Presentation on theme: "Unit 11 Salvation Contents A. Text one I. Pre-reading:I. Pre-reading (I) Warm-up questions (II) Background information II. While-reading: Text Analysis."— Presentation transcript:
Contents A. Text one I. Pre-reading:I. Pre-reading (I) Warm-up questions (II) Background information II. While-reading: Text Analysis (I) Structure analysis (II) Comprehension questions (III) Language points (IV) Difficult sentences III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items (II) Translation Exercises (III) Oral activities (IV) Writing practice B. Text two （ I ） Questions for text comprehension （ I ） Questions for text comprehension （ II ） Language points （ II ） Language points
A. text one I. Pre-reading: (I) warm-up questions Can you explain the reasons why a seemingly growing number of people, old and young, have taken on one region or anther in our country? Pre-reading: (I) warm-up questions
Christianity (from the Greek word XpIoTós, Khristos, “Christ”, literally “anointed one”) is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. Christians believe Jesus is the son of God and God has become man and the savior of humanity. Christians, therefore, commonly refer to Jesus as Christ or Messiah. Adherents of the Christian faith, known as Christians, believe that Jesus is the Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible (the part of scripture common to Christianity and Judaism, and referred to as the “Old Testament” in Christianity). 1. Christianity Cultural information 2 Pre-reading: (II) Background information
Cultural information 3 Christianity began as a Jewish sect and is classified as an Abrahamic religion. Originating in the eastern Mediterranean, it quickly grew in size and influence over a few decades, and by the 4th century had become the dominant religion within the Roman Empire.
2. Salvation: Saving of the soul from sin Adam and Eve live in the Garden of Eden and are given one command: do not eat the fruit from the tree in the middle of the garden. The serpent tricks Eve into eating the fruit, and she gives some to Adam. Because of this original sin, God banishes them from the garden and sends them out into the world. All of the human race is descended from Adam and Eve. Human beings have original sin.
An Example: Chang Li, an English teacher in one of Beijing's key middle schools several hundred yuan on vitamins supplements before getting pregnant; another 400 yuan on buying radiation protection clothing. after her daughter's first birthday: imported milk powder, one to two tins per month, nearly 200 yuan/tin. diapers: 100 yuan per bag, 4 bags /month. early learning center: 10,000/ year
II. While-reading: Text Analysis (I) Structure analysis While-reading: (I) Structure analysis Part I (1): the background. Part II (2-14): the special meeting held for the “young lambs” to be saved. Part II (15): boy's guilty conscience and disillusionment with religion
(II) Comprehension questions 1) What was the special event that happened one night? Just before the revival ended, they held a special meeting for children, “to bring the young lambs to the fold.” 2) Why was Langston placed on the mourners’ bench? Because he had not yet been brought to Jesus. While-reading: (II) Comprehension questions
3) What had Langston learned about the revival before he actually attended it? (Paragraph 2) Langston’s aunt had told him that when one was saved one saw a light, and something happened to him inside! She said one could see and hear and feel Jesus in his soul. He had heard a great many old people say the same thing about the revival. 4) Did Langston believe his aunt’s tale of Jesus? What did he do? 4) What was the reaction of the “young lambs” to the preacher? (Paragraph 3) The “young lambs” reacted to the preacher in different ways. The little girls cried. And some of them jumped up and went to Jesus right away. But most of them just sat there. While-reading: (II) Comprehension questions
5. Why didn’t Langston go to the altar with Westley? Langston still kept waiting serenely for Jesus. He wanted to see Jesus something to happen to him. That was why he didn’t go to the altar with Westley. 6. Why did Langston’s aunt kneel at his knees and cry? Langston was not saved and was left all alone on the mourners’ bench. Her aunt was making such extreme efforts because she was anxiously expecting him to rise and go to the altar and get saved. While-reading: (II) Comprehension questions
7. What was the response of the people present at the meeting when Langston got up to go to the altar? (Paragraph 13) As soon as Langston got up to go to the altar, the whole room broke into a sea of shouting. Waves of rejoicing swept the place. Women leaped in the air. His aunt threw her arms around him. The minister took him by the hand and led him to the platform. While-reading: (II) Comprehension questions
8. Why was Langston crying that night? He was really crying because he couldn’t bear to tell his aunt that he had lied and deceived everybody in the church that he hadn’t seen Jesus, and now he didn’t believe there was a Jesus anymore, since he didn’t come to help him. While-reading: (II) Comprehension questions
While-reading: （ III ） Language points While-reading: (III) Language points preach: deliver a religious speech 布道 Christ preached to large crowds. My sister has been preaching at me again about my untidy habits.
Harden: v make/ become harder; toughen I hardened my heart. He had been hardened to all shame/ failure. adj. 顽固不化的 ; 积习难改的 a hardened criminal/ liar I see that I am speaking in vain to a hardened heart. While-reading: （ III ） Language points
Membership ： a. the fact of being a member of a group 会 员身份（或资格、地位） apply for membership of a club ~ card b. [in sing.] the number of members in a group We are trying to increase our membership. While-reading: （ III ） Language points
by leaps and bounds with extraordinary rapidity 飞跃地 Examples: Production in the factory was increasing by leaps and bounds. The tertiary industry in our country has been developing by leaps and bounds since the adoption of reform and opening policies. While-reading: （ III ） Language points
To bring the young lambs to the fold According to Christianity, Jesus - the Lamb of God, any Christian - a lamb, the preacher - a shepherd In the text "the young of lambs" - children “Fold” - an enclosure for sheep -a group of people who are Christians The whole sentence -to bring the children into the Christian community. While-reading: （ III ） Language points
leave out: v. phr. 1) pay no attention to sb. No one speaks to him; he’s always left out. 2) fail to include This word is wrongly spelt; you’ve left out a letter. be Left out in the cold: 被冷落 They felt left out in the cold when they learned that they had not been invited to the wedding. While-reading: （ III ） Language points
Question: Is there any musical or poetic element in the preacher’s song? “sing a song” “ninety and nine” “little lambs…left” alliteration While-reading: （ III ） Language points
The word see is italicized to make the reader aware that Langston meant to see Jesus with his naked eyes. Still I kept waiting to see Jesus. While-reading: （ III ） Language points
rock with = move slowly and regularly in harmony with 与 …… 一同晃动 Let’s rock with the music. The moment when the new year bell rang, the whole house rocked with hails. 当新年的钟声响起时，房子里充满了欢 呼声。 While-reading: （ III ） Language points
swirl ： v. move round and round quickly The leaves were swirled away on the wind. A fog swirled up from the valley. While-reading: （ III ） Language points
mighty: adj. very great in force e.g. a ~ empire He raised the hammer and struck the rock a mighty blow. high and mighty: arrogant; haughty 趾高 气扬；神气活现 He’s too high and mighty to mix with ordinary people like us! 看他趾高气扬的样子，不会跟我们这些普 通人混在一起的！ While-reading: （ III ） Language points
wail: v. cry or complain in a loud (usu. shrill) voice There is no use wailing about/over mistakes made in the past. Stop weeping and wailing and do something about it! 别那么哭天喊地的了，还是做点什么 吧！ While-reading: （ III ） Language points
hold up= delay 拖延 We had planned to finish the match before dark, but the heavy rain held us up. The constructing of the new bridge was help up by the heavy fog. While-reading: （ III ） Language points
take sb’s name in vain =call one’s name in an unfriendly way 轻蔑地（滥用）叫某人名 字 Never take the name of God in vain. 不得滥用上帝之名 Hullo! Who's that, taking my name in vain? 喂 ! 是谁在那儿议论我 ? While-reading: （ III ） Language points
break into =burst into 爆发 On hearing the news, he broke into laughter. As soon as the winner of Nobel Prize of Literature appeared before the audience, the hall broke into a sea of cheers. While-reading: （ III ） Language points
Sweep: affect (an area or place) swiftly and widely A snowstorm swept the northern American states. violence swept the country. 暴力席卷了全国。 While-reading: （ III ） Language points
（ IV ） Difficult Sentences 1. The preacher preached a wonderful rhythmical sermon, all moans and shouts and lonely cries and dire pictures of hell, and then he sang a song about the ninety and safe in the fold, but one little lamb was left out in the cold. (Paragraph 3) Paraphrase: The preacher gave an excellent moralistic rebuke, describing the terrible image of hell, and then he sang a religious song about little lamb. Translation: 牧师的布道跌宕起伏，精彩绝伦，通篇都 是关于地狱里痛苦的呻吟和号叫，寂寞的哭泣和可怕 的场景。接着，他吟咏了一篇祷文，说的是九十九只 羊已安然归圈, 只剩下一只迷途的小羔羊在寒冷的天气 中徘徊。 While-reading: （ IV ） Difficult Sentences
2. And the church sang a song about the lower lights are burning, some poor sinners to be saved. (Paragraph 4) Explanation: Here “the lower lights are burning, some poor sinners to be saved.” are the words in the song. “The church” means “all the people in the church.” Translation: 教徒们唱： “ 着低矮的灯光 在燃烧，可怜的罪人便被救赎了。 ” While-reading: （ IV ） Difficult Sentences
III. Post-Reading (I) Grammatical items: 1. Reported speech 2. Subject-verb agreement III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items
Consolidation Activities- Grammar1.1 1. Reported speech Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech). e.g.She said, “Today’s lesson is on presentations.” Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn’t use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn’t have to be word for word. e.g.He says that he speaks English.
Consolidation Activities- Grammar1.2 Note: Backshift of Simple Present is optional if the situation is still unchanged or if you agree with the original speaker. e.g. “Canberra is the capital of Australia.” She said that Canberra is / was the capital of Australia. Advisory expressions with must, should and ought are usually reported using advise / urge. e.g. “You must read that book.” He advised / urged me to read that book.
Consolidation Activities- Grammar1.3 Note: The expression let’s is usually reported using suggest. In this case, there are various possibilities for reported speech: gerund or statement with should. e.g. “Let’s go to the cinema.” He suggested going to the cinema. He suggested that we should go to the cinema.
1. The earth moves around the sun. Consolidation Activities- Grammar1.4 Practice Rewrite the following sentences, starting with “Tom said / asked / suggested …” Tom said the earth moves around the sun. 2. I want to go on holiday but I can’t afford it. Tom said that he wanted to go on holiday but that he couldn’t afford it.
5. If I had more time, I would learn French. Consolidation Activities- Grammar1.5 3. Will you bring them all up to the house? Tom suggested that I (should) bring them all up to the house. 4. I am a doctor and work in a hospital. Tom said that he was a doctor and worked in the hospital. Tom said that if he had more time, he would learn French.
Consolidation Activities- Grammar1.6 6. Let’s go out for a walk. Tom suggested that we (should) go out for a walk.
The Supreme Court judge decides the appropriate penalty. Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.1 2. Subject-verb agreement The subject and verb must agree in number: both must be singular, or both must be plural. In order to find out if your subject and verb agree, you first need to be able to identify the subject of your sentence. Here are some helpful hints that will help you to decipher where your subject is and where it is not. e.g. 1) Most likely, your verb will agree with the first noun to the left of the verb.
Over the ripples glides a small canoe. Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.2 e.g. 2) Occasionally, a sentence has the subject after the verb instead of before it. This strategy is often used for poetic effect. Either the actors or the director is at fault. e.g. 3) If subjects are joined by or or nor, the verb should agree with the closer subject.
Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.3 The sales manager is a good researcher who spends a great amount of time surfing the Web for information. e.g. 4) The relative pronouns (who, whom, which, and that) are either singular or plural, depending on the words they refer to. Anyone who wants to pursue higher education has to pass entrance exams. e.g. 5) Indefinite pronouns (someone, somebody, each, either one, everyone, or anyone) are considered singular and need singular verbs although they may convey plural meaning.
Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.4 The jury is sequestered.e.g. 6) A few nouns can be either plural or singular, depending on whether they mean a group or separate individuals. These words are rarely used as plurals in modern writing. The news of the discovery is spreading. The mass media have publicized the facts. e.g. 7) A few subjects look plural but are really singular or vice versa.
1. All my belongings (have) been destroyed in a fire. 2. Our company headquarters (be) in Boston. 3. This species (have) green and white spots. 4. Every man, woman, and child (be) asked to contribute. 5. Neither of the girls (are) over eighteen. 6. Ham and eggs (make) a hearty breakfast for a growing boy. Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.5 Practice Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the verbs given. have _____ has ____ is ___ is / are ________ makes _______ are ____
（ II ） Translation Exercises 1. 他们希望靠生一个孩子来挽救他们的婚姻。（ save ） They hoped to save their marriage by giving birth to a baby. 2. 总统和他的眷属到各地都有特工人员护送。（ escort) Secret service men escorted the President and his family everywhere. The presidential candidate’s speech was punctuated now and then by applause from the audience. III. Post-Reading: （ II ） Translation Exercises 3. 听众不时以掌声打断总统候选人的讲话。 (punctuate)
4. 胜利的喜讯传来，全国上下欢欣鼓舞。（ rejoicing ） As soon as the news of victory came, there was great rejoicing all over the country. 5. 自改革开放以来，我国的第三产业突飞猛进。 (by leaps and bounds) The tertiary industry in our country has been developing by leaps and bounds since the reform and opening started. 6. 牧师就慈善的必要性向全体教徒们作了一次布 道。（ preach a sermon ） The priest preached a sermon to the congregation on the need for charity.
8. 大会主席宣布选举结果后，全场沸腾起来，顿时成 了欢乐的海洋。（ break into a sea of ) When the chairman announced the election results, the whole assembly clapped and cheered, and the meeting hall broke into a sea of great joy. 7. 这位雇员为了维护自己的尊严没有在盛气凌人 的老板面前下跪。（ kneel on one’s knees) In order to maintain his dignity the employee didn’t kneel on his knees in front of the overbearing boss.
9. 他的名声很不好，因为她常常背后说别人闲话。 （ take sb’s name in vain) He has a very bad reputation, for he often takes other people’s names in vain. 10. 这条新马路的修建因天气恶劣而受阻了。 (hold up) The building of the new road has been held up by the bad weather.
(III) Oral activities Having a discussion The constitution of our state entitles all Chinese citizens to the right to have a religious belief. And it seems that in recent years a growing number of people, including some young people, are more ready to go to a Buddhist temple to burn incense sticks or draw divination sticks, or to a Christian church to observe a religious service. Are they doing this just out of curiosity or for fun, or out of sincere belief? Have a discussion in a group of five or six and air your views concerning the causes of this social phenomenon. III. Post-Reading: （ III ） Oral activities
For your reference: You may want to mention the possible reasons as follows: —They do it just for fun, without special purpose. When they burn incense sticks or draw divination sticks, they are only following the crowd instead of knowing the deep meaning of religion. —They do it out of sincere religious belief. They believe religion has a great power which can guide them to remove hardship or one’s sin, with an aim to live a better life. Those people are very sure they can get help, comfort and strength from God. III. Post-Reading: （ III ） Oral activities
(IV) Writing Write a story of your childhood. It can be a funny story, a happy story, an embarrassing story, a heartwarming story, a frightening story, a sad story. III. Post-Reading: (IV) Writing
A Sample: I still remember something interesting in my childhood. One day ， some of my little friends founded a “kingdom” and made a ten- year-old boy their “king”. They also made it a rule that nobody else could join them in playing games unless he or she became a member of the “kingdom” 。 How I wished to join the “kingdom” and play with the children ！ So the next day I went to see the “king” 。 “Hello ， king ！ I'd like to be a man of yours. Would you like to admit me ？ ”I asked. “That depends on whether you can guess our password ， ”the“king”answered. “Oh ， it's too for me ， ”as I knew they changed their password every day.“But I'd like to have a try.”I said.“By the way ， how many times can I guess ？ ” “Three times. Now it's time for your first try.” “The sky ， ”I said without thinking much.
“No. Guess again.” “The sun ？ ” “That's wrong. Now the last chance for you.” I felt nervous. Suddenly I saw a tree nearby. “Tree ， ”I shouted. “You're mistaken again.” My heart sank. Just when I was about to go home ， the “king” stopped me. “Just a moment ， please. Now I declare you are my man ！ ” What a pleasant surprise ！ But I didn't know why I was so lucky until I found out later that the “king” hadn't decided on the password for that day until I said “tree”.
B. Text two (I) Questions for text comprehension 1. What did Kunta enjoy for breakfast? 2. What was the dominant religion? 3. How were nursing babies taken care of by their farming mothers? 4. What part did Kunta dog play in the action? 5. How many attackers did Kunta attempt to fight off? 6. Why does Haley use African words like kujalo, bolong and toubob? 7. The narrative begins in a quiet, slow, almost dreamlike way, but it concludes in frantic action. Where exactly does the turning point occur? 8. What effect does the passage have on you? Text two: (I) Questions for text comprehension
Key to Questions for discussion 1. Kujalo, a big, powerful fish, cooked with onions, rice, and bitter tomatoes. 2. Islam. A person who submits to Allah and follows the teachings of Islam is called a Muslim. 3. While they were working, their nursing babies were put in the bamboo shelters nearby. 4. The dog fiercely attacked the kidnappers to protect his master. 5. Four. 6. Haley uses African words like kujalo, bolong and toubob to give the narrative an authentic flavor. 7. He was bending over a tree trunk when he heard the sharp crack of a twig. 8. (Open to discussion.) Text two: (I) Questions for text comprehension
(II) Language points 1. for sport (Paragraph 3): for fun e.g. Hunting for sport is something that many people think is wrong. 2. out of earshot (Paragraph 3): beyond the distance at which a sound can be heard e.g. We shouted, but he was out of earshot and could not hear our voices. Text two: (II) Language points
3. shrinkage (Paragraph 4): the process of shrinking e.g. As a result of shrinkage, the shirt is now too small to wear. 4. in the back of his mind (Paragraph 5): If something is in the back of your mind, you intend to do it, but are not actively thinking about it. e.g. It was in the back of my mind that I had to phone you, but I completely forgot. Text two: (II) Language points
5. … remaining pair circling him with raised club. (Paragraph 7): … one black and one of the white men joined together, going around him with raised club. 6. He was fighting for more than his life now. (Paragraph 8): He was fighting not for his life but for his hatred of white slave traders and their black collaborators. Text two: (II) Language points