Presentation on theme: "Abnormal PsychologyAbnormal Psychology a “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be disturbing (to the observer), atypical (not normal), maladaptive."— Presentation transcript:
Abnormal PsychologyAbnormal Psychology a “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be disturbing (to the observer), atypical (not normal), maladaptive (harmful) and unjustifiable (not rational).
Historical Perspective Perceived Causes movements of sun or moon lunacy--full moon evil spirits Ancient Treatments exorcism, caged like animals, beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated, blood replaced with animal’s blood
Early Theories Abnormal behavior was evil spirits trying to get out Trephening was often used
Early Theories trephening: cutting a hole in the head of the afflicted to let out the evil spirit
Early Theories Another idea was to make the body extremely uncomfortable, exorcising the “demons”.
Philippe Pinel French doctor who was the “first” to call to “take the chains off”, calling for treatment of mental disorders as disease, sickness
History of Mental Disorders In the 1800’s, psychologically disturbed people were no longer thought of as “madmen”, but as mentally ill. They were first put in hospitals. Did this mean better treatment?
Early Mental Hospitals They were nothing more than barbaric prisons. The patients were chained and locked away. Some hospitals even charged admission for the public to see the “crazies”, just like a zoo.
DSM Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: the big book of psychological disorders classifies disorders and describe the symptoms does NOT explain the causes or possible cures
Sane or Insane? a legal term used to determine one’s ability to stand trial infers one’s mental state during the time a crime was committed not used in the field of psychology, only in the legal arena
Current Perspectives Medical Perspective: psychological disorders are sicknesses and can be diagnosed, treated and cured Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective: assumes biological, psychological and sociocultural factors combine to interact causing psychological disorders
Anxiety Disorders a group of conditions where the primary symptoms are anxiety or defenses against anxiety the patient fears something awful will happen to them in a state of intense apprehension, uneasiness, uncertainty, or fear
Phobias a person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread must be an irrational fear Phobia List Anxiety Disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder a person is continuously tense, apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal constantly tense and worried feels inadequate oversensitive lack of concentration insomnia Anxiety Disorders
Panic Disorder marked by a minutes- long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences: terror chest pain choking and other frightening sensations Anxiety Disorders
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Persistent unwanted thoughts (obsessions) cause someone to feel the need (compulsion) to engage in a particular action. i.e. - Obsession about dirt and germs may lead to compulsive hand washing. Anxiety Disorders
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) flashbacks or nightmares following a person’s involvement in or observation of an extremely stressful event memories of the event cause anxiety Anxiety Disorders
Mood Disorders experience extreme or inappropriate emotion
Major Depressive Disorder aka - unipolar depression unhappy for at least two weeks with no apparent/specific cause Depression is the “common cold” of psychological disorders. Mood Disorders First Period
Dysthymic Disorder suffering from mild symptoms of depression for at least two years Mood Disorders
Seasonal Affective Disorder depression during the winter months thought to be based not on temperature, but on amount of sunlight treated with light therapy Mood Disorders
Bipolar Disorder formerly “manic depression” involves periods of depression and manic episodes Manic episodes involve feelings of high energy & euphoria. engage in risky behavior during the manic episode Mood Disorders
Dissociative Disorders These disorders involve a disruption in the conscious process.
Psychogenic Amnesia a person cannot remember things with no physiological basis for the disruption in memory Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative Fugue People with psychogenic amnesia that find themselves in an unfamiliar environment. Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative Identity Disorder formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder a person has several rather than one integrated personality People with DID commonly have a history of childhood abuse or trauma. Dissociative Disorders
Schizophrenic Disorders About 1 in every 100 people are diagnosed with schizophrenia. Symptoms of Schizophrenia 1.Disorganized Thinking 2.Disturbed Perceptions 3.Inappropriate Emotions and Actions
1. Disorganized Thinking The thinking of a person with Schizophrenia is fragmented and bizarre and distorted with false beliefs. Disorganized thinking comes from a breakdown in selective attention; they cannot filter out information. Schizophrenic Disorders
Delusions (false beliefs) Delusions of Persecution Delusions of Grandeur Schizophrenic Disorders
3. Inappropriate Emotions and Actions laugh at inappropriate times flat affect senseless, compulsive acts Catatonia- motionless, waxy flexibility Schizophrenic Disorders
Positive v. Negative Symptoms Positive Symptoms Presence of inappropriate symptoms Negative Symptoms Absence of appropriate ones.
Types of Schizophrenia TLC, “Born Schizophrenic” Summary Video TLC, “Born Schizophrenic” Full Video Youtube Playlist
Disorganized Schizophrenia disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion. Clang associations "Imagine the worst systematic, sympathetic, quite pathetic, apologetic, paramedic. Your heart is prosthetic." Schizophrenic Disorders
Paranoid Schizophrenia preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, often with themes of persecution or grandiosity “Somebody is out to get me!” or “Shhhh.. I am a CIA secret agent.” Schizophrenic Disorders
Catatonic Schizophrenia flat affect waxy flexibility parrot like repeating of another’s speech and/or movements Schizophrenic Disorders
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia many and varied symptoms Schizophrenic Disorders
Genetic Predispositions Abnormal Brain Structure Biochemistry (dopamine) Diathesis-stress hypothesis – genetic factors place the individual at risk, but environmental stress factors transform this potential into an actual schizophrenic disorder What “causes” Schizophrenia?
Personality Disorders inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
Antisocial Personality Disorder lack of empathy little regard for other’s feelings view the world as hostile and look out for themselves lack impulse control (frontal lobe) – take action without thinking about consequences formerly called “sociopaths” or “psychopaths” Personality Disorders
Dependent Personality Disorder display excessive levels of submissiveness, need for approval, desire to be taken care of, etc. Personality Disorders
The Rosenhan Study Rosenhan’s and associates made an appointment with a mental institution, reporting symptoms of hearing voices. ALL were admitted for schizophrenia. None were exposed as imposters. They all left diagnosed with “Schizophrenia in Remission”. Conclusions of the study were related to… patient care labeling and its effects stigmas associated with mental health problems
Do “Mental Disorders” really exist? Thomas Szasz: mental illnesses are a myth; they are “problems in living” that have social/environmental causes – labelling gives society the right to treat what are really social problems – Once labelled, people can be treated for being different
Perspectives & Disorders Psychological School/PerspectiveCause of the Disorder Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamicinternal, unconscious drives Humanisticfailure to strive to one’s potential or being out of touch with one’s feelings; emphasizes environmental factors (because humans are “innately good”) Behavioralreinforcement history; the environment Cognitiveirrational, dysfunctional thoughts or ways of thinking Socioculturaldysfunctional society Biomedical/Neuroscienceorganic problems, biochemical imbalances, genetic predispositions.