Presentation on theme: "Mental Health Network -Eating Disorders"— Presentation transcript:
1Mental Health Network -Eating Disorders Introduction to STEPsMotivational WorkEating DisordersQuestionsLydia Pym - Occupational TherapistNadia Freyther – Community NurseSTEPs Eating Disorder Service
2STEPs Eating Disorder Service Adult Service offering specialist service interventions and consulting to a wide geographical areaCommissioned to work with people with a diagnosis of Anorexia, Bulimia and EDNOS, excluding Binge Eating Disorder10 Bed In-patient unit, 8 place Day Therapy programme* Out-patient and Community servicesMultidisciplinary TeamVariety of treatmentsSupporting Carers
3Prochaska & DiClemente’s Six Stages of Change How and why did we develop our current model of working?
4Motivational Work Listen Step back Learn Be curious Invest less Is it any good?Benefits Staff, team and Clients
61. Clearly defined from the outset – no surprises 2 1. Clearly defined from the outset – no surprises 2. Agreed by staff & clients if possible 3. Not arbitrary, but with good justification 4. Consistently applied by all staff
7Anorexia nervosa (F50)Weight loss leading to body weight at least 15% below normal weight for age & height (BMI below 17.5)Weight-loss is self-induced by avoidance of ‘fattening foods’Self-perception of being too fat & intrusive dread of fatnessWidespread endocrine disorder involving hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis- amenorrhea in female- loss of sexual interest in malesRestricting type & Purging type (DSMIV)Diagnostic criteriaAnorexia nervosa was named in 1868 by the English physician William Gull. He emphasized the psychological causes of the condition, the need to restore weight and the role of the family.Dread of fatness persists as an intrusive overvalued idea, and patients impose a low weight threshold on themselves.BMI – weight / height ^2
8Bulimia Nervosa (F50.2)Recurrent episodes of overeating (at least twice a week over a period of 3 months) in which large amounts of food are consumed in short periods of timePersistent preoccupation with eating, & strong compulsion to eatSelf-perception of being too fat with an intrusive dread of fatnessAttempts to counteract the fattening effects of food by one or more of:Self-induced vomitingSelf-induced purgingAlternating periods of starvationUse of drugs (appetite suppressants, thyroid preparations or diuretics, failure to take insulin)Patients have a profound loss of control over eating. An episode maybe precipitated by stress or by breaking of self-imposed dietary rules. Large amounts are consumed (>2000 calories per buinge). Usually carried out alone, and may relieve tension/ stress but usually followed by guilt or disgust.The DSM-IV-TR recognizes 2 major variants of bulimia nervosa, as follows: purging and nonpurging (ie, bingeing with use of nonpurging compensatory measures such as excessive exercise, stimulant substances, or fasting).The syndrome of bulimia was first described by Russell (1979).
9Atypical eating disorder Do not meet criteria for AN or BN but are clinically severe (atypical anorexia nervosa (F50.1) & atypical bulimia nervosa (F50.3))Sub-group – binge-eating disorder (DSM IV)Recurrent bulimic episodes in absence of other diagnostic features of BN, particularly counter-regulatory features such as vomitingMay be evidence of depression, unhappiness with weight but less significant vs BNHigher spontaneous remission rate, txt CBTAN atypical – may not for example have amenorrheoa, or current weight maybe within normal range.BN except frequency of behaviour is less, or use of inappropriate compensatory measures after small amounts of food.
10Epidemiology Prevalence – 0.7% (school & college girls) Incidence range from 0.37 – 4.06 perFemale-to-male ratio of 10:1Primarily white (>95%) & adolescent (>75%)High concordance rates for monozygotic twins (55%)Prevelence – number of cases at any point in time.7% increased incidence - may be related to an area on chromosome 1p at the DF locus.London figures, in text are much smaller.
11CausesComplex condition - biological, psychological, and social factorsDevelopmental conditionPredisposing - Female sex, family history of eating disorders, character (low self-esteem & perfectionism) & family dynamicsPrecipitating – cultural & peer group group pressure, peer acceptance for dieting & weight loss, autonomy conflictsPerpetuating – secondary gain (attention), biological factors (starvation)Certain groups increased at risk - dancers, long-distance runners, skaters, models, actors, wrestlers, gymnastsFamily dynamics – enmeshment, over-protectiveness, rigidity and lack of conflict resolution.Cultural & peer group pressure – notion that thin is desirablePeer acceptance – dieting and weight lossAutonomy conflict – struggle for control, for sense of identity and effectiveness with relentless pursuit of thiness as final step in effort
13Symptoms - BNOften look ‘normal size’ & frequently have no signs of illnessBilateral parotid enlargement - noninflammatory stimulation of the salivary glandsSelf-induced vomiting causes problems with teeth and Russell sign.Russell sign – callosities, scarring and abrasions on knuckles secondary to repeated self-induced vomiting.Teeth – loss of enamel, periodontal disease, and extensive dental cariesNonspecific findings may include; bradycardia, hypothermia,hypotension. Oedema is found more often among patients with a history of diuretic abuse, laxative abuse, or both or in patients with significant protein malnourishment causing hypoalbuminemia.Repeated vomiting may lead to several complications. K+ depletion is particualry serious (cardiac aryhtmia, renal damage)
14Prognosis Full recovery more common in those with a short history Some may be left with atypical ED or BN20% make a full recovery60% fluctuating course20% remain severely illMost severe cases – 15% mortality (suicide & cardiac complications)BN – COMORBIDITY WITH DEPRESSION AND ALCOHOL USEAssessing and Managing risks – bloods, weight, Squat tests, driving, cognitive function, mood, DSH, suicidal ideation.
15Referring to STEPs BANES If already in secondary mental health services the referral is direct to STEPs.GP refers to PCLS.PCLS and STEPs offer a joint assessment.Decision about treatment is usually made at assessment.What we can offer, treatment, joint working, supervision, teaching.
16Thank you for listening Any questions? Please contact us at:STEPs Eating Disorder ServiceClifton BuildingSouthmead HospitalWestbury-on-TrymBristolBS10 5NBTel: