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2 Great effort has been made to keep this presentation freely reproducible in its entirety. Omitting parts (especially these acknowledgements of contributors) or lifting selected parts may result in copyright infringement. Check details below and on contributers’ websites. I the writer am happy for it to be reproduced and distributed (including sale) for any good purpose providing that you include this copyright notice and do not exert your own copyright on any derivatives or performances of it, ie do not restrict or charge for subsequent copying and distribution. Copyright Graham and Teena Paul 2012, Unmarked bible quotes are my own translation from the Greek or Hebrew and are free to copy. Quotes marked “NIV” are taken from the Holy Bible, New International Version®, NIV®. Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.™ Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide. (Zondervan deems free “Fair Use” policy to be 25% of the full work. Acknowledgement by this notice or similar is required.) Quotes marked “ESV” are from The Holy Bible, English Standard Version® (ESV®), copyright © 2001 by Crossway, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. Used by permission. All rights reserved. (ESV allows free fair use up to 1000 verses and up to 50% of the resulting work, and must be acknowledged.) Quotes marked “NET” are by permission from the NET Bible® Copyright ©2005 Biblical Studies Press, LLC All rights reserved. (NET Bible allows free fair use up to 1000 verses and up to 50% of the resulting work; it must be acknowledged. Above this, all paper distributions must be entirely free of charge, and all other forms of distribution must receive written permission which is usually freely given.) Bible illustrations are from Sweet Media bible Illustrations and may be reproduced freely providing that they are acknowledged in this way or equivalent. Images marked “W” are taken from commons.wikimedia.org/ and are either public domain and/or copyright- expired and/or released for worldwide free use under the terms of the GNU licence. Clipart is taken from Microsoft Powerpoint and is freely reproducible. Microsoft denies all liability. Personal and family photos taken by us (Graham and Teena Paul) are unmarked and may be copied freely. COPYRIGHT NOTICE – MAY BE COPIED FOR FREE

3 Finishing 18 months study of Jesus’ teachings Sharing understanding with others Challenged by them – based on Paul’s teachings A Surprising Discovery 2009

4 Subtitle Christianity Today, December 2010

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9 A. Paul’s life & ministry B. Paul’s gospel C. Same as Jesus’ gospel, or different? D. The Disciples’ responses to Paul’s gospel E. Romans: a closer look at Paul’s gospel F. How Should we view Paul? G. Consequences of following Paul’s teachings H. Conclusions Outline

10 A. Paul’s Life & Ministry

11 Born ~5 AD a Jew and a Roman citizen Rom 11:1, Acts 22:28 Born in Tarsus, Turkey Acts 21:39 Father was a Pharisee Acts 23:6 ; M other in Rome? Rom 16:13 Brought up in Jerusalem Acts 22:3 26:4 and trained as a Pharisee under Gamaliel Acts 22:3 Phil 3:5 Paul’s Life & Ministry (5-67 AD )

12 Not one of Jesus’ disciples 27-30AD Persecuted the early church to prison and death Acts 8:3 Miraculous conversion en route to Damascus ~ AD Acts 9 (Paul’s life & ministry 2)

13 Went to Arabia then back to Damascus, totalling 3 years Gal 1:17 Did not learn his gospel from any man (including disciples); received it by direct supernatural revelation Gal 1:11-2:1 Then spent just 15 days with Peter and James Gal 1:18-19 Acts 9:26-30 (Paul’s life & ministry 3)

14 Next years away from Jerusalem Gal 2:1, probably on 3 missionary journeys (40s-57 AD ) to the Gentile countries of Syria, Turkey, Cyprus, and Greece with many conversions and miracles Very little contact with Jerusalem disciples (Paul’s life & ministry 4)

15 Arrested in Jerusalem 57 AD; probably remained a prisoner for the rest of his life Wrote at least 12 letters AD Died AD, probably martyred in Rome (Paul’s life & ministry 5)

16 Opinion divided among early Christians: in general, Gentile Christians liked Paul’s letters, Jewish Christians didn’t His letters chosen by the newly formed Roman Catholic Church to be in their New Testament 364 AD Hugely influential in the Christian Church for the past 1600y Highly respected in church circles (Paul’s life & ministry 6)

17 B. Paul’s Gospel AD

18 Paul’s Gospel = Letter to the Romans Romans 1-10 is “the gospel according to Paul”. Paul hadn’t been to Rome (Italy), so he explained his gospel fully. His other letters were follow-up letters. ITALY Rome

19 Jesus’ and Paul’s terms for eternal life by number of occurrences, and what fraction of them referred to eternal life “ Enter Kingdom” (or equivalents like “in” and “out”) “ Eternal life” “ Saved” or “salvation” ”Justify” / “consider righteous” * All counts are taken from the underlying Greek words 32/32 occurrences refer to eternal life 20/20 13/29 1/5 6/6 9/9 45/47 23/27 Jesus’ usagePaul’s usage

20 Jesus’ and Paul’s terms for eternal life Jesus’ gospel Preferred terms for eternal life are “enter Kingdom” or “eternal life” Paul’s gospel Preferred terms for eternal life are “saved” or “justified”

21 B. Paul’s gospel in Romans (How a person is saved or justified) Paul’s gospel 1.Believing (faith) 2.Not by keeping the Law 3.Not by our actions (Greek ergon )

22 “…The gospel… is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes: first for the Jew, then for the Gentile. 17 For in the gospel a righteousness from God is revealed, a righteousness that is by faith from first to last” Rom 1: Believing / faith Paul’s gospel: how a person is saved or justified: “If you confess with your mouth, “Jesus is Lord,” and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.” Rom 10:9

23 “We maintain that a man is justified (considered righteous) by faith apart from observing the Law” Rom 3:28 “We reckon that God considers a person righteous (and gives him eternal life) because he believes, without doing what the Law says” Rom 3:28 GT* 2. Not by keeping the Law Paul’s gospel: how a person is saved or justified: *Graham’s Translation

24 Meaning of dikaios = righteous dikaios righteous, right “[Zechariah and Elizabeth] were both righteous in the sight of God, walking in all the Lord’s commands and righteous requirements blamelessly” Lk 1:6 dikaiosynē righteousness, righteous actions “Be careful not to do your righteousness before men in order to be seen by them” Mt 6:1 “God …accepts men from every nation who fear him and do righteousness” Acts 10:35 dikaioō consider righteous, “justify” “By your words you will be declared righteous and by your words you will be condemned” Mt 12:37 “All the people… acknowledged God’s [way] was righteous” Lk 6:29 dikaios /righteous means doing good actions, in keeping with the Law

25 “We maintain that a man is considered righteous (or justified) by believing without doing the Law” Rom 3:28 “But now a righteousness from God, apart from Law, has been made known” Rom 3:21 “You are not under Law, but under grace” Rom 6:14 “We… have put our faith in Christ Jesus that we may be justified (considered righteous) by faith in Christ and not by actions of Law” Gal 2:15 “We reckon that God considers a person righteous (and gives him eternal life) because he believes, without doing what the Law says” Rom 3:28 GT “Now, God can give us righteousness (and eternal life) without us doing what the Law says” Rom 3:21 GT “You are no longer under the requirements and penalties of the Law, because God gives eternal life freely” Rom 6:14 GT 2. Not by keeping the Law Paul’s gospel: how a person is saved or justified: “We have believed in Jesus, so that God will consider us righteous (and give us eternal life) because we believe, and not because we do what the Law says” Gal 2:15 GT

26 Paul’s New Form of Righteousness In Jesus’ gospel, and the Law “Righteousness” means doing good things in keeping with the Law (Love God and Love my neighbour) In Paul’s gospel “Righteousness” can be achieved by believing without doing what the Law says

27 “For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith…—not by works ( ergon, actions), so that no one can boast” Eph 2:8-9; see also Rom 4: Not by our actions Paul’s gospel: how a person is saved or justified: “God has given you eternal life as a free gift because you believe… —it isn’t because of what you’ve done, so that no one can boast about it.” Eph 2:8-9 Paul never quotes or mentions Jesus’ teachings in his letters. (except 1 Cor 11:23-25 re Lord’s Supper).

28 B. Paul’s gospel: Summary Paul’s gospel 1.Believing (faith) 2.Not by keeping the Law 3.Not by our actions (Greek ergon) “If you confess with your mouth, ‘Jesus is Lord’, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.” Rom 10:9 Paul didn’t consider it necessary to keep Jesus’ teachings or do what the Law says (Love God and Love neighbour) to gain eternal life.

29 C. Same or Different? Are Jesus’ gospel and Paul’s gospel essentially the same, or fundamentally different?

30 Jesus’ gospel: Inheriting Eternal Life depends on: 1. Trusting and believing Jesus 2. Keeping Jesus’ teachings 3. Keeping most* of the Law 4. Giving up everything else to follow Jesus *Love God but via Holy Spirit; love neighbour as in Law; no national commands. Same or different:

31 Applies to all nations Mt 28:19-20 Mt 25:31-46 Applies at least until the day of Judgment Mt 25:31-46 Jn 12:47-50 His teachings form the New Covenant Jesus’ Gospel is for all the Nations

32 Same or Different? Jesus’ gospelPaul’s gospel Believe in Jesus = Trust and believe Jesus Believe Jesus’ lordship and resurrection Rom 10:9-10 Keep most* of the Law “If you want to enter life, obey the commandments” Mt 19:17 Not by keeping the Law “We maintain that a man is justified by faith without keeping the Law” Rom 3:28 Keep Jesus’ teachings “If anyone keeps my word (teachings), he will never see death.” John 8:51 Not by our actions “For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith…—not by works (ergon, action), so that no one can boast” Eph 2:8-9 Give up everything to follow Jesus - *Love God but via Holy Spirit; love neighbour as in Law; no national commands.

33 Areas of life Jesus’ gospel “An expert in the law stood up to test Jesus. “Teacher,” he asked, “What must I do to inherit eternal life?” “What is written in the Law?” [Jesus] replied. “How do you read it?” [The expert] answered: “ ‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind’; and, ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’’” “You have answered correctly,” Jesus replied. “Do this and you will live.”” Lk 10:25-28 Paul’s gospel “A man is justified by faith without keeping the Law” Rom 3:28 “If you confess with your mouth, ‘Jesus is Lord’, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.” Rom 10:9-10 Same or Different? ?

34 As we follow Jesus 100% 50% Areas of my life loving God as he directs = level of believing/trust Areas of life Jesus says ETERNAL LIFE here Believe facts about Jesus and call him “Lord” Obey God in 1 area of life Obey God in 3 rd area Paul says saved here Same or Different? 4 th area Obey God in 2 nd area Not enough Hear his teachings; know him personally Call him “Lord” Make some effort Have good intentions Prophesy, do miracles Appear righteous

35 D. The Disciples’ Responses to Paul’s Gospel

36 The Disciples’ Responses to Paul’s Gospel  Original 11 apostles preached Jesus’ gospel from 30 AD onwards, with great success  Paul’s gospel appeared later, 40s and 50s AD  Paul not very important in those days: not around Jerusalem, just one of many new Christians, letters weren’t canonised until 4 th century  Paul’s teachings were subject to evaluation; not considered above question

37 James’ response to Paul’s gospel

38 Meaning of ergon =work ergon deed, action, work “…so they can see your good deeds and praise your Father in heaven” Mt 5:16 “When John heard in prison about Christ’s deeds…” Mt 11:2 “Everyone who practices wrong … avoids the light so that his deeds won’t be exposed” Jn 3:20 ergazomai to do, act or work “Go away, you who do lawlessness” Mt 7:23 “Son, go and work in the vineyard today” Mt 21:28 “She has done a good deed to me” Mt 26:10 “There are six days in which we should work” Lk 13:14

39 “If, in fact, Abraham was justified (considered righteous) by works, he had something to boast about— but not before God. What does the Scripture say? ‘Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness.’ Now when a man works, his wages are not credited to him as a gift, but as an obligation. However, to the man who does not work but trusts God who justifies (considers righteous) the wicked, his faith is credited as righteousness.” Ro 4:2-5 Paul: Faith without works saves “We maintain that a man is justified (considered righteous) by faith without works of Law” Rom 3:28 If God considered Abraham righteous because of what he did, he’d have something to boast about—which God wouldn’t allow. But what is written? “Abraham believed God, and it was counted as righteous.” Now when a person works, he must be paid, and it’s not a gift. But if a person just believes God and doesn’t do anything, God considers even the wicked to be righteous, because believing counts as being righteous.” Rom 4:2-5 GT “We reckon that God considers a person righteous [and gives them eternal life] because they believe, without doing what the Law says” Rom 3:28 GT ergon = work, action, deed, what a person does

40 No good works Paul’s view: A person is considered righteous by God (ie saved) because he believes, without doing good works/actions/deeds God considers them righteous Person Believes

41 James: Faith without works is useless “What good is it, my brothers, if a man claims to have faith but has no works? Can such faith save him? … faith by itself, if it is not accompanied by works, is dead. … You foolish man, do you want evidence that faith without works is useless? Was not our ancestor Abraham considered righteous for his works when he offered his son Isaac on the altar? You see that his faith and his works were working together, and his faith was made complete by his works. And the scripture was fulfilled that says, “Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness,” and he was called God’s friend. You see that a person is justified (considered righteous) by his works and not by faith alone. … As the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead.” James 2:14-26 James: Faith without works is useless “Brothers, what good is it if a person claims to believe but doesn’t do anything? Can believing like this save him? … Believing by itself, without doing anything, is dead …. You ignorant person, do you want to understand why believing without doing anything is useless? Our father Abraham was considered righteous because of what he did when he offered his son Isaac on the altar, wasn’t he? You see that his believing was combined with his actions, and his believing was completed by what he did. Then the statement, “Abraham believed God, and it was counted as righteous,” became true, and he was called God’s friend. You see that God considers a person to be righteous because of what he does, and not just because he believes. … Believing without doing anything is as dead as a corpse with no spirit.” James 2:14-26 GT Paul: Faith without works saves “We maintain that a man is justified (declared righteous) by faith without works of Law” Ro 3:28 “If, in fact, Abraham was declared righteous (justified) by works, he had something to boast about— but not before God. What does the Scripture say? ‘Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness.’ Now when a man works, his wages are not credited to him as a gift, but as an obligation. However, to the man who does not work but trusts God who declares righteous (justifies) the wicked, his faith is credited as righteousness.” Ro 4:2-5 “We reckon that God considers a person righteous [and gives them eternal life] because they believe, without doing what the Law says” Rom 3:28 GT ergon = work, action, deed, what a person does If God considered Abraham righteous because of what he did, he’d have something to boast about—which God wouldn’t allow. But what is written? “Abraham believed God, and it was counted as righteous.” Now when a person works, he must be paid, and it’s not a gift. But if a person just believes God and doesn’t do anything, God considers even the wicked to be righteous, because believing counts as being righteous.” Rom 4:2-5 GT

42 No good works ergon = work, action, deed, what a person does God considers him righteous Person James’ view: A person is considered righteous because of his good works/actions/deeds, not just because he believes Believes God considers him righteous Person “Useless” “dead” Believes Good works Paul’s view: A person is considered righteous by God (ie saved) because he believes, without doing good works/actions/deeds

43 ergon = work, action, deed, what a person does Paul: Faith without works saves “We maintain that a man is justified (considered righteous) by faith without works of Law” Ro 3:28 “If, in fact, Abraham was justified by works, he had something to boast about—but not before God. What does the Scripture say? ‘Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness.’ Now when a man works, his wages are not credited to him as a gift, but as an obligation. However, to the man who does not work but trusts God who justifies the wicked, his faith is credited as righteousness. ” Rom 4:2-5 James: Faith without works is useless “What good is it, my brothers, if a man claims to have faith but has no works? Can such faith save him? … faith by itself, if it is not accompanied by works, is dead. … You foolish man, do you want evidence that faith without works is useless? Was not our ancestor Abraham considered righteous for his works when he offered his son Isaac on the altar? You see that his faith and his works were working together, and his faith was made complete by his works. And the scripture was fulfilled that says, “Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness,” and he was called God’s friend. You see that a person is justified (considered righteous) by his works and not by faith alone. …As the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead.” James 2:14-26 Faith without good works Faith and good works RIGHTEOUS

44 ergon = work, action, deed, what a person does Paul: Faith without works saves “We maintain that a man is justified (considered righteous) by faith without works of Law” Ro 3:28 James: Faith without works is useless You see that a person is justified (considered righteous) by his works and not by faith alone. James 2:24 Faith without good works Faith and good works RIGHTEOUS

45 Did James agree with Paul’s doctrine that “a man is justified by faith without works of Law?”  James was definitely addressing the same issue  James was diametrically opposed to Paul’s position No Faith without good works Faith and good works RIGHTEOUS PaulJames vs

46 John’s response to Paul’s gospel

47 (Reminder) Meaning of dikaios = righteous dikaios righteous, right “[Zechariah and Elizabeth] were both righteous in the sight of God, walking in all the Lord’s commands and righteous requirements blamelessly” Lk 1:6 dikaiosynē righteousness, righteous actions “Be careful not to do your righteousness before men in order to be seen by them” Mt 6:1 “God …accepts men from every nation who fear him and do righteousness” Acts 10:35 dikaioō consider righteous, “justify” “By your words you will be declared righteous and by your words you will be condemned” Mt 12:37 “All the people… acknowledged God’s [way] was righteous” Lk 6:29

48 Paul “We maintain that a man is justified (considered righteous) by faith without works of Law” Rom 3:28 However, to the man who does not work but trusts God who justifies (considers righteous) the wicked, his faith is credited as righteousness.” Rom 4:2-5 “We reckon that God considers a person righteous (and gives them eternal life) because they believe, without doing what the Law says” Rom 3:28 GT However, if a person just believes God and doesn’t do anything, God considers even the wicked to be righteous, because believing is counted as being righteous.” Rom 4:2-5 GT dikaiosyne = righteousness, righteous actions, what is right

49 ergon = work, action, deed, what a person does Actions not righteous God considers them righteous Person Believes Paul’s view: If a person believes, God considered him to be righteous, even if he is wicked and does no good works/actions/deeds

50 John “Dear children, do not let anyone lead you astray. He who does righteousness is righteous, just as he is righteous. He who does what is sinful is of the devil, because the devil has been sinning from the beginning. … This is how we know who the children of God are and who the children of the devil are: Anyone who does not do righteousness is not a child of God; nor is anyone who does not love his brother” 1 John 3:7-10 “Dear children, don’t let anyone mislead you. A person is righteous if he does righteous actions, just as God is righteous [and does righteous actions]. The person who does sinful actions belongs to the devil, because the devil has been sinning from the beginning. … This is how we can tell who are God’s children and who are the devil’s: anyone who doesn’t do righteous actions isn’t a child of God, nor is the person who doesn’t love his brother” 1 John 3:7-10 GT dikaiosyne = righteousness, righteous actions, what is right ? Paul “We maintain that a man is justified (declared righteous) by faith without works of Law” Rom 3:28 However, to the man who does not work but trusts God who justifies (declares righteous) the wicked, his faith is credited as righteousness.” Rom 4:2-5 “We reckon that God considers a person righteous [and gives them eternal life] because they believe, without doing what the Law says” Rom 3:28 GT However, if a person just believes God and doesn’t do anything, God considers even the wicked to be righteous, because believing is counted as being righteous.” Rom 4:2-5 GT

51 John’s view: A person is righteous only if he does righteous actions (righteousness). If a person’s actions are sinful, he belongs to the devil. Is righteous, child of God Person “Not a child of God”; “of the devil” Does righteous actions dikaiosyne = righteousness, righteous actions, what is right Actions not righteous God considers him righteous Person Believes Paul’s view: If a person believes, God considered him to be righteous, even if he is wicked and does no good works/actions/deeds

52 Did John agree with Paul’s doctrine of God considering the wicked to be righteous, without doing righteous actions?  John is addressing the same issue, and warning people against an error which was circulating  John reminds his readers that “righteous” means doing righteous actions, like loving your brother.  This contradicts Paul’s view that a person can be considered righteous without doing any righteous actions. No No righteous actions Righteous actions RIGHTEOUS PaulJohn vs

53 E. Letter to the Romans A closer look at Paul’s gospel

54 There is a great deal of evil in the world Rom 1-2 Not a single person is righteous under the Law “As it is written, ‘There is no one righteous, no not one…’” Rom 3:10 Righteousness is not achievable through the Law Rom 3:20 Righteousness is achieved instead by believing, without doing the Law (or doing anything), as illustrated by Abraham’s example Rom 3:21-4:25 there fore

55 There is a great deal of evil in the world Rom 1-2 Righteousness is not achievable through the Law Rom 3:20 Righteousness is achieved instead by believing, without doing the Law (or doing anything), as illustrated by Abraham’s example Rom 3:21-4:25 there fore Not a single person is righteous under the Law “As it is written, ‘There is no one righteous, no not one…’” Rom 3:10

56 Paul: “As it is written: “There is no one righteous, not even one…” Therefore no one will be justified (considered righteous) in his sight by observing the Law” Rom 3:10,20 But in the Gospels:  “Both of them were righteous in the sight of God, observing all the Lord’s commandments and regulations blamelessly” Lk 1:6  “Many prophets and righteous men longed to see what you see but did not see it” Mt 13:17  “I have not come to call the righteous, but the sinful to repentance” Lk 5:32  Simeon Lk 2:25, Joseph Mt 1:19, Abel Mt 23:35 were righteous Romans:

57 ‘As it is written: “There is no one righteous, not even one;” “there is no one who understands, no one who seeks God. All have turned away, they have together become worthless; there is no one who does good, not even one.” “Their throats are open graves; their tongues practice deceit.” “The poison of vipers is on their lips.” “Their mouths are full of cursing and bitterness.” “Their feet are swift to shed blood; ruin and misery mark their ways, and the way of peace they do not know.” “There is no fear of God before their eyes.” … Therefore no one will be declared righteous (=justified) in his sight by observing the Law’ Rom 3:10-20 Ecc 7:20 Ps 14:2-3 Ps 5:8-12 Ps 140:3 Ps 10:7 Is 59:7-8 Ps 36:1

58 ‘As it is written: “There is no one righteous, not even one;” “there is no one who understands, no one who seeks God. All have turned away, they have together become worthless; there is no one who does good, not even one.” “Their throats are open graves; their tongues practice deceit.” “The poison of vipers is on their lips.” “Their mouths are full of cursing and bitterness.” “Their feet are swift to shed blood; ruin and misery mark their ways, and the way of peace they do not know.” “There is no fear of God before their eyes.” … Therefore no one will be declared righteous (=justified) in his sight by observing the Law’ Rom 3:10-20 Ecc 7:20 Ps 14:2-3 Ps 5:8-12 Ps 140:3 Ps 10:7 Is 59:7-8 Ps 36:1 Romans:

59 Paul: “As it is written: “There is no one righteous, not even one… ” Romans: Ecclesiastes: “There is not a righteous man on earth who does what is right and never sins” Ecc 7:20  Doesn’t say that “There is no one righteous.” (Says that there is no righteous man who is sinless).  Quotes the ‘teacher, son of David, king in Jerusalem’ Ecc 1:1 —not a record of God speaking. Not in Law Psalms or Prophets.

60  Righteous vs Sinless Righteous ( dikaios ) (Do good things) Unrighteous ( adikos ) Sinful ( hamartōlos ) (Do bad things) Sinless ( anamartētos ) Jesus Simeon John Baptist Cornelius “Many” Satan Herod x Hermit? Dead man Zechariah Elizabeth Joseph David Pharisees Teachers of the Law Crowds? Tax-collectors Sinful woman Peter fisherman Sinful generation

61 Paul “As it is written: “There is no one righteous, not even one… ” Romans: A Prayer of David “No one living is righteous before you” Ps 143:2 This is a prayer of David Ps 143:1 – not something God said. Prayed this when he was crushed by his enemy and dwelling in darkness v3, his spirit was faint and his heart dismayed v4. Doesn’t say that there has never been a righteous man. Says that no one living at that time was righteous. At other times, David spoke of his own righteousness 2 Sam 22:21,25 ; and the Psalms contain 35 references to “the righteous” (Hebrew tsadiq H7404)

62 Romans: Jesus & others Jesus: “Many prophets and righteous men longed to see what you see but did not see it” Mt 13:17 “I have not come to call the righteous, but the sinful to repentance” Lk 5:32 Abel was righteous Mt 23:35 Matthew: Joseph was a righteous man Mt 1:19 Mark: John the Baptist was righteous Mk 6:20 Luke: “Both of them were righteous in the sight of God, observing all the Lord’s commandments and regulations blamelessly” Lk 1:6 Simeon was righteous Lk 2:25 Joseph of Arimathea was a righteous man Lk 23:50 David & psalmists: 35 references to “the righteous” Paul’s sources Solomon: “There is not a righteous man on earth who does what is right and never sins” Ecc 7:20 David: “No one living is righteous before you” Ps 143:2 Paul’s sources don’t have the weight to overturn Jesus, the gospel writers, and the psalmists.

63 ‘As it is written: “There is no one righteous, not even one;” “there is no one who understands, no one who seeks God. All have turned away, they have together become worthless; there is no one who does good, not even one.” “Their throats are open graves; their tongues practice deceit.” “The poison of vipers is on their lips.” “Their mouths are full of cursing and bitterness.” “Their feet are swift to shed blood; ruin and misery mark their ways, and the way of peace they do not know.” “There is no fear of God before their eyes.” … Therefore no one will be declared righteous (=justified) in his sight by observing the Law’ Rom 3:10-20 Ecc 7:20 Ps 14:2-3 Ps 5:8-12 Ps 140:3 Ps 10:7 Is 59:7-8 Ps 36:1 Romans:

64  “All have turned aside… there is no one who does good” wasn’t referring to “the righteous” in v5, who did exist.  It refers to all the fools and evildoers David knew, not everyone. Psalm 14: “The fool says in his heart, “There is no God.” They are corrupt, their deeds are vile; there is no one who does good. 2 The LORD looks down from heaven on [the] sons of men to see if there are any who understand, any who seek God. 3 All have turned aside, they have together become corrupt; there is no one who does good, not even one. 4 Will evildoers never learn—those who devour my people as men eat bread and who do not call on the LORD? 5 There they are, overwhelmed with dread, for God is present in the company of the righteous.” Psalm 14:1-5 “All” refers to all these fools and evildoers, but not the righteous of v5 Quotes “all” out of context, giving the impression it refers to all the world Paul: “There is no one who understands, no one who seeks God. All have turned away, they have together become worthless; there is no one who does good, not even one.” Rom 3:11-12

65 ‘As it is written: “There is no one righteous, not even one;” “there is no one who understands, no one who seeks God. All have turned away, they have together become worthless; there is no one who does good, not even one.” “Their throats are open graves; their tongues practice deceit.” “The poison of vipers is on their lips.” “Their mouths are full of cursing and bitterness.” “Their feet are swift to shed blood; ruin and misery mark their ways, and the way of peace they do not know.” “There is no fear of God before their eyes.” … Therefore no one will be declared righteous (=justified) in his sight by observing the Law’ Rom 3:10-20 Ecc 7:20 Ps 14:2-3 Ps 5:8-12 Ps 140:3 Ps 10:7 Is 59:7-8 Ps 36:1 Romans:

66 Paul: “Their throats are open graves; their tongues practice deceit.” Rom 3:13 Psalm 5: “Lead me, O LORD, in your righteousness because of my enemies—make straight your way before me. 9 Not a word from their mouth can be trusted; their heart is filled with destruction. Their throat is an open grave; with their tongue they speak deceit. 10 Declare them guilty, O God! But let all who take refuge in you be glad… 12 For surely, O LORD, you bless the righteous; you surround them with your favor as with a shield.” Ps 5:8-12 Romans:  David was referring to “my enemies”, not everyone.  Distinguished them from “the righteous” v12, who did exist.

67 ‘As it is written: “There is no one righteous, not even one;” “there is no one who understands, no one who seeks God. All have turned away, they have together become worthless; there is no one who does good, not even one.” “Their throats are open graves; their tongues practice deceit.” “The poison of vipers is on their lips.” “Their mouths are full of cursing and bitterness.” “Their feet are swift to shed blood; ruin and misery mark their ways, and the way of peace they do not know.” “There is no fear of God before their eyes.” … Therefore no one will be declared righteous (=justified) in his sight by observing the Law’ Rom 3:10-20 Ecc 7:20 Ps 14:2-3 Ps 5:8-12 Ps 140:3 Ps 10:7 Is 59:7-8 Ps 36:1 Romans:

68 Paul: “The poison of vipers is on their lips.” Rom 3:13 Psalm 140: “Rescue me, O LORD, from evil men; protect me from men of violence, who devise evil plans in their hearts and stir up war every day. They make their tongues as sharp as a serpent’s; the poison of vipers is on their lips. … Surely the righteous will praise your name and the upright will live before you.” Psalm 140:1-3, 13 Romans:  David was referring to “evil men” and “men of violence”, not everyone.  Distinguished them from “the righteous” v13, who did exist.

69 ‘As it is written: “There is no one righteous, not even one;” “there is no one who understands, no one who seeks God. All have turned away, they have together become worthless; there is no one who does good, not even one.” “Their throats are open graves; their tongues practice deceit.” “The poison of vipers is on their lips.” “Their mouths are full of cursing and bitterness.” “Their feet are swift to shed blood; ruin and misery mark their ways, and the way of peace they do not know.” “There is no fear of God before their eyes.” … Therefore no one will be declared righteous (=justified) in his sight by observing the Law’ Rom 3:10-20 Ecc 7:20 Ps 14:2-3 Ps 5:8-12 Ps 140:3 Ps 10:7 Is 59:7-8 Ps 36:1 Romans:

70 “Their mouths are full of cursing…” “Their feet are swift to shed blood…” “There is no fear of God before their eyes” Ps 10:7—referring to “the wicked” Distinct from “the innocent” v8 Is 59:7-8—referring to the wickedness in Israel ~600BC – distinct from “the righteous” in Isa 3:10, 5:23, 26:7, 57:1 Ps 36:1—referring to “the wicked” Dist. from “the upright in heart” v10 Romans:

71 EVILDOERS fools, atheists, don’t seek God, worthless, don’t do good, throats are open graves, tongues practise deceit, poison of vipers on their lips, full of cursing and bitterness, shed blood, don’t know the way of peace, have no fear of God, etc The Righteous blessed by God, praise his name, live before him, enter into peace All these passages which Paul quoted refer to two groups of people:

72 Romans: Weak sources. Denies the many righteous people referred to by Jesus, the gospel writers, etc These passages all refer to certain evil men, not to all the world; and they confirm that “the righteous” did exist ‘As it is written: “There is no one righteous, not even one;” “there is no one who understands, no one who seeks God. All have turned away, they have together become worthless; there is no one who does good, not even one.” “Their throats are open graves; their tongues practice deceit.” “The poison of vipers is on their lips.” “Their mouths are full of cursing and bitterness.” “Their feet are swift to shed blood; ruin and misery mark their ways, and the way of peace they do not know.” “There is no fear of God before their eyes.” Now we know that whatever the law says, it says to those who are under the law, so that every mouth may be silenced and the whole world held accountable to God. Therefore no one will be justified (considered righteous) in his sight by observing the Law’ Rom 3:10-20 Not true, and not a reason to dismiss the Law and Jesus’ teachings about it

73 There is a great deal of evil in the world Rom 1-2 Not a single person is righteous under the Law “As it is written, ‘There is no one righteous, no not one…’” Rom 3:10 Righteousness is not achievable through the Law Rom 3:20 Righteousness is achieved instead by believing, without doing the Law (or doing anything), as illustrated by Abraham’s example Rom 3:21-4:25 there fore ✘ ✘ ?

74 What then shall we say that Abraham, our forefather, discovered in this matter? If, in fact, Abraham was justified (considered righteous) by works, he had something to boast about—but not before God. What does the Scripture say? “Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness.” Now when a man works, his wages are not credited to him as a gift, but as an obligation. However, to the man who does not work but trusts God who justifies (considers righteous) the wicked, his faith is credited as righteousness.” Rom 4:1-5 What shall we say that our father Abraham discovered during his lifetime? If God considered Abraham righteous because of what he did, he’d have something to boast about—which God wouldn’t allow. What is written? “Abraham believed God, and it was counted as righteousness.” Now when a person works, he must be paid, and it’s not a gift. But if a person just believes God and doesn’t do anything, God considers even the wicked to be righteous, because believing counts as being righteous.” Rom 4:1-5 GT Romans:

75 “Abraham believed God…” Abram believed (a righteous step)  Believing the Lord was counted as a righteous thing to do  Same Hebrew words in “But Phinehas stood up and intervened [by spearing 2 people], and the plague was checked. This was credited to him as righteousness for endless generations to come.” Ps 106:30-31  Doesn’t say that Abram gained what was promised solely by believing here (we will see later why he gained what was promised) God told Abram to count the stars and said “ ’So shall your offspring be.’ Abram believed the Lord, and he credited it to him as righteousness.” Gen 15:5-6

76 “Abraham believed God…” Good works James “Was not our ancestor Abraham justified (considered righteous) for what he did when he offered his son Isaac on the altar? You see that his faith and his actions were working together, and his faith was made complete by what he did. And the scripture was fulfilled that says, “Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness,” and he was called God’s friend. You see that a person is justified (considered righteous) because of what he does and not by faith alone” James 2:21-24 Abram believed and obeyed

77 “Abraham believed God…” Good works Abram believed and obeyed, and that was why he gained what was promised “I swear by myself, declares the LORD, that because you have done this and have not withheld your son, your only son, I will surely bless you and make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky and as the sand on the seashore. Your descendants will take possession of the cities of their enemies, and through your offspring all nations on earth will be blessed, because you have obeyed me” Gen 22:16-18 Gaining what was promised depended on Abraham’s actions.

78 Abraham believed God’s promise — God considered this to be a righteous response, but Abraham did not gain what was promised solely by believing then (Gen 15). “Abraham believed God…” Good works Abram believed Abraham trusted and obeyed God over Isaac — and gained what was promised because he also obeyed (Gen 22). and obeyed James reckoned that the statement “Abram believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness” applied to offering Isaac as well as to hearing the promise in Gen 15.

79 God told Noah, “I will establish my covenant with you, and you will enter the ark” (Gen 6:18). Did Noah gain what was promised by believing this and doing nothing, or by building the ark as God instructed him? Promises were gained by believing and obeying Obeyed, good actions They all believed and obeyed, and that was why they gained what was promised God told Moses, “I have come down to rescue them from the hand of the Egyptians and to bring them up out of that land into a good and spacious land” (Ex 3:8). Did Moses gain what was promised by believing this and doing nothing, or by going to Pharaoh as God instructed him? God told Joshua, “See, I have delivered Jericho into your hands” (Josh 6:2). Did Joshua gain what was promised by believing this and doing nothing, or by marching around Jericho and shouting as God instructed him?

80 Did not obey God put Adam in garden of Eden and told him, “You are free to eat from any tree in the garden (except one)” (Gen 2:15-16). But God banished them from Eden (Gen 3:23) —because they disobeyed him and ate the fruit of one forbidden tree. People who LOST what God promised or gave them They all believed what God said, but didn’t obey him and did not gain/retain what God promised/gave God told the Israelite elders, “I have promised to bring you up out of your misery in Egypt into the land of the Canaanites…— a land flowing with milk and honey” (Ex 3:17). But later God said of that same generation, “Not one of them will ever see the land I promised” (Num 14:23) —because they disobeyed and tested God ten times (Num 14:22). God chose Saul as king over Israel (1 Sam 10:24), but later took the kingdom away from him (1 Sam 15:26-27) because Saul disobeyed him over the Amalekites (1 Sam 15:17-23).

81 The heroes of the faith all gained God’s promises by believing and obeying God, not by believing and doing nothing—including Abraham. Promises are gained by believing and obeying Good works They all believed and obeyed, and that was why they gained what was promised Jesus taught that the blessings of the new covenant are gained by believing and doing what he said, not by believing and doing nothing (which isn’t really believing anyway).

82 There is a great deal of evil in the world Rom 1-2 Not a single person is righteous under the Law “As it is written, ‘There is no one righteous, no not one…’” Rom 3:10 Righteousness is not achievable through the Law Rom 3:20 Righteousness is achieved instead by believing, without doing the Law (or doing anything), as illustrated by Abraham’s example Rom 3:21-4:25 there fore ✘ ✘ ✘

83 Jesus’ Gospel Must keep Jesus’ teachings (Love God, Love neighbour) in order to gain eternal life. Those who don’t keep the Law (Love God, Love neighbour) will be excluded from the Kingdom. Paul’s Gospel Based on two errors : that no one has ever been righteous by their actions; that righteousness and salvation can be gained by believing without doing anything, as Abram supposedly found Concludes that it is not necessary to keep the Law (love God and love my neighbour, as Jesus taught) in order to gain eternal life. ✘ ✘ ✘

84 F. How Should We View Paul?

85 Paul: A Man of God with flaws Background in OT writings, Pharisaism & traditions Remarkable conversion; called to be an apostle Loved Jesus; effective ministry Didn’t know Jesus’ teachings. Little contact with Jerusalem disciples. a man is justified by faith without doing what the Law says Developed his own gospel contrary to Jesus teachings James & John warned against Paul’s errors; conflicts with Barnabas & Peter. ignorant person, do you want don’t let anyone mislead

86 Paul: A Man of God with flaws 2 1 st C: accepted by Gentile but not Jewish Christians Catholic church upheld Paul’s teachings 1000 years 16 th C: Protestant church founded on Paul’s teaching Jewish Christianity destroyed in wars 70AD and 135AD Paul’s teachings included in Catholic Bible 364 AD Holy Bible Martin Luther Protestants consider Paul infallible, and follow his teachings rather than Jesus’

87 How Could This Possibly Be? If anyone keeps my teaching, he will never see death in the age [to come] If you want to enter life, keep the commandments (Love God with all your heart and all your soul and all your strength and all your mind) … Do this and you will live [eternally]. Away from me, you people who don’t keep the Law. Don’t think I have come to abolish the Law Go and disciple all the nations… teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you The truth is there for everyone to read in Matthew-John.

88 How Could This Possibly Be? 2 “Those who seek will find”

89 God does not prevent people from teaching or following major errors Pope Teaches Catholics to worship Mary Joseph Smith Wrote the Book of Mormon, ‘Another Gospel of Jesus Christ’ Mohamed Founder of Islam Charles Darwin Theory of Evolution Agnostic/Atheist How Could This Possibly Be? 3

90 Jesus never promised to keep any church immune from error. He warned to watch out for “false prophets” Mt 7:15 who would come Mt 24:11,24 How Could This Possibly Be? 4

91 Most churches thinks that God protects them from error, while other churches have major errors How Could This Possibly Be? 5 CatholicOrthodoxMormonJudaism

92 A church can put any books it likes in its bible How Could This Possibly Be? 6 Holy Bible = Law of Moses + Prophets + Psalms + Some books of history + Gospels + Any other books they choose

93 Even great men and women of God can go astray later King Solomon Built temple for God Visited by God twice Wrote Prov, Ecc, Song Idolater 1 Kings 11:1-3 Judas 3 years following Jesus Apostle Performed miracles Betrayer “God’s Generals” by Roberts Liardon 3/12 men of God went astray in later ministry Paul of Tarsus His wonderful conversion does not guarantee lifelong infallibility How Could This Possibly Be? 7

94 Reasons people want to believe Paul He was an apostle, called by Jesus. So was Judas, who betrayed Jesus Mt 10:2-4, Mt 26:25 “Apostle” means “sent one”, not “infallible one”. See apostolos G693 and apostellō G690. Apostles Barnabas and Paul split up over a disagreement Acts 15:39 Apostle Paul publicly opposed Apostle Peter Gal 2:11 He received the Holy Spirit. Jesus never promised that a person will be infallible once they receive the Holy Spirit. Which of us became infallible the day we received the HS?

95 Reasons people want to believe Paul 2 He performed miracles So did Judas Lk 9:1-6. Doing miracles doesn’t even prove a person is saved Mt 7:21-23, let alone infallible. Jesus warned that false prophets would perform miracles and deceive people Mt 24:24. He was a good man Not all that good—he cursed people Gal 1:9, threatened to whip 1 Cor 4:21, handed people over to Satan to destroy their flesh 1 Cor 5:5, wouldn’t let women speak in church 1 Cor 14:34, was unable to get free of certain sins Rom 7:19, talked like a fool 2 Cor 11:21, and quarrelled with Peter and Barnabas. Even good people can do wrong, eg David, Abraham.

96 Reasons people want to believe Paul 3 He is so highly respected in the church. False prophets are usually popular Lk 6:26. True prophets usually aren’t Mt 5: Popularity has nothing to do with being right. His gospel is easier to follow than Jesus’ True, and this is probably the main reason why people follow Paul’s teachings instead of Jesus’. It’s less costly—but it doesn’t work.

97 G. Consequences of following Paul’s teachings

98 Loss of eternal life — many think they are saved by Paul’s criteria, when they aren’t by Jesus’ As we follow Jesus 100% 50% Areas of my life loving God as he directs = level of believing/trust Jesus says ETERNAL LIFE here Obey God in 1 area of life Obey God in 3 rd area Paul says saved here 4 th area Obey God in 2 nd area Call him “Lord”

99 Jesus’ gospel “What must I do to inherit eternal life? … ‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind’; and, ‘Love your neighbor as yourself’. … Do this and you will live.” Lk 10:25-28 Paul’s gospel “A man is justified by faith without doing the Law” Rom 3:28 “If you confess with your mouth, ‘Jesus is Lord’, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.” Rom 10:9-10 Not everyone who says to me “Lord, Lord” will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only those who do what my Father in heaven wants. Many will say to me on that day, “Lord, Lord, didn’t we prophesy in your name, and drive out demons and perform many miracles in your name?” Then I will tell them plainly, “Away from me, you people who didn’t do what the Law says (lit. workers of Lawlessness)” Mt 7:21-23 Lord, Lord ! Loss of eternal life — many think they are saved by Paul’s criteria, when they aren’t by Jesus’

100 Departing from Jesus’ teachings Eternal life gained by Believing and obeying Jesus Believing without action JesusPaul Freewill Human freewill and choice Predestination Equality All brothers under one Father and Lord Hierarchy, submission to authorities Women Equality of women Suppression of women Law Continues to apply End of the Law

101 Departing from Jesus’ teachings Believers Disciples who live by Jesus’ teachings Church meetings, roles and structures JesusPaul Actions Obedient actions are essential to gain blessings Blessings are all grace; good works risk boasting Sinful brother Win over, else treat as a tax-collector (ie civil) Discipline, hand over to Satan to destroy flesh Children Kingdom belongs to children; critical of elders Appointed elders; didn’t value children Lust Responsibility of men not to lust after women Responsibility of women to dress modestly

102 Loss of God’s presence and blessing in the church The blessings of the new covenant are conditional on keeping Jesus’ teachings, not Paul’s Confusion Theologians and believers struggle to reconcile contradictions between Paul and Jesus Divisions People who follow Paul’s teaching disagree with those who follow Jesus’ teachings, and with each other due to Paul’s lack of clarity Other Consequences of following Paul’s teachings

103

104 Focus on Jesus I’m a follower of Jesus. This is my identity; not “anti Paul”or “anti Catholic” or “anti Muslim” or anti-anything. Follow Jesus’ Teachings Focus on Jesus’ teachings in the 4 gospels (and the Law, Psalms and prophets as necessary). Paul was a great man of God at one stage, but his teachings conflict with Jesus’ on some issues. Still, most of what he wrote is true.

105 Jesus’ teachings are all I need All the blessings of the new covenant are conditional on keeping Jesus’ teachings. I don’t need the teachings and ‘revelations’ of other men—especially not when they conflict with Jesus Paul’s teachings lead us away from Jesus’ teachings Paul Pope J Smith Mohamed Paul’s Gospel is Unhelpful

106 Jesus’ Gospel If I love God with all our heart and soul and strength and mind*, and love my neighbour as myself*, then: God will give me eternal life, the Holy Spirit and many other blessings. (from Lk 10:25-28 and others) *as Jesus taught, in Mt-Jn

107 Composite image of Paul of Tarsus

108  Does the Holy Spirit want to say anything to me about Jesus’ words and Paul’s words? HS

109 Do you have difficulty understanding or accepting:  Predestination? Rom 9  Wives being required to submit to their husbands in everything, as to the Lord? Eph 5:22-24  Women must be silent in church? 1 Cor 14:34 Do you know what these three doctrines have in common?

110

111 Time Efforts to reconcile James and Paul Usual attempt is that “true faith will be followed later by actions showing it to be true; Paul was describing true faith which saves, and James was pointing out that this true faith would be followed by good works later.” Bad works Good works Paul: Faith without works James: Faith and works Faith followed by works Bad works Good works Bad works Faith without works (useless)Faith and works (righteous) Believes (facts)Obeys

112 Meaning of dikaios = righteous (cont’d) dikaios righteous, right “[Zechariah and Elizabeth] were both righteous in the sight of God, walking in all the Lord’s commands and righteous requirements blamelessly” Lk 1:6 dikaiōma Righteous act or requirement “[Zechariah and Elizabeth] were both righteous in the sight of God, walking in all the Lord’s commands and righteous requirements blamelessly” Lk 1:6 adikia Unrighteousness, unrighteous acts “I don’t know you or where you come from. Go away from me, all you workers of unrighteousness” Lk 13:27 Paul’s gospel: how a person is saved or justified:

113 Believe nothing about Jesus Believe Jesus is Son of God, Lord, raised from dead Begin to trust and obey Jesus & HS in some areas Trust and obey more, do good things as led by Spirit Trust and obey with all my heart soul mind and strength Sinless Perfection Jesus says gain eternal life here Paul says saved here Same or Different? Believe, Trust, Faith


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