudents)

4 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying References about Death and Dying Nahjul Balaaghah contains 23 references about death and Dying, some of which appear here The quotes appear in various sermons, –said at variable occasions and –about different subjects. 1. The Arabic quotes are from the book of Nahjul Balaaghah, by Dr. Subhi Al-Salih, and so is the numbering of the sermons and pages, 1st Edition, Beirut 1967. 2. The Number of the sermons may differ by a factor of 1 in other volumes of Nahjul Balaaghah 3. The references are quotes by Abd al-Zahra' al-Husayni in vols. I & IV of his work (see, internet)

5 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying Time Element The majority of Ali's sayings and speeches were stated: –During his Khilaafah when in Kufa, –At Different Places –At Different Occasions –Often at Khutba of Jumu’ah

6 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 64, Page 95 Ali: about Death #1 See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-'Amidi, Ghurar, 105, 154, 155, 246; 2. Sibt, Tadhkirah, 145. 3. Nasr, Siffin, * 7

7 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 64, Ali: about Death #1 So a person has heeded his Lord, and has admonished himself, declared his repentance, and overpowered his passion, Since death is concealed from him, his hopes deceive him, and Satan is enticing for him, ─ that he may commit sin, prompting him to delay repentance, till his death suddenly overtakes him, unawares. How bad it is that for the negligent person to see his life itself as a proof against him, and his own sinful days lead him to sorrow intense. We implore Allah to make us and you like one who is not indisposed of Allah’s bounty, whereby no aim ever reduces his obedience to his Lord, nor after death befalls him shame or grief. فَاتَّقَىْ عَبْدٌ رَبِّهُ، نَصَحَ نَفْسَهُ، قَدَّمَ تَوْبَتَهُ، غَلَبَ شَهْوَتَهُ، فَإِنَّ أَجَلَهُ مَسْتُورٌ عَنْهُ، وَأَمَلَهُ خَادِعٌ لَهُ، والشَّيْطَانُ مُوَكَّلٌ بِه، يُزَيِّنُ لَهُ الْمَعْصِيَةَ لِيَرْكَبَهَا، وَيُمَنِّيهِ التَّوْبَةَ لِيُسَوِّفَهَا، حتّى تَهْجُم مَنِيَّتُهُ عَلَيْهِ أَغْفَلَ مَا يَكُونُ عَنْهَا. فَيَالَهَا حَسْرَةً عَلَى كُلِّ ذِي غَفْلَة أَنْ يَكُونَ عُمُرُهُ عَلَيْهِ حُجَّةً، وَأَنْ تُؤَدِّيَهُ أَيَّامُهُ إِلَى الشِّقْوَةِ! نَسْأَلُ اللهَ سُبْحَانَهُ أَنْ يَجْعَلَنَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ مِمِّنْ لاَ تُبْطِرُهُ نَعْمَةٌ، وَلاَ تُقَصِّرُ بِهِ عَنْ طَاعَةِ رَبِّهِ غَايَةٌ، وَلاَ تَحُلُّ بِهِ بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ نَدَامَةٌ وَلاَ كَآبَةٌ

8 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 85, Page 116 Ali: about Death #2 See next slide please Other sources: 1. Abu Nu`aym, Hilyah, I, 77; 2. al-Wasiti, `Uyun al-hikam; 3. Sibt, Tadhkirah, 131; 4. Ibn Talhah, Matalib, I, 140

9 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 85, Ali: about Death #2 O' servants of Allah! Take heed and learn from the distinctive events, and consider their shining indications. Be cautioned by the major warnings, and benefit from admonitions and goodly preaching. It is as though the claws of death are pressed in you, cut asunder is the clinging to your wishes and hopes, the hard affairs have befallen you and you continue to march towards the place that eventually everyone has to go to. Hence, “With every soul there is a driver and a witness". The driver drives it towards resurrection while the witness furnishes evidence about his deeds. فَاتَّعِظُوا عِبَادَ اللهِ بِالعِبَرِ النَّوَافِعِ، وَاعْتَبِرُوا بِالاْي السَّوَاطِعِ، وَازْدَجِرُوا بِالنُّذُرِ الْبَوَالِغِ، وَانْتَفِعُوا بِالذِّكْرِ وَالْمَوَاعِظِ، فَكَأَنْ قَدْ عَلِقَتْكُمْ مَخَالِبُ الْمَنِيَّةِ، وَانْقَطَعَتْ مِنْكُمْ عَلاَئِقُ الاُْمْنِيَّةِ، وَدَهِمَتْكُمْ مُفْظِعَاتُ الاُْمُورِ، وَالسِّيَاقَةُ إِلى الْوِرْدِ المَوْرُودِ، وَكُلُّ نَفْس مَعَهَا سَائِقٌ وَشَهِيدٌ: سَائِقٌ يَسُوقُهَا إِلَى مَحْشَرِهَا; وَشاهِدٌ يَشْهَدُ عَلَيْهَا بِعَمَلِهَا.

10 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 91, Page 134 Ali: about Death #3 See next slide please Other sources: 1. Mas`adah ibn Sadaqah, author of Khutab Amir al-Mu'minin; 2. Ibn `Abd Rabbih, al-`Iqd, II, 406; 3. al-Saduq, al-Tawhid, 34; 4. al-Zamakhshari, Rabi`, I, bab al-mala'ikah; 5. Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, discusses its unusual (gharib) phrases in several places; 6. Ibn Tawus, Faraj al-mahmum, 56.

11 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 91, Ali: about Death #3 Allah has fixed ages and made them long or short, young or old, and He connected them to death by their causes. He made death able to pull the reigns of ages and cut them asunder. He knows all secrets of those who conceal them, the hidden conversations of those who engage in them, the inner feelings of those who indulge in guessing, He also knows the nexus of established faith, the inklings of the eyes, the mysteries of the hearts’ content, and the depths of the unknown. He also knows what the ears can hear, in whimpering or whisper, وَخَلَقَ الاْجَالَ فَأَطَالَهَا وَقَصَّرَهَا، وَقَدَّمَهَا وَأَخَّرَهَا، وَوَصَلَ بَالْمَوْتِ أَسْبَابَهَا، وَجَعَلَهُ خَالِجاً لاَِشْطَانِهَا، وَقَاطِعاً لمَرائِرِأَقْرَانِهَا. عَالِمُ السِّرِّ مِنْ ضَمَائِرِ الْمُضْمِرِينَ، وَنَجْوَى الْمُتَخَافِتِينَ، وَخَوَاطِرِ رَجْمِ الظُّنُونِ، وَعُقَدِ عَزِيمَاتِ الْيَقِينِ، وَمَسَارِقِ إِيمَاضِ الْجُفُونِ، وَمَا ضَمِنَتْهُ أَكْنَانُ الْقُلُوبِ، وَغَيَابَاتُ الْغُيُوبِ، وَمَا أَصْغَتْ لاِسْتِرَاقِهِ مَصَائِخُ الاَْسْمَاعِ،

12 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 109, Page 160 Ali: about Death #4 See next slide please Other sources: 1. Ibn `Abd Rabbih, al-`Iqd, IV, 76; 2. al-Zamakhshari, Rabi`, bab al-mala'ikah; 3. al-'Amidi, Ghurar

13 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 109, Ali: about Death #4 Dying would keep on till a person’s hearing and speech lose their functions, he lies prostrate among his people, neither speaking with his tongue nor hearing with his ears, rotating his glance over their faces, watching the movements of their tongues, but not hearing their speaking. Then dying increases its sway over him, his sight suffers as the ears, and the spirit would depart from his body. He would then become just a body among his people, who would miss him, yet get away from near him. He cannot join a mourner nor respond to a caller. They carry him to a small place in the ground, deliver him in it to face his deeds, and then they stop from visiting him. فَلَمْ يَزَلِ الْمَوْتُ يُبَالِغُ فِي جَسَدِهِ حَتَّى خَالَطَ لِسَانُهُ سَمْعَهُ، فَصَارَ بَيْنَ أَهْلِهِ لاَ يَنْطِقُ بِلِسَانِهِ، وَلاَ يَسْمَعُ بِسَمْعِهِ: يُرَدِّدُ طَرْفَهُ بِالنَّظَرِ في وجُوهِهِمْ، يَرَى حَرَكَاتِ أَلْسِنَتِهِمْ، وَلاَ يَسْمَعُ رَجْعَ كَلاَمِهِمْ. ثُمَّ ازْدَادَ الْمَوْتُ الْتِيَاطاً بِهِ، فَقُبِضَ بَصَرُهُ كَمَا قُبِضَ سَمْعُهُ، وَخَرَجَتِ الرُّوحُ مِنْ جَسَدِهِ، فَصَارَ جِيفَةً بَيْنَ أَهْلِهِ، قَدْ أوْ حَشُوا مِنْ جَانِبِهِ، وَتَبَاعَدُوا مِنْ قُرْبِهِ. لاَ يُسْعِدُ بَاكِياً، وَلاَ يُجِيبُ دَاعِياً. ثُمَّ حَمَلُوهُ إِلَى مَخَطٍّ فِي الاَْرْضِ، فَأَسْلَمُوهُ فِيهِ إِلَى عَمَلِهِ، وَانْقَطَعُوا عَنْ زَوْرَتِهِ

14 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 113, Page 168 Ali: about Death #5 See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Zamakhshari, Rabi`, at the beginning; 2. al-'Amidi, Ghurar, 86, 189.

15 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 113, Ali: about Death #5 Listen to the call of death before you are called by the death itself. The hearts of the denouncers of this world weep even though they may be laughing, and their grief increases even in their happiness. They disfavor their own selves despite their share of Allah’s great bounty. But it seems that remembrance of death has left your hearts while false hopes are present in them. So this world has mastered you more than the next world, and the present world has taken you away from the remote one (of the next life). You are brethren in the religion of Allah, but what dispersed you is foul nature and bad conscience. You do not bear burdens of each other, nor advise each other, nor spend on each other, nor love each other. وَأَسْمِعُوا دَعْوَةَ الْمَوْتِ آذَانَكُمْ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُدْعَى بِكُمْ. إِنَّ الزَّاهِدِينَ في الدُّنْيَا تَبْكِي قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِنْ ضَحِكُوا، وَيَشْتَدُّ حُزْنُهُمْ وَإِنْ فَرِحُوا، وَيَكْثُرُ مَقْتُهُمْ أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَإِنِ اغْتُبِطُوا بِمَا رُزِقُوا. قَدْ غَابَ عَنْ قُلُوبِكُمْ ذِكْرُ الاْجَالِ، وَحَضَرَتْكُمْ كَوَاذِبُ الاْمَالِ، فَصَارَتِ الدُّنْيَا أَمْلَكَ بِكُمْ مِنَ الاْخِرَةِ، وَالْعَاجِلَةُ أَذْهَبَ بِكُمْ مِنَ الاْجِلَةِ، وَاِِنَّمَا أَنْتُم إِخْوَانٌ عَلَى دِينِ اللهِ، مَا فَرَّقَ بَيْنَكُمْ إِلاَّ خُبْثُ السَّرَائِرَ، وَسُوءُ الضَّمائِرِ، فَلاَ تَوَازَرُونَ، وَلاَ تَنَاصَحُونَ، وَلاَ تَبَاذَلُونَ، وَلاَ تَوَادُّونَ

16 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 156, Page 219 Ali: about Death #6 See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Tusi, Talkhis al-Shafi, I, 326; 2. al-Hilli, Mukhtasar Basa'ir al-darajat, 195; 3. al-Tabarsi, al-'Ihtijaj, I, 326; 4. al-Muttaqi, Kanz, VIII, 215; 5. al-Majlisi, Bihar, bab al-fitan wa al-mihan, 448.

17 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 156, Ali: about Death #6 By faith guidance to virtuous deeds is sought while by virtuous deeds guidance to faith is achieved. Knowledge prospers through faith, and due to knowledge is the dread of death. By death this world comes to an end, and through this world you secure the next by virtue of your deeds. There is no escape from resurrection, heading for this ending in its appointed course. A part of the same sermon: They get up from their graves and set off for the final target. Every house has its own people, they do not exchange it nor will they be shifted from there. Commanding for good and refraining from evil are two dimensions of Allah, Glory be to Him, they can neither bring death near nor lessen sustenance. فَبِالاِْيمَانِ يُسْتَدَلُّ عَلَى الصَّالِحَاتِ، وَبَالصَّالِحَاتِ يُسْتَدَلُّ عَلَى الاِْيمَانِ، وَبِالاِْيمَانِ يُعْمَرُ الْعِلْمُ، وَبِالْعِلْمِ يُرْهَبُ الْمَوْتُ، وَبِالْمَوْتِ تُخْتَمُ الدُّنْيَا، وَبِالدُّنْيَا تُحْرَزُ الاْخِرَةُ، وَإِنَّ الْخَلْقَ لاَ مَقْصَرَ لَهُمْ عَنِ الْقِيَامَةِ، مُرْقِلِينَ فِي مِضْمارِهَا إِلَى الْغَايَةِ الْقُصْوَى. منه: [في حال أهل القبور في القيامة] قَدْ شَخَصُوا مِنْ مُسْتَقَرِّ الاَْجْدَاثِ، وَصَارُوا إِلى مَصَائِرِ الْغَايَاتِ، لِكُلِّ دَار أَهْلُهَا، لاَ يَسْتَبْدِلُونَ بِهَا وَلاَ يُنْقَلُونَ عَنْهَا.

18 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 188, Page 278 Ali: about Death #7 See next slide please Other sources: 1. Abu Mansur al-Tha`alibi, al-'I`jaz wa al-'Ijaz, 31

19 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 188, Ali: about Death #7 Remember death and reduce your disregard for it. How can you disregard Him Who is not heedless of you? What to anticipate from the angel of death who will give you no time? Suffice it as a preacher the dead whom you watch, being carried to their graves not moving, and placed in the pit but not of their own accord. As if they were not builders in this world, and as if the next world had always been their abode. The place in which they were living misses them, but now they are living where they used to try to avoid. Busy in what they had to leave, and cared not for where they were to go. Neither they can blot out their misdeeds, nor add to their virtuous deeds. They were attached to the world and it deceived them, they trusted it and it overturned them وَأُوصِيكُمْ بِذِكْرِ الْمَوْتِ، وَإِقْلاَلِ الْغَفْلَةِ عَنْهُ، وَكَيْفَ غَفْلَتُكُمْ عَمَّا لَيْسَ يُغْفِلُكُمْ، وَطَمَعُكُمْ فِيمَنْ لَيْسَ يُمْهِلُكُمْ؟! فَكَفَى وَاعِظاً بِمَوْتَى عَايَنْتُمُوهُمْ، حُمِلُوا إلَى قُبُورِهِمْ غَيْرَ رَاكِبِينَ، وَأُنْزِلُوا فِيهَا غَيْرَ نَازِلِينَ، كَأَنَّهُمْ لَمْ يَكُونُوا لِلدُّنْيَا عُمَّاراً، وَكَأَنَّ الاخِرَةَ لَمْ تَزَلْ لَهُمْ دَاراً، أَوْحَشوُا مَا كَانُوا يُوطِنُونَ، وَأَوْطَنُوا مَا كَانُوا يُوحِشُونَ، وَاشْتَغَلُوا بِمَا فَارَقُوا، وَأَضَاعُوا مَا إِلَيْهِ انْتَقَلُوا، لاَ عَنْ قَبِيح يَسْتَطِيعُونَ انْتِقَالاً، وَلاَ فِي حَسَن يَسْتَطِيعُونَ ازْدِيَاداً، أَنِسُوا بِالدُّنْيَا فَغرَّتْهُمْ، وَوَثِقُوا بِهَا فَصَرَعَتْهُمْ.

20 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 230, Page 351 Ali: about Death #8 See next slide please Other sources: 1. Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, I, 355, II, 61, 103, III, 174; 2. al-'Amidi, Ghurar, 112, 148, 213.

21 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 230, Ali: about Death #8 Perform good deeds, for such deeds enhance your value, and repent so that you benefit, and the Du'aa can be heard, and while the circumstances are quiet, and the two angels are recording your actions. Hasten towards virtue before aging, lingering illness, or the snatching of death. Death will end your enjoyments, mar your pleasures, and distance you from your target. It is an unwelcome visitor, an invincible adversary, and a killer not asked for. Death entraps you, its misfortune surrounds you, its arrowheads have aimed at you. Its sway over you is great, its power over you keeps increasing and the chance of its missing you is nill. فَاعْمَلُوا وَالْعَمَلُ يُرْفَعُ، وَالتَّوْبَةُ تَنْفَعُ، وَالدُّعَاءُ يُسْمَعُ، وَالْحَالُ هَادِئَةٌ، وَالاَْقْلامُ جَارِيَةٌ. وَبَادِرُوا بِالاَْعْمَالِ عُمُراً نَاكسِاً، أَوْ مَرَضاً حَابِساً، أَوْ مَوْتاً خَالِساً، فَإِنَّ الْمَوْتَ هَادِمُ لَذَّاتِكُمْ، وَمُكَدِّرُ شَهَوَاتِكُمْ، وَمُبَاعِدُ طِيَّاتِكُمْ، زَائِرٌ غَيْرُ مَحْبُوب، وَقِرْنٌ غَيْرُ مَغْلُوب، وَوَاترٌ غَيْرُ مَطْلُوب، قَدْ أَعْلَقَتْكُمْ حَبَائِلُهُ، وَتَكَنَّفَتْكُمْ غَوَائِلُهُ، وَأَقْصَدَتْكُمْ مَعَابِلُهُ، وَعَظُمَتْ فِيكُمْ سَطْوَتُهُ، وَتَتَابَعَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ عَدْوَتُهُ،

22 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 235, Page 355 Ali: about Death #9 See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Mufid, al-'Amali, 60; 2. Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, III, 143 (t.y.b); 3. Muhammad ibn Habib, al-'Amali, 112; 4. Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, hadith 228; 5. Ibn Hisham, al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, IV, 213; 6. al-Baladhuri, Ansab, I, 571; 7. Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn al-Sari ibn Sahl al-Nahwi, al-'Amali; 8. For (3) & (4) see `Abd al-Zahra', III, 182.

23 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Sermon 235, Ali: about Death #9 Having washed the body of the Prophet (pbuh) for burial, Ali said: Lo! O' Messenger of Allah! With your death Prophethood has been terminated, and so the process of revelation, and heavenly messages. You made us so special that even your grief has become consolation; and you generalized, so grief is equally shared by all Muslims. Were it not for endurance you asked for, and fright you forbade, we would have shed a store of tears. Even then the pain won’t subside nor the grief end, and that would be too little. But death cannot be reversed nor possible to repulse. May my father and my mother die for you; O’ Prophet! Do remember us with Allah and take care of us. قاله وهو يلي غسل رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله) وتجهيزه بِأَبِي أَنْتَ وأُمِّي، لَقَدِ انْقَطَعَ بِمَوْتِكَ مَا لَمْ يَنْقَطِعْ بِمَوْتِ غَيْرِكَ مِنَ النُّبُوَّةِ وَالاِْنْبَاءِ وأَخْبَارِ السَّماءِ، خَصَصْتَ حَتَّى صِرْتَ مُسَلِّياً عَمَّنْ سِوَاكَ، وَعَمَمْتَ حَتّى صَارَ النَّاسُ فِيكَ سَواءً، وَلَوْ لاَ أَنَّكَ أَمَرْتَ بِالصَّبْرِ، وَنَهَيْتَ عَنِ الْجَزَعِ، لاََنْفَدْنَا عَلَيْكَ مَاءَ الشُّؤُونِ، وَلَكَانَ الدَّاءُ مُمَاطِلاً، وَالْكَمَدُ مُحَالِفاً، وَقَلاَّ لَكَ! وَلكِنَّهُ مَا لاَ يُمْلَكُ رَدُّهُ، وَلاَ يُسْتَطَاعُ دَفْعُهُ! بِأَبِي أَنْتَ وَأُمّي! اذْكُرْنَا عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ، وَاجْعَلْنَا مِنْ بَالِكَ!

24 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying In Ali’s Will: Letter 31, Ali: about Death #10 Remember that the Lord is the Master of death and life. The Creator is the Annihilator, and the Annihilator brings back to existence. The One who afflicts you also protects you. This world is ordained by Allah, with pleasures, trials, rewards on the Day of Judgment, and with others He wishes but you may not know. There are many matters of which you are ignorant, and your sight first wanders then after this you will recognize them and realize. Hold to your Lord who created you, fed you, and put you in order. Your worship should be for Him, and your eagerness towards Him, and your fear be of Him. وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ مَالِكَ الْمَوْتِ هُوَمَالِكُ الحَيَاةِ، وَأَنَّ الْخَالِقَ هُوَ الْمُمِيتُ، وَأَنَّ الْمُفْنِيَ هُوَ الْمُعِيدُ، وَأَنَّ الْمُبْتَلِيَ هُوَ الْمُعَافِي، وَأَنَّ الدُّنْيَا لَمْ تَكُنْ لِتَسْتَقِرَّ إِلاَّ عَلَى مَا جَعَلَهَا اللهُ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ النَّعْمَاءِ، وَالاِْبْتِلاَءِ، وَالْجَزَاءِ فِي الْمَعَادِ، أَوْ مَاشَاءَ مِمَّا لاَ تعْلَمُ، فَإِنْ أَشْكَلَ عَلَيْكَ شَيْءٌ مِنْ ذلِكَ فَاحْمِلْهُ عَلَى جَهَالَتِكَ بِهِ، فَإِنَّكَ أَوَّلُ مَا خُلِقْتَ جَاهِلاً ثُمَّ عَلِمْتَ، وَمَا أَكْثَرَ مَا تَجْهَلُ مِنَ الاَْمْرِ، وَيَتَحَيَّرُ فِيهِ رَأْيُكَ، وَيَضِلُّ فِيهِ بَصَرُكَ ثُمَّ تُبْصِرُهُ بَعْدَ ذلِكَ ! فَاعْتَصِمْ بِالَّذِي خَلَقَكَ وَرَزَقَكَ وَسَوَّاكَ، وَلْيَكُنْ لَهُ تَعَبُّدُكَ، وَإِلَيْهِ رَغْبَتُكَ، وَمِنْهُ شَفَقَتُكَ.

25 Nahjul Balaaghah about Death and Dying Be in Allah’s Care Thank you and May God Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim

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