Unit 6 Language Structure See the following sentences and pay attention to the grammar rules they use: 1.You eat vegetables at every meal so that you’ll have enough vitamin C 2.The refrigerator is so heavy that you can’t move it to the other end of the room. 3.No matter how painful it is, I can stand it. // I can stand it even if it is very painful. 4.It was much worse than I had ever imagined. 5.The more often he practises, the better he can speak English.
Unit 6 Use ‘so that’, convert following sentences: 1). He doesn't want to be late for work, and so he sets his alarm for six. (he sets his alarm for six so that he will not be late for work.) 2) Dr. Liu wants to keep up with the latest development in medicine. He therefore reads medical journals. (Dr. Liu reads medical journals so that he can keep up with the latest development in medicine.) 3) He wanted us to forward his letters to him. He left us his new address. (He left us his new address so that we could forward his letters to him.)
Unit 6 Use ‘so that’, convert following sentences: 4) Nancy didn't want her parents to worry about her. She didn't tell them about the accident. (Nancy didn't tell her parents about the accident so that they wouldn't worry about her.) 5) She thought she might need to look up a few words. She took her dictionary with her. (She took her dictionary with her so that she might be able to look up a few words.) 6) Xiao Liu wanted his mother to have a complete rest after her illness. He therefore did the cooking for a few days. (Xiao Liu did the cooking for a few day so that his mother could have a complete rest after her illness.)
Unit 6 combine each of the following sentences in Column A with one in Column B, using though/ although / even though / even if A 1. There was ice on the road. 2. There were large crowds. 3. He has a foreign accent. 4. His books have been successful. 5. The weather was cold. 6. The house was in bad repair. B 1. He drove at 60 mph (60 miles per hour) all the way 2. There were enough seats for everyone. 3. we have no problem understanding him. 4. He decided not to write any more. 5. The athletes all wore shorts. 6. They enjoyed living there.
Unit 6 Use the pattern the…, the… to make sentences. You work (hard), you’ll get job (good). You’ll get job (good), you wife will be (happy). You wife is (happy), your life will be (quiet). Your life will be (quiet), your life will be (long).
Unit 6 A: Why do you eat vegetables at every meal? B: (Because I want to have enough vitamin C.) A: I see. You eat vegetables at every meal so that you'll have enough vitamin C. B: (That's right. ) Language Structure Practice 1: Stating a purpose
Unit 6 A: Can you move the refrigerator to the other end of the room? B: (No, I'm afraid not. It's too heavy for me (to move). A: Do you mean the refrigerator is so heavy that you can't move it? B: (Yes, I'm afraid so.) Language Structure Practice 2-A: Expressing inability & Stating a logical conclusion
Unit 6 A: I don't suppose you can finish reading the article in ten minutes. // I don't think you.../ I doubt if you.../ It's unlikely that you.../ I don't believe you...// B: (Well, I think I can. It's easy enough for me (to do so).). A: Is it so easy that you can do it in ten minutes? B: (Of course. //Certainly. / Sure. //) Language Structure Practice 2-B : Expressing adequacy & Stating a logical conclusion
Unit 6 A: (You think you can stand this injection?) B: Oh yes, I think so. A: (It's very painful, you know.) B: It's all right. No matter how painful it is, I can stand it. / I can stand it even if it's very painful. Practice 3 : Expressing concession Language Structure
Unit 6 A: (The English conversation tape we listened to yesterday was awful.) I've never listened to anything more indistinct. B: (I agree. //I think so, too./ That's exactly how I feel. )It was much worse than I had ever imagined. A: (I wonder if there's anything clearer than that. // There must be something better. //) B: There is bound to be something better. Practice 4 : Expressing agreement, doubt and certainty Language Structure
Unit 6 A: Does he practise speaking English often? B: (No, I don't think so.) A: Well, if he wishes to speak it well, he must practise as often as possible. B: (That's true. //That's just what I think. / That's right. / Yes, of course. / Quite right. / I think so, too. / Absolutely. ) I'll tell him that the more often he practises speaking English, the better he will speak it. Practice 5 : Making an assumption & Expressing agreement Language Structure
Unit 6 Work Ethics Dialogue I There are some ‘rules’ in modern society? Could you illustrate some examples of ‘social rules’ when you are taking a job? When some of the ‘rules’ conflict with your own ethics, which would you choose, ‘rules’ or your ‘ethics’? Think it
Unit 6 Dialogue I 1.Why did the caller telephone the Xi’an office of the Writer’s Association? 2.What did the operator do in order to save the sick man? 3.Do you think people like the operator can often be found? Why or why not? Questions Browse through the text, try to answer following questions. Work Ethics
Unit 6 Dialogue I Please read the dialogue loudly with feeling and expression. Read Work Ethics
Unit 6 Dialogue I Try to retell the content of the dialogue, following cues may help you. 1.The operator at first told the caller to telephone again the next day. 2.When the operator realized what had happened. She: plane ticket; hospital; hotel; railway station. 3.B is very impressed by what the operator has done. Retell Work Ethics
Unit 6 Language Points An operator should be concerned about the worries of callers 1. ▶ INVOLVED ◀ Some of the farmers concerned suffer particularly from the low prices. all the people concerned with children's education There was no evidence that he was concerned in any criminal activity. 2. ▶ WORRIED ◀ She is concerned about how little food I eat. He called the police because he was concerned for Gemma's safety. 1 Dialogue I
Unit 6 Language Points An operator should be concerned about the worries of callers 3. as far as somebody/ something is concerned As far as Americans are concerned, a lot of our hotels are below average. As far as I'm concerned, you can forget about it. As far as traffic is concerned there are no delays at the moment. 4. 关心；关注；关切 Many politicians are more concerned with power and control than with the good of the people. He was genuinely concerned for the children. This chapter is concerned with the mental health of older people. 1 Dialogue I
Unit 6 Language Points I wouldn’t interfere in other people’s business 2 Dialogue I to deliberately get involved in a situation where you are not wanted or needed [synonym] meddle My daughter-in-law said that I was interfering, but I was only trying to help. It's not the church's job to interfere in politics. Anxiety can interfere with children's performance at school.
Unit 6 Language Points Operator can relieve anybody’s worries “in the air” 1. to reduce someone's pain or unpleasant feelings e.g. Drugs helped to relieve the pain. relieve tension/pressure/stress etc Some people eat for comfort, to relieve their anxieties. 2. Replace someboby The guard will be relieved at midnight. 3. to make something less dull and boring The books helped relieve the boredom of waiting. 4. relieve somebody of something phrasal verb A secretary was hired to relieve her of some of the administrative work. 5. relieve somebody of their post/duties/command (fire, dismiss) After the defeat General Meyer was relieved of his command. 3 Dialogue I
Unit 6 Language Points Nobody was around at the other end of the line 4 Dialogue I 1 BE in an area near a place or person [synonym] round Is there a bank around here? When you've been around a person long enough, you start to know how they'll react. the new housing areas in and around Dublin Catherine was the most beautiful girl for miles around. 2 if someone or something is around, they are somewhere in the place where you are Why is there never a policeman around when you need one? Jake went down to the bar, but there was no-one around that he knew. Is your dad around?
Unit 6 Language Points There was a pleading tone in his voice. 5 Dialogue I Plead to ask for something that you want very much, in a sincere and emotional way [synonym] beg 'Don't go!' Robert pleaded. Civil rights groups pleaded for government help. plead with somebody (to do something) Moira pleaded with him to stay.
Unit 6 Language Points He moaned. 6 Syn. groan 1. to complain in an annoying way, especially in an unhappy voice and without good reason 'I feel seasick already,' she moaned. A lot of people moaned about the parking problems. My mum never stops moaning at me. He's always moaning that we use too much electricity. He moaned and groaned all the way there. 2. to make a long low sound expressing pain, unhappiness She moaned and cried out in pain. They could hear the wind moaning in the trees. Dialogue I
Unit 6 Language Points He would get some preliminary treatment 7 Noun [plural] preliminaries [countable usually plural] 1. something that is said or done first, to introduce or prepare for something else Pilot studies are a useful preliminary to large research projects. After the usual preliminaries, the chairman made his announcement. 2.one of the games in the first part of a competition, when it is decided who will go on to the main competition Four teams will be eliminated in the preliminaries. Adj. the preliminary stages of the competition a preliminary draft Dialogue I
Unit 6 Language Points She called up a hospital requesting an emergency… 8 call up phrasal verb 1. informal especially AE to telephone someone He called me up to tell me about it. I'm going to call up and cancel my subscription. 2. if you call up information on a computer, you make the computer show it to you I called up their website, but it didn't have the information I was looking for. 3. 征召 American Equivalent: draft I was called up three months after war broke out. Hurst was called up for the game against Mexico. Dialogue I
Unit 6 Language Points She also arranged accommodations with a nearby hotel. 9 1. 容纳，接待，提供 The ballroom can accommodate 400 people. to provide someone with a place to stay, live, or work The island was used to accommodate child refugees. 2. to get used to a new situation or to make yourself do this Her eyes took a while to accommodate to the darkness. Noun 1. place for someone to stay, live, or work =accommodations The price for the holiday includes flights and accommodation. Universities have to provide student accommodation for first- year students. 2. 协议；迁就 We reached an accommodation between both parties. Dialogue I
Unit 6 Language Points She is a woman of admirable integrity. 10 1. the quality of being honest and strong about what you believe to be right Personal / professional / political integrity a man of great moral integrity 2. formal the state of being united as one complete thing the territorial integrity of the country Dialogue I
Unit 6 Language Points An employee with high work ethics. 11 ethic 1. 单 → 道德体系、道德观 an ethic for living 人生观 2. 复＋ V 单 → 伦理学 Ethics is a branch of philosophy 伦理学是哲学的一支 3. 复＋ V 复 → 道德规范 medical ethics. 医德／ work ethics 职业道德 Dialogue I
Unit 6 Dialogue I The Retirees Role-Play Work Ethics
Unit 6 inadequacy be bitterly cold can’t stand interval misery to add insult to injury Dialogue II Key-point Degree
Unit 6 used to say that you do not like someone or something at all, or that you think that something is extremely unpleasant synonym can't bear I can't stand bad manners. I know he can't stand the sight of me. can't stand (somebody/something) doing something Lily can't stand working in an office. I can't stand people smoking around me when I'm eating. can't stand to do something She can't stand to hear them arguing.
Unit 6 to add insult to injury to make a bad situation worse for someone who has already been treated badly She not only deceived him but, to add insult to injury, allowed him to pay for her meal.
Unit 6 Vitamins Reading 1. In what ways are vitamins important to us? 2. Where can we obtain vitamins? 3. Is it true that the more vitamins there are in our bodies the better? 4. What is the discovery of vitamins linked to? 5. What causes scurvy? 6. What is an amine? 7. When was vitamin A discovered? 8. What are the “Basic Four”? Questions
Unit 6 Dialogue I Discovery Vitamin A Vitamin B part 1 Vitamin B part 2 Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin K Suggestion VOA Vitamins
Unit 6 The word vitamin dates back to Polish scientist Casimir Funk in nineteen twelve. He was studying a substance in the hull that covers rice. This substance was believed to cure a disorder called beriberi. Funk believed the substance belonged to a group of chemicals known as amines [uh-MEENS]. He added the Latin word "vita," meaning life. So he called the substance a "vitamine" [vita- MEEN] -- an amine necessary for life. Funk was not able to separate the anti-berberi substance from the rice hulls; it was later shown to be thiamine. Other studies found that not all vitamines were amines after all. So the name was shortened to vitamin. But Funk was correct in recognizing their importance. Scientists have discovered fourteen kinds of vitamins. They are known as vitamins A, the B group, C, D, E and K.
Unit 6 Which foods should be eaten to keep us healthy? Let us look at some important vitamins for these answers. Vitamin A helps prevent skin and other tissues from becoming dry. It is also needed to make a light-sensitive substance in the eyes. People who do not get enough vitamin A cannot see well in darkness. They may develop a condition that dries the eyes. This can result in infections and lead to blindness. Vitamin A is found in fish liver oil. It also is in the yellow part of eggs. Sweet potatoes, carrots and other darkly colored fruits and vegetables contain substances that the body can change into vitamin A.
Unit 6 Vitamin B-one is also called thiamine. Thiamine changes starchy foods into energy. It also helps the heart and nervous system work smoothly. Without it, we would be weak and would not grow. We also might develop beriberi. Thiamine is found not just in whole grains like brown rice, but also in other foods. These include beans and peas, nuts, and meat and fish.
Unit 6 Another B-vitamin is niacin ( 烟酸 ). It helps cells use food energy. It also prevents pellagra -- a disease that causes weakness, reddish skin and stomach problems. Niacin is found in meat, fish and green vegetables. Vitamin B-twelve is needed so folic acid （叶酸） can do its work. Together, they help produce red blood cells. Vitamin B- twelve is found naturally in foods such as eggs, meat, fish and milk products. Folic acid has been shown to prevent physical problems in babies when taken by their mothers during pregnancy. Vitamin B-twelve is found in green leafy vegetables and other foods, like legumes （豆球蛋白） and citrus fruits. In some countries, it is added to products like bread.
Unit 6 Vitamin C is needed for strong bones and teeth, and for healthy blood passages. It also helps wounds heal quickly. The body stores little vitamin C. So we must get it every day in foods such as citrus fruits, tomatoes and uncooked cabbage.
Unit 6 Vitamin D increases levels of the element calcium （钙） in the blood. Calcium is needed for nerve and muscle cells to work normally. It also is needed to build strong bones. Vitamin D prevents the children's bone disease rickets. Ultraviolet light from the sun changes a substance in the skin into vitamin D. Fish liver oil also contains vitamin D. In some countries, milk producers add vitamin D to milk so children will get enough.
Unit 6 Vitamin K is needed for healthy blood. It thickens the blood around a cut to stop bleeding. Bacteria in the intestines （肠） normally produce vitamin K. It can also be found in pork products, liver and in vegetables like cabbage, kale （甘蓝） and spinach （菠菜）.
Unit 6 Language Points Our bodies manufacture some vitamins To make or process (a raw material) into a finished product, especially by means of a large-scale industrial operation. 制 造：（把原材料）制造加工或成品，尤指大型工业的运 作 it is contrasted with raw materials, hand-made goods 区别于原 料、手工制品 ---manufacture shoes ---manufacturing Industry 制造工业 ---goods of foreign manufacture ( n. ) 外国产品 ---firms engaged in the manufacture of plastics ( n. ) 从事制造塑 胶的企业 1 Reading I
Unit 6 Language Points The vast, uncharted oceans were not only dangers that the seafarers faced. 2 Reading I uncharted : Not charted or recorded on a map or plan 图上没有 标明的：未在地图上或图上绘制或标记的 --- uncharted waterways 地图上未标记的水道 --- the uncharted desert 地图上未标记的沙漠 Unknown 不确知的，不明的 ---The nation's geopolitical strategy is yet uncharted. 该国的地 缘政治的策略还不被人所知
Unit 6 Language Points There were graver dangers 3 Reading I grave 1. hole dug in the ground for a corpse 墓穴 2. serious, requiring careful consideration 严肃的，严重的 ---grave news 重大新闻 ---make a grave mistake 泛一严重的错误 ---as grave as a judge 象法官一样严肃 ---the situation is graver than it has been since the end of the war. 战争结束以来，目前局势最为严重。
Unit 6 Language Points Sailors got sick and ultimately they died of a disease ultimately finally, after everything else has been done or considered [sentence adverb] Ultimately, the decision rests with the child's parents. a long but ultimately successful campaign die of die of + disease / hunger / grief die from + a wound die in + a battle die for + one’s country 4 Reading I
Unit 6 Language Points A British seaman fed his men the juice of citrus To give food to; supply with nourishment 给予食物；供给营养 ---feed the children. 给孩子们喂饭 ---fed fish to the cat. 把鱼喂给了猫 ---The turkey is large enough to feed a dozen. 那只火鸡大得足 够十二个人吃 5 Reading I
Unit 6 Language Points It wiped out scurvy in the British Navy. 1 wipe somebody/something out to destroy, remove, or get rid of something completely Whole villages were wiped out by the floods. Nothing could wipe out his bitter memories of the past. 2.wipe somebody out informal to make you feel extremely tired =exhaust The heat had wiped us out. wiped out = exhausted 6 Reading I
Unit 6 Language Points The members of the group were given the designations B1, B2.. designate mark or point out clearly, give a name or title to 标明，指明， 命名 ---to designate boundaries 标明界限 ---He designated Smith as his successor. 他指定 Smith 为他的继 承人 designation ( n. ) 7 Reading I
Unit 6 Guided Writing I do not quite recall what my grandma was like as she died when I was not yet ten. I only know that she was quite a scholar. The impression she left me was that of a frail, pale and smiling old lady. However, there is one thing that I remember very well. She always ate sparingly, and no meat at all, not even milk or eggs, which always surprised me. She was a vegetarian, my father told me, and a very thorough one, too. The result was disastrous, she was highly weakened by not absorbing proteins, the body-building elements, which are found much more abundantly in animal meat, milk and eggs than in vegetables. It is evident that without meat, milk and eggs, a human being cannot live a full and active life. It was really a pity that my grandma chose to be a vegetarian, otherwise I would have learned more of her and from her. Exercise 1
Unit 6 Guided Writing 9 June, 20__ Dear Wenhua, Thanks for inviting me to the chamber music concert to be given at the golden wedding anniversary party of your grandparents. I really ought to be there, but as I have an appointment with professor Zhang, who is leaving for the united states the next day, I'm afraid I can't be present. I'm very sorry to have to be absent from this very important occasion. Indeed, their kindness to me when I was a child has always been remembered with gratitude. I also regret to have to miss the chamber music, which I adore. Please extend my heartiest congratulations to your grandpa and grandma. Yours, Minhao Exercise 3
Unit 6 Interaction Activities A person of Integrity that I Know
Unit 6 Listening Practice Spelling Dictation A Dictation B Listening Comprehension
Unit 6 Spelling interfereapparentlysurgicalemergency substancebiochemistultimatelyphysician vitaminremedyidentificationvoyage
Unit 6 There are three main kinds of food. Sugar and starch are grouped together as carbohydrates: they are found in bread, potatoes and rice. These are mainly energy-giving food which the muscles and other tissues use. Fats are also energy-giving foods but do no give it as quickly as the sugars and starches as they have to be broken up in the liver and made into sugar before they can be burnt by the body. The other class known as proteins are the main solid part in all living cells. They are found in milk, meat and fish, and are necessary to the body to enable it to build new cells and repair old ones. For this reason growing children need more proteins than adults. Children are much more active than adults and use more energy for their size they need a lot of energy-giving foods, the carbohydrates. Children cannot get much of their energy from fat because it makes them unwell if they eat too much of it. A specially fine thing about the body is that it uses the things you like better than the things you do not like, so giving truth to the old saying “A little of what you fancy does you good." Dictation A
Unit 6 As the number of people in the world increases, people face more and more serious problems. Food, clothing and shelter are what we need most, but we will not have enough materials to provide people with all the necessaries. How are we trying to avoid these problems? One solution is that we should have smaller families and lower the birth rate. Many nations have plans to limit their population. Another solution is that we should improve our food supply. Farmers are experimenting with ways to increase the amount of food that they grow on each piece of land. Another solution that may help is to plan places for people to live. Many countries are limiting the size of their large cities and trying to make people live in small towns and in the countryside. Dictation B
Unit 6 1.Without vitamins, human beings would be attacked by diseases more easily. 2. The reason for car accidents is that the driver lack vitamin A. 3. People who do not have enough B vitamins will have a poor desire for food. 4. The brown outside of rice contains vitamin B. 5. Vitamin C can keep skin tissue from cuts and burns. 6. Vitamin E. produces oxygen which is necessary for blood circulation. Listening Comprehension T T F F F T
Unit 6 1. T 2.F (Car accidents may be, but not necessarily, caused by drivers' lack of vitamin A. ) 3.T 4.T 5.F (Vitamin C cannot keep skin tissue from being hurt, but rather, helps injured skin tissue heal. ) 6.F (Vitamin E does not produce oxygen, but helps carry oxygen in the blood. ) Listening Comprehension
Unit 6 1. No matter how heavily it rained, you should have to meet us at the airport yesterday. 2.The more he thought about it, the angrier he grew. 3.The farmer sold the vegetables at half price rather than allow them to rot. 4.All the information in that booklet is restricted to high-ranking military officers. 5.As a rule, doctors require their patients to give up smoking completely. Translation
Unit 6 6. It was not until the train had left that I reached the station. 7. Last night twenty students were down with a high fever and the doctors are busy investigating the case in the hope of finding the cause. 8. Do parents have the right to interfere in the private lives of their children? Translation
Unit 6 China has long been looked upon as a land of many famous craftsmen whose artistic works are treasured to this day. The most famous of all was a man called Lu Ban. He lived many centuries ago, but people still remember the marvellous houses and palaces he planned and built even though the buildings themselves have long since disappeared. Lu Ban’ skill was so great that people even used to wonder if he was an immortal. Although it is a long time since Lu Ban left this world, old men in Beijing say that Lu still has the welfare of all craftsmen in his heart. Whenever craftsmen find themselves in difficulty, they pray to Lu Ban for help. There are many stories in Beijing about the occasions on which Lu Ban gave his help to ordinary craftsmen.
Unit 6 Language Points Voyage, journey, travel, trip, tour Voyage: 一趟旅程，尤指海上之旅 journey 主要指单程较远距离的海、陆、空 “ 旅行 ” ，表示 “ 去 旅行 ” 时，英语该说 go on a journey ，而不说 go to a journey travel 一般指到国外或远方旅行，它同 journey 不同之处，在 于不着重某一目的地，有到各地 “ 游历 ” 的意思，作名词 时常用复数形式。 trip 常指短距离的，直达目的地的旅行 tour“ 旅行，周游，观光 ” ，主要目的地是游览或视察，距离 可长可短，常带有 “ 最后回到出发地 ” 的含义。 exercise
Unit 6 Language Points Adequate, sufficient, enough, abundant adequate 表示在数量或质量上足以满足特定的标准, 强调刚 好够用, 没有多余. 如 :He doesn‘t earn a large salary but it is adequate for his needs. 他挣钱不多, 但也够用了 sufficient 指为特定的目的和需要提供足够的数量, 多见于正 式书面语中, 修饰名词时只能置于该名词之前. 例如 :He has sufficient proficiency to read Shakespeare in the o riginal. 他有足够的水平阅读莎士比亚的原著. exercise
Unit 6 Language Points Adequate, sufficient, enough, abundant enough 有时可与 adequate 互换, 但仅用来表示数量和程度, 不 表示质量. 作定语时, 可置于名词的前或后. 如 :We have enough food for everybody. 我们有足够的食物供大家吃. abundant 含义为 quite enough" 充余, 绰绰有余 ", 指数量非常多 或充足有余. 如 :We save abundant proof of his guilt. 我们有 他犯罪的充分证据. exercise
With the development of society, many people can afford a car. As the number of the cars is rising, we are facing some problems. One big problem is the pollution caused by the use of cars. In order to solve this problem, government agencies in some big cities recently suggest that a “pollution tax” should be put on private cars in order to control the number of cars and reduce pollution in the city. For my part, I agree to this viewpoint, and my reasons are as follows:
Unit 6 To begin with, cars contribute to the environmental pollution. …. Secondly, it is a good way to raise people’s environmental awareness by putting a pollution tax on private cars. … In a word, it is a very good and necessary attempt to use the means of taxation to treat the pollution. Of course, it must be kept in mind that all people, including the private car owners, should try their best to protect the environment.