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Abnormal Psychology A.K.A. Psychological Disorders A “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive and unjustifiable.

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Presentation on theme: "Abnormal Psychology A.K.A. Psychological Disorders A “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive and unjustifiable."— Presentation transcript:

1 Abnormal Psychology A.K.A. Psychological Disorders A “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive and unjustifiable. What is abnormal depends on: Culture Time period Environmental conditions Individual person

2 Early Theories Abnormal behavior was evil spirits trying to get out. Trephining was often used. – Cutting a hole in the head of the afflicted to let out the evil spirit.

3 Early Mental Hospitals They were nothing more than barbaric prisons. The patients were chained and locked away. Some hospitals even charged admission for the public to see the “crazies”, just like a zoo. Philippe Pinel – French doctor that was first to unchain and declare these people sick

4 Perspectives and Disorders Psychological School/PerspectiveCause of the Disorder Psychoanalytic/PsychodynamicInternal, unconscious drives HumanisticFailure to strive to one’s potential or being out of touch with one’s feelings. BehavioralReinforcement history, the environment. CognitiveIrrational, dysfunctional thoughts or ways of thinking. SocioculturalDysfunctional Society Biomedical/NeuroscienceOrganic problems, biochemical imbalances, genetic predispositions.

5 5 Medical Model When physicians discovered that syphilis led to mental disorders, they started using medical models to review the physical causes of these disorders. Cause and development of the disorder Etiology Identifying (symptoms) and distinguishing one disease from another Diagnosis Treating a disorder in a psychiatric hospital Treatment Forecast about the disorder Prognosis

6 DSM IV Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders:. DSM will classify disorders and describe the symptoms. DSM will NOT explain the causes or possible cures. Labeling????

7 Two Major Classifications in the DSM Neurotic Disorders Distressing but one can still function in society and act rationally. Psychotic Disorders Person loses contact with reality, experiences distorted perceptions.

8 A. Anxiety Disorders a group of conditions where the primary symptoms are anxiety or defenses against anxiety. the patient fears something awful will happen to them. They are in a state of intense apprehension, uneasiness, uncertainty, or fear. Generalized anxiety Phobia Obsessive-compulsive Panic Disorder Post Traumatic Stress

9 1. Phobias A person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread. Must be an irrational fear. Phobia List

10 2. Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD A person is continuously tense, apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. The patient is constantly worried, feels inadequate, is oversensitive, can’t concentrate and suffers from insomnia.

11 3. Panic Disorder An anxiety disorder marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking and other frightening sensations.

12 4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder Persistent unwanted thoughts (obsessions) cause someone to feel the need (compulsion) to engage in a particular action. Obsession about dirt and germs may lead to compulsive hand washing. health/33100-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd- overview-video.htm

13 Common Obsessions: Common Compulsions: Contamination fears of germs, dirt, etc. Washing Imagining having harmed self or others Repeating Imagining losing control of aggressive urges Checking Intrusive sexual thoughts or urgesTouching Excessive religious or moral doubtCounting Forbidden thoughtsOrdering/arranging A need to have things "just so"Hoarding or saving A need to tell, ask, confessPraying

14 5. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder a.k.a. PTSD Flashbacks or nightmares following a person’s involvement in or observation of an extremely stressful event Memories of the even cause anxiety.

15 B. Somatoform Disorders Occur when a person manifests a psychological problem through a physiological symptom. Soma = Body Two types – Hypochondria – Conversion disorder

16 1. Hypochondria Has frequent physical complaints for which medical doctors are unable to locate the cause. They usually believe that the minor issues (headache, upset stomach) are indicative are more severe illnesses. Excessive worry about getting sick

17 2. Conversion Disorder Report the existence of severe physical problems with no biological reason. Like blindness or paralysis. Ex: hysterical blindness – blindness after traumatic event (no physical cause) Hysterical pregnancy – body acts pregnant but no baby!

18 C. Dissociative Disorders These disorders involve a disruption in the conscious process. Three types – Dissociative amnesia – Dissociative fugue – Dissociative identity

19 1. Dissociative Amnesia A person cannot remember things with no physiological basis for the disruption in memory. Blocking out critical personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature

20 2. Dissociative Fugue People with psychogenic amnesia that find themselves in an unfamiliar environment. suddenly and unexpectedly takes physical leave of his or her surroundings and sets off on a journey of some kind. These journeys can last hours, or even several days or months.

21 3. Dissociative Identity Disorder Used to be known as Multiple Personality Disorder. A person has several alternating personality. People with DID commonly have a history of childhood abuse or trauma.

22 D. Mood Disorders Psychological Disorders characterized by emotional extremes. -Dysthymic Disorder -Major Depression -Seasonal affective -Bipolar disorder

23 1. Major Depression Unhappy for at least two weeks with no apparent cause. Depression is the common cold of psychological disorders. Includes feelings of worthlessness and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.

24 2. Dysthymic Disorder Suffering from mild depression every day for at least two years.

25 3. Seasonal Affective Disorder Experience depression during the winter months. Based not on temperature, but on amount of sunlight. Treated with light therapy.

26 4. Bipolar Disorder Formally manic depression. Involves periods of depression and manic episodes. Manic episodes involve feelings of high energy (but they tend to differ a lot…some get confident and some get irritable). Engage in risky behavior during the manic episode.

27 E. Personality Disorders Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning. Dominates their personality.

28 1. Antisocial Personality Disorder characterized by a lack of conscience People with this disorder are prone to criminal behavior, believing that their victims are weak and deserving of being taken advantage of. They tend to lie and steal

29 2. Histrionic Personality Disorder Needs to be the center of attention. Whether acting silly or dressing provocatively. They also tend to exaggerate friendships and relationships, believing that everyone loves them

30 3. Narcissistic Personality Disorder Having an unwarranted sense of self-importance. Thinking that you are the center of the universe. Exaggerate achievements Expect others to recognize them as superior

31 4. Paranoid Personality Disorder Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by a distrust of others and a constant suspicion that people around you have sinister motives. They search for hidden meanings in everything and read hostile intentions into the actions of others.

32 F. Schizophrenic Disorders About 1 in every 100 people are diagnosed with schizophrenia. Symptoms of Schizophrenia 1.Disorganized thinking. 2.Disturbed Perceptions 3.Inappropriate Emotions and Actions women-twisted-minds-video.htm

33 Disorganized ThinkingDisorganized Thinking The thinking of a person with Schizophrenia is fragmented and bizarre and distorted with false beliefs. Disorganized thinking comes from a breakdown in selective attention.- they cannot filter out information. Often causes………

34 Delusions (false beliefs) Delusions of Persecution Delusions of Grandeur Disturbed Perceptions hallucinations- sensory experiences without sensory stimulation.

35 Inappropriate Emotions and Actions Laugh at inappropriate times. Flat Effect Senseless, compulsive acts. Catatonia- motionless Waxy Flexibility

36 Types of Schizophrenia

37 1. Disorganized Schizophrenia Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion.

38 2. Paranoid Schizophrenia Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations. Somebody is out to get me!!!!

39 3. Catatonic Schizophrenia Flat effect parrot like repeating of another’s speech and movements

40 4. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia Many and varied Symptoms.

41 The Rosenhan Study Rosenhan’s associates were Malingering symptoms of hearing voices. They were ALL admitted for schizophrenia. None were exposed as imposters. They all left diagnosed with schizophrenia in remission. What are some of the questions raised by this study?

42 Carols for the disturbed * 1. Do You Hear What I Hear? * 2. -- We Three Kings Disoriented Are * 3 I Think I'll be Home for Christmas * 4. --- Hark the Herald Angels Sing About Me * 5. --- Deck the Halls and Walls and House and Lawn and Streets and Stores and Office and Town and Cars and Buses and Trucks and Trees and.....

43 * 6. Santa Claus is Coming to Town to Get Me * 7. Thoughts of Roasting on an Open Fire * 8. You Better Watch Out, I'm Gonna Cry, I'm Gonna Pout, Maybe I'll Tell You Why * 9. Silent night, Holy… -oooh look at the Froggy! Can I have a chocolate? Why is France so far away? * 10. Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, J

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