Presentation on theme: "Copyright Evans 2013 HIV and opportunistic infections Dr Cariad Evans St6 Infectious Diseases/Virology."— Presentation transcript:
Copyright Evans 2013 HIV and opportunistic infections Dr Cariad Evans St6 Infectious Diseases/Virology
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Copyright Evans 2013 Objectives Understand the natural evolution of HIV. Be aware of the multitude of opportunistic infections patients can present with. Discuss 2 cases and identify ‘alarm bells’. Look at the burden of late HIV presenters.
Copyright Evans 2013 Natural History of HIV infection
Copyright Evans 2013 Symptomatic (AIDS-defining) CD4 < 200 cells/mm3 Often have a history of previous presentations to healthcare workers. Vigilance for ‘alarm bells’ is imperative.
Copyright Evans 2013 Case 1 65 year old Caucasian married man 2/52 history of gradually worsening SOB Deteriorating on Augmentin and Clarithromycin Day 5 transferred to ITU for non invasive ventilation
Copyright Evans 2013 What are the OI alarm bells?
Copyright Evans 2013 Retrospectoscope 1.Unwell for 1 year with 2 stone weight loss and diarrhoea –4 endoscopies 2.Generalised itchy skin eruption –Skin biopsy 3.Haematological abnormalities with elevated globulins and thrombocytopaenia –Bone marrow
Copyright Evans 2013 Progress HIV test positive ARVs commenced after 2 weeks PCP Rx Gradual improvement – 4/52 on ITU – 3/12 in hospital 2 ½ years on: – Weight regained – Bowels and skin normal – low CD4 count, despite HIV viral load <40
Copyright Evans 2013 Case study 2 33 year old Caucasian woman A+E Confusion Agitated Known asthmatic – on inhalers Single mum; 2 kids at home – Smoker, occ alcohol, employed
Copyright Evans 2013 Clinical findings Looks v unwell: – Temp 36.8°C, – Pulse 105 reg, – Appears to have decreased power in her right arm and leg GCS falls Bloods show lymphopaenia Head CT
Copyright Evans 2013 Retrospectoscope 2 yrs ago, ref dermatology: – severe acne + Sebaceous cyst on face DNA’d F/up 9/12 ago, ref oral surgery: – Severe oral thrush, Follow up 6/12 and 2/12 ago – ‘getting worse’ Within last 6/12: – 3 x Chest infections, attended GP 1/12 ago, ref haematology: – Hb, plts: DNA – letter from GP to pt
Copyright Evans 2013 Who Should be Offered HIV screening?
Copyright Evans 2013 Conclusions End of 2011, an estimated 96,000 people were living with HIV in the UK. Approximately one quarter (22,600, 24%) were undiagnosed and unaware. Identification and recognition of opportunistic infections is paramount in the diagnosis of HIV.