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Presentation on theme: "Romanticism This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License. To view a copy of this license, visit"— Presentation transcript:

1 Romanticism This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License. To view a copy of this license, visit or send a letter to Creative Commons, 543 Howard Street, 5th Floor, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. Attribution to C. Adler-Ivanbrook of

2 Definition Artistic and intellectual movement that originated in the early- late 18th century and stressed strong emotion, imagination, freedom from classical correctness in art forms, and rebellion against social conventions... Romanticism can be seen as a rejection of the precepts of order, calm, harmony, balance, idealization, and rationality that typified Classicism in general and late 18th-century Neoclassicism in particular. It was also to some extent a reaction against the Enlightenment and against 18th-century rationalism and physical materialism in general. Romanticism emphasized the individual, the subjective, the irrational, the imaginative, the personal, the spontaneous, the emotional, the visionary, and the transcendental. Nicolas Pioch, Web Museum: Romanticism, visited 18 April 2002

3 In a Nutshell … It dealt with that which was beyond humanity’s power to really control: Nature

4 Characteristics  a deepened appreciation of the beauties of nature  a general exaltation of emotion over reason and of the senses over intellect  a turning in upon the self and a heightened examination of human personality and its moods and mental potentialities  a preoccupation with the genius, the hero, and the exceptional figure in general, and a focus on his passions and inner struggles  a new view of the artist as a supremely individual creator, whose creative spirit is more important than strict adherence to formal rules and traditional procedures; an emphasis upon imagination as a gateway to transcendent experience and spiritual truth  an obsessive interest in folk culture, national and ethnic cultural origins, and the medieval era  a predilection for the exotic, the remote, the mysterious, the weird, the occult, the monstrous, the diseased, and even the satanic. Nicolas Pioch, Web Museum: Romanticism, visited 18 April 2002

5 Ozymandis By Percy Bysshe Shelley “I met a traveller from an antique land, Who said--"Two vast and trunkless legs of stone Stand in the desart... Near them, on the sand, Half sunk a shattered visage lies, whose frown, And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command, 5 Tell that its sculptor well those passions read Which yet survive, stamped on those lifeless things, The hand that mocked them, and the heart that fed; And on the pedestal these words appear: My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings, 10 Look on my Works, ye Mighty, and despair! Nothing beside remains. Round the decay Of that colossal Wreck, boundless and bare The lone and level sands stretch far away.” The Percy Bysshe Shelley Page, gopher://gopher.english.upenn.edu/00/Courses/Curran202/Shelley/ozy,visited 18 April 2002

6 Frankenstein by Mary Shelly “With an anxiety that almost amounted to agony, I collected the instruments of life around me, that I might infuse a spark of being into the lifeless thing that lay at my feet… I saw the dull yellow eye of the creature open; it breathed hard, and a convulsive motion agitated its limbs… The different accidents of life are not so changeable as the feelings of human nature. I had worked hard for nearly two years, for the sole purpose of infusing life into an inanimate body. For this I had deprived myself of rest and health. I had desired it with an ardour that far exceeded moderation; but now that I had finished, the beauty of the dream vanished, and breathless horror and disgust filled my heart. Unable to endure the aspect of the being I had created, I rushed out of the room, and continued a long time traversing my bedchamber, unable to compose my mind to sleep.” Shelley, M., Frankenstein, visited 17 April 2002

7 Frankenstein by Mary Shelly "I expected this reception," said the daemon. "All men hate the wretched; how, then, must I be hated, who am miserable beyond all living things! Yet you, my creator, detest and spurn me, thy creature, to whom thou art bound by ties only dissoluble by the annihilation of one of us. You purpose to kill me. How dare you sport thus with life? Do your duty towards me, and I will do mine towards you and the rest of mankind. If you will comply with my conditions, I will leave them and you at peace; but if you refuse, I will glut the maw of death, until it be satiated with the blood of your remaining friends." "Abhorred monster! fiend that thou art! the tortures of hell are too mild a vengeance for thy crimes. Wretched devil! you reproach me with your creation; come on, then, that I may extinguish the spark which I so negligently bestowed." My rage was without bounds; I sprang on him, impelled by all the feelings which can arm one being against the existence of another. Shelley, M., Frankenstein, visited 17 April 2002

8 Frankenstein "Great God! why did I not then expire! Why am I here to relate the destruction of the best hope and the purest creature of earth. She was there, lifeless and inanimate, thrown across the bed, her head hanging down, and her pale and distorted features half covered by her hair. Every where I turn I see the same figure--her bloodless arms and relaxed form flung by the murderer on its bridal bier."--Mary Shelley, Frankenstein Henry Fuseli, The Nightmare Web Resources for Women Writers, visited 17 April 2002

9 Industrialism- Modern Frankenstein Fritz Lang’s Metropolis, visited 17 April 2002

10 Industrialism- Modern Frankenstein Fritz Lang’s Metropolis, visited 17 April 2002

11 Industrialism- Modern Frankenstein Fritz Lang’s Metropolis, visited 17 April 2002

12 Industrialism- Modern Frankenstein Fritz Lang’s Metropolis, visited 17 April 2002

13 Industrialism- Modern Frankenstein Fritz Lang’s Metropolis, visited 17 April 2002

14 Industrialism- Modern Frankenstein Fritz Lang’s Metropolis, visited 17 April 2002 Fritz Lang’s Metropolis, visited 17 April 2002 Fritz Lang’s Metropolis, ng_and_robot.jpg, visited 17 April 2002

15 Blake: Tyger 1 Tyger! Tyger! burning bright13 What the hammer? what the chain? 2 In the forests of the night,14 In what furnace was thy brain? 3 What immortal hand or eye 15 What the anvil? what dread grasp 4 Could frame thy fearful symmetry? 16 Dare its deadly terrors clasp? 5 In what distant deeps or skies 17 When the stars threw down their spears, 6 Burnt the fire of thine eyes? 18 And water'd heaven with their tears, 7 On what wings dare he aspire?19 Did he smile his work to see? 8 What the hand dare seize the fire? 20 Did he who made the Lamb make thee? 9 And what shoulder, and what art,21 Tyger! Tyger! burning bright 10 Could twist the sinews of thy heart, 22 In the forests of the night, 11 And when thy heart began to beat, 23 What immortal hand or eye, 12 What dread hand? and what dread feet? 24 Dare frame thy fearful symmetry? Blake, W., Tyger, visited 17 April 2002

16 Art Constable abhorred the idea of `running after pictures and seeking the truth at second hand'. He thought that `No two days are alike, nor even two hours; neither were there ever two leaves of a tree alike since the creation of the world', Web Museum, visted 17 April 2002 John Constable, The Hay-Wain, 1821, oil on canvas, The National Gallery, London

17 Art John Constable, Stonehenge, 1836, watercolor, Victoria and Albert Museum, London. Paintings & Reproductions, visited 17 April 2002

18 Art Caspar David Friedrich, Abbey in an Oak Forest, , oil on canvas CFGA, visited 17 April 2002

19 Art Mark Harden’s Artchive, visited 17 April 2002 Friedrich, Caspar David, Cloister Cemetery in the Snow, , Oil on canvas, 121 x 170 cm, Destroyed 1945, formerly in the National Gallery, Berlin

20 Art Friedrich, Caspar David, Tetschen Altar or Cross in the Mountains, , Oil on canvas, 115 x 110 cm, Gemäldegalerie, Dresden Russian Gothic Project, visited 17 April 2002 "Close your bodily eye, so that you may see your picture first with the spiritual eye. Then bring to the light of day that which you have seen in the darkness so that it may react upon others from the outside inwards. Painters train themselves in inventing or, as they call it, composing. Does not that mean perhaps, in other words that they train themselves in patching and mending? A picture must not be invented but felt. Observe the form exactly, both the smallest and the large and do not separate the small from the large, but rather the trivial from the important.” C.D. Freidrich Selected Works, visited, 17 April 2002

21 Art The Artchive, g.jpg.html, visited 17 April 2002 Friedrich, Caspar David Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog c Oil on canvas 94.8 x 74.8 cm Kunsthalle, Hamburg

22 Art Turner, Joseph Mallord William, Dido building Carthage; or the Rise of the Carthaginian Empire, 1815, Oil on canvas, x 232 cm, National Gallery, London Mark Harden’s Artchive, visited 17 April 2002

23 Art Turner, Joseph Mallord William, Shade and Darkness - the Evening of the Deluge, 1843, Oil on canvas, 78.5 x 78 cm, Tate Gallery, London Mark Harden’s Artchive, com/ftp_site.htm, visited 17 April 2002 "Turner outgrew theatrical extravagance but the essential sublimity of the forces that hold man in their grip remained with him always. There is a sense of it in the all-embracing flood of light that envelops a scene, and the spectator too. The last subjects of storm and catastrophe make visible a dream of peril and endurance that is full of heroic exaltation. The elemental drama that Turner painted was both real and imaginary.” Wilson, S., Tate Gallery: An Illustrated Companion

24 Art Turner, Joseph Mallord William, Rain, Steam and Speed, 1844, Oil on canvas, 35 3/4 x 48 in. (90.8 x cm), National Gallery, London Mark Harden’s Artchive, visited 17 April 2002

25 Art Turner, Joseph Mallord William, Rain, Steam and Speed, Detail of Locomotive, 1844, Oil on canvas, 35 3/4 x 48 in. (90.8 x cm), National Gallery, London Mark Harden’s Artchive, visited 17 April 2002


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