2 Introduction to Scheduling Chapter 1Introduction to Scheduling
3 SchedulingIs both an art and a science, combining the best of creativity with pragmatism; elegance with mathematical precision
4 A Good ScheduleProvides the right level of service at the minimum cost. A good schedule is the key to an efficient and sustainable transit operation.
5 Who Should Use this Program This introduction to scheduling is designed to teach the basics for creating manual or automated schedules. It should be used by:Beginning schedulersSchedulers of all levels who rely on automated schedulesPlannersAnyone who needs to understand how a schedule works.
6 How to Use this ProgramThis program is broken down into chapters that each represent a step in the scheduling process:Chapter 2 – Inputs to the Scheduling Process – what you need to know to get startedChapter 3 – Schedule BuildingChapter 4 – Blocking or creating the daily schedule for a vehicleChapter 5 – Runcutting or creating the daily schedule for driversChapter 6 – Rostering or creating a weekly driver scheduleSome pages need a little bit of time to finish. Wait a little bit and if nothing changes, it is done and you can go to the next page.Words in blue have definitions.The buttons below can take you to the beginning, the end, forward a page and backward a page.
7 Helpful Tips for Using this Program Scheduling is both an art and a science. Both parts take some practice. To use this program effectively, you may want to have both pencil and paper handy and excel opened and available on your computer.Let’s get started.
8 Inputs to the Scheduling Process Chapter 2Inputs to the Scheduling Process
9 Schedulers Don’t Work in Isolation Schedulers cannot work in isolation and need to be aware of the issues surrounding their work and the objectives and goals they are trying to achieve. Typically this requires an understanding of the transit agency, its policies structures and goals.
10 What you need to know before you start a schedule Scheduling provisions from your collective bargaining agreement, or past practices to consider.Route design considerationsService StandardsService data including running times patronage and operations data
11 Route Design – Scheduling Considerations To begin writing a schedule for a route you need to know some basic things about the way it operates…What kind of route is it? Does it have branches or short turns or other kinds of deviations, or does it always run the same pattern of stops?What is its Span of Service – when does service begin and when does it end? What days does the route operate?How frequently does the service operate? Does it run at the same frequency of service all day, or does the frequency vary as ridership varies?Are there other considerations, such as the need to “meet” with other lines, have departures on a “clockface” schedule, or other limitations that the scheduler needs to be aware of?
13 Introduction to Route 97 Span of Service: 6:00 AM to 7:00 PM We will be using Route 97 as a basic scheduling example throughout this class. Here’s what you need to know to get started.You’ll need similar information about any route you work on.Span of Service: 6:00 AM to 7:00 PMHeadway: 30 minutes throughoutPatterns: All trips operated from timepoint A to timepoint D. Reverse direction trips from D to AGarage: This route operates out of Park Garage which is nearer to the timepoint A end of the routeDeadhead times to and from the garage are: 10 minutes to/from “A”, 20 minutes to/from “D”Mileage and running time: shown in the diagram below1.38 miles2.87 miles2.22 miles
14 Building a Simple Schedule Chapter 3Building a Simple Schedule
15 Scheduling a Simple Route Even the most complicated schedule is no more than a series of the steps required to schedule a simple route.Remember the characteristics of Route 97Span of Service: 6:00 AM to 7:00 PMHeadway: 30 minutes throughoutPatterns: All trips operated from timepoint A to timepoint D. Reverse direction trips from D to AGarage: This route operates out of Park Garage which is nearer to the timepoint A end of the routeDeadhead times to and from the garage are: 10 minutes to/from “A”, 20 minutes to/from “D”Mileage and running time: shown in the diagram below1.38 miles2.87 miles2.22 miles
16 Calculate Roundtrip Cycle Time Click here for definitionsRoundtrip Cycle time is the time it takes a bus to cover the route and return to the original terminal or timepoint. Roundtrip cycle time includes both roundtrip travel time and layover.Route 97From our route map we know that it will take a bus 33 minutes to travel in each direction, or 66 minutes without layover.We know the driver needs some time at the end of the route to rest and get back to schedule, but how much is the right amount?1.38 miles2.87 miles2.22 miles
17 How Much Layover is Enough? TipThis calculation gives us the MINIMUM layover that can be offered on any trip. The cycle time can be lengthened if necessary, decreasing efficiency. Never reduce a minimum required layover time or a calculated travel time to “squeeze” the cycle to better fit the schedule – or the route will be very unreliable.Your union contract may specify the amounts and distribution of layover.A general “rule of thumb” would allocate a minimum of 10% of running time or a minimum of 6 minutes per round trip whichever is greaterIn our example:10% * 66 = 6.6 min or 7 min7 min is greater than the minimum of 6 so the minimum layover on each trip is 7 minutes.66 min. running time + 7 min. layover = 73 min cycle time.
18 Determine the Basic Schedule Requirements headwaythe number of minutes between busesWe have been given a 30 minute headwayWe can quickly calculate how many buses we will need to run this headway and do a quick test to see how efficient our route will be:roundtrip cycle timeheadwayRemember, you always have to “round up” the number of buses to a whole number. The SMALLER the remaining fraction, the less efficient your schedule will be.= # buses needed when rounded UPFor our example:73 minutes cycle time/30 minute headway = 2.43 or 3 busesFor a discussion of options for making this route more efficient, click here.To operate every 30 minutes with 3 buses, we will need to operate a 90 minute cycle time (30 minutes x 3 buses)…or 17 more minutes than we would have wanted or with a total of 24 minutes of layover.
19 Laying out a schedule sheet Use formulas wherever possible, and keep your inputs linked to your schedule sheetStart by creating a spreadsheet with your schedule on the left and inputs on the right. You could use two different tabs within the same workbook as well.In this example, our schedule sheet will be located in columns A through M and the inputs will be in columns P Q and ROpen a sample empty spreadsheet
20 Keeping track of your schedule inputs Note: In this example, we put out inputs at the right hand side of our schedule sheet. This keeps inputs visible. Set your sheet up the same way to keep formulas consistent.Always enter headway time in “time format” in your spreadsheet.Multiplying by a factor will convert a number to a time format. Remember to format the cells for time once you have made the conversion.Use your inputs sheet to summarize running time and distance between time points.Click to continueDon’t forget the time and mileage from the garage to your end points.Click to continueInclude several headway options so that you can easily make adjustments.Click to continue
21 Laying out your schedule sheet Now layout your column headings like thisAlways have both directions of your route next to each other with a space in between.Click to continueLeave a column for a block number – we know there will be three vehicles or “blocks” on this route.Click to continueLeave a column for the Next Trip so you can show how your schedule links together.Click to continueCreate columns to show the time each bus pulls in and out of service.Click to clear
22 Filling in your schedule sheet Begin with your first trip. We have been told that service begins from the eastern timepoint at 6 AM. With service every 30 minutes, buses will leave from Point A every hour and half hour.Click for exampleWe know it takes 33 minutes to get from Point A to Point DClick to continueDividing our 24 minutes of layover into 2-12 minute layovers at each end, means that our bus will be ready to turn around at 6:45. Buses will leave from Point D 15 and 45 minutes after the hour to maintain the half hour headway.Click to continueRemember, your westbound service needs to begin at 6:15, so fill in the first trip beginning at 6:15 from point D. This will be the first trip of the day for this bus.Click to continue
23 Filling in your schedule sheet Now let’s use formulas to create the rest of the service day. We know that service operates every 30 minutes all day long until the last trip at 7:00 PM.Use military time or a 24 hour clock to make it easy to distinguish AM from PM.Here is the formula for adding the next trip 30 minutes later.TipExcel can be switched from showing the value in a cell to showing the formula. The command is CTRL + ~$Q$35 is Headway Option 0:30.$Q$12 is the Eastbound total runtime.Now you try filling in the headways to the bottom of your sheet. Remember, at this point you are only filling in times at the ending timepoints.
24 Completed Headway Sheet Check your work against this completed sheetOpen a sample filled spreadsheet
25 Fill in the Intermediate Times Using formulas you can now fill in the intermediate time point times.Using show formula, we have filled in the timepoints for Rows 6 and 7 belowNow fill in the remaining times by copying the formulas down the page.Tip$Q$9 is Eastbound running time between A and B.$Q$10 is Eastbound distance between B and C.$Q$11 is Eastbound running time between C and D.$Q$35 is Headway Option 0:30.$Q$18 is Westbound running time between D and C.$Q$19 is Westbound running time between C and B.$Q$20 is Westbound running time between B and A.
26 Completing the Headway Sheet Here’s what your completed schedule sheet looks like:Click here to download a sample spreadsheet and check your formulas
27 Moving OnYou have reached the end of the basic schedule building section.For a more advanced example to work on independently, click hereTo continue with blocking click here
28 Blocking or Creating the Daily Schedule For a Vehicle Chapter 4Blocking or Creating the Daily Schedule For a Vehicle
29 BlockingIn this step we link trips together to make the daily work assignments for vehicles. Later, we’ll “cut” those blocks into runs for drivers.
30 Linking Trips Together in Blocks Begin blocking with your first full trip. Looking down your schedule sheet, link the arrival time at point D with the next departure time that satisfies your layover requirement.
31 Add Block Numbers and Pull Times Click to continueYou should know the number of buses or “blocks” needed before you begin.Begin numbering 9701 at timepoint A at 6:00 AM.Begin numbering 9701 at timepoint A at 6:00 AM. It arrives at Point D at 6:33 and departs at 6:45 after 12 minutes of layover. The trip arrives back at point A at 7:18 and can make its next departure at 7:30.Follow your block 9701 down the page, adding in the departure times for each subsequent trip.Begin numbering 9701 at timepoint A at 6:00 AM. It arrives at Point D at 6:33 and departs at 6:45 after 12 minutes of layover.Begin numbering 9701 at timepoint A at 6:00 AM. It arrives at Point D at 6:33 and departs at 6:45 after 12 minutes of layover. The trip arrives back at point A at 7:18 and can make its next departure at 7:30.Click to continueClick to continueClick to continueBlocks must always include a pull in and pull out time to show the time the bus leaves and returns to the garage.Different operators use different schemes of block numberingWhen you complete the block, remember to add pull out and pull in times. For this example, we know that it takes 10 minutes to travel between the garage and Point A and 20 minutes to travel between the garage and Point D.Now fill in the remaining blocks and pull out and pull in times. Click here to see a completed example.
32 Creating a Blocking Sheet Keep basic information about layover or other special requirements clear on your blocking summary. As conditions change, it will be clear how your schedule is impacted.The Blocking Sheet shows all of the trips assigned to each block you have created in a summary fashion, showing what each bus is assigned to do throughout the day.Begin by creating a spreadsheet with the headings shown below:You can fill in the spreadsheet using links to your Master ScheduleClick here to see a completed blocking sheet for Block 1.Now complete the sheet for the remaining blocks.Click here for the final product.
33 Summarizing ResultsIf you design your blocking spreadsheet correctly, your summary reports can be completed with little effort. Computerized scheduling programs will compute these statistics for you.Now we want to summarize the number of hours and miles for each block.The easiest way to compute mileage is to multiple the number of trips by the mileage for each trip using a count function.Hours can be easily computed by taking the difference between departure and arrival times at the garage for each block.See if you can duplicate the spreadsheet below on the right hand side of your schedule sheet. You can see the formulas by rolling over each cell.Click here to see formulas
34 Estimate Your Operator Needs Runs with approximately 7:30 hours of platform time will generally result in full time runs that don’t have much overtime.Your block summary shows that this service will require 41:14 daily platform or service hours.Dividing 41:14 by approximately 8 hours per shift, results in just over 5 operators needed.The service could be operated by 5 drivers with shifts just over 8 hours, or with 6 operators with fewer hours. The choices will be evaluated in the runcutting section.platformThe number of hours a bus driver is actually in revenue service, from the time they leave the garage to the time they return.
35 Graphing Your BlocksBlocks are often displayed graphically to illustrate the time spans that the blocks are in service. This is a helpful lead in to runcutting.An example of a graphic display of the blocks you created is shown below:
36 Moving On You have reached the end of the schedule blocking section. For a more advanced example to work on independently, click hereTo continue with runcutting click here
38 A Quick Review In the previous sections you have learned: How to develop a basic schedule from common inputsHow to divide the schedule into blocks that represent a vehicle work day.How to calculate hours and miles of service and estimate the number of drivers needed to operate your serviceIn this section you will learn how to divide or “cut” blocks into work schedules for drivers, called “runs”.There is no single right answer in runcutting. There are only better or worse solutions based on your property’s objectives.
39 Runcutting Objectives Typical objectives in runcutting includeCreating “legal” runs that meet all written rules of the labor agreementCreating efficient runs that reduce the cost of operation.Creating runs that are simple and easy to operate on the street.Create humane runs that allow for a reasonable workplace for drivers.Be sure you know the priorities of your agency before you begin the runcut.
40 Types of Runs Straight runs Generally a single piece of work where the driver stays with the same vehicle for their entire work day.Straight runs may have a break as required by contract, which is either paid or unpaid.Multi-Piece Straight1-Piece StraightBreak (paid or unpaid)
41 Break (‘swing’, normally unpaid)) Types of RunsSplit or Swing Runsusually have two work pieces with a longer generally unpaid break between those pieces. These are common runs, because more service is often needed during the peak periods and less in the midday or evening.Split RunBreak (‘swing’, normally unpaid))
42 Types of Runs Trippers or part time runs Short one piece runs that are typically used for a single peak or school period.Part Time Run
43 Components of Runspay hoursThe total amount of paid time for a driver, including report time, travel time and sign off time in addition to revenue time in the bus. Pay hours also include any premiums such as over time or make up time but do not include any time associated with benefits such as sick leave or holidays.The time the driver spends in the vehicle in revenue service often represents only 60-70% of their total pay hours.In this one piece straight run, the driver is in revenue service for 7:15 but is paid for 8:18In this split run, the driver is in revenue service for only 6:15 but is paid for 8:08 in a total work day that stretches over more than 11 hours.Understanding the components of runs is required to complete a runcut.Report0:15Revenue Time7:15Travel/Pull0:20Sign Off0:10Total Hours = 8:180:18TipMany systems measure the efficiency of runs by dividing pay hours by revenue hours. In the first example, the ratio is 1.14; in the second, it’s less efficient at 1.30Report0:15Travel/Pull0:15Revenue Time3:15Travel/Pull0:20Sign Off0:05Unpaid Break(Swing)3:00Report0:10Travel/Pull0:20Revenue Time3:00Travel/Pull0:18Sign Off0:10Total Hours = 8:08Total Spread = 11:08
44 Common runcutting terms Another common collateral is “bonus time” or time paid to a full time driver who has a run of less than 8 hours. Bonus time is paid up to the 8 hour minimum for a full time run.Common runcutting termsYou have seen that runs are made up of a number of components. Not all of these are paid in the same way. The following is a list of common pay differentials. These will vary from property to property. The total set of premium and penalties is often referred to as “collaterals”. Here are some common premium collaterals…Overtime premium.Pay at the rate of 1.5 or higher the normal rate for work performed in excess of daily or weekly thresholds, usually eight or ten hours per day or 40 hours per week.Shift PremiumA premium paid to operators for working during times of the day that are subject to special pay differentials, such as owl or overnight runs.Spread PremiumPay equal to one-half or more of all minutes in excess of a specified maximum spread time, in addition to regular straight pay. Spread premium is separate and distinct from overtime premium.Premium PayPay to an operator that is over and above the straight time pay rate; includes overtime premium, spread premium, shift premium, and any other operating premiums as defined by the contract
45 Runcutting InputsThe success of any runcut depends on the quality of information available as inputs to the process.Before you begin your runcut make sure you have this information in its entirety.A complete set of trips and vehicle blocksAll relevant defined rules (usually the labor agreement summarized)Defined relief types, relief locations and travel timesKnown limitations—cost limits, work rule preferences etc.
46 Runcutting Example – Trips and Blocks Download a full set of trips and blocks for Route 97.For the purposes of this exercise we are using our intermediate blocking example Route 97.Click here to open completed ScheduleBlock SheetMaster ScheduleClick here to open completed Block Sheet
47 Creating a Graph of Vehicles in Operation Things to note in the graph:Many of the blocks are around 14 hours which will probably allow us to cut them into two pieces, each as a single runThe peak blocks are shorter in the AM Peak than the PM Peak (this is not unusual). The AM blocks are around 3:30 and the PM blocks around 4:30. This may allow us to create 8:00 split runs without too much difficulty (subject to spread limitations).We will need two additional runs during the peaks to cover the two additional peak vehicles.We will have three runs in operation during the off peak.Creating a Graph of Vehicles in OperationCreating a graph that shows the number of vehicles in operation throughout the day makes it easier to begin runcutting.Using the block diagram, start with the longest block first graphing horizontally from start time to end time.Here is the completed graph of Line 97
48 Creating a Graph of Vehicles in Operation Looking more carefully at our graph, we can see opportunities for straight and split runsLikely Split RunsLikely Straight RunsLooking again at a line graph of the blocks reinforces our conclusions.
49 Know the Work RulesBefore you begin your runcut make sure you know the workrules that apply to your property. Here are the rules we will use in this exercise.Click here to open a copy of the work rule table.Work RuleRequirementMinimum Platform Time (full time run)6:00Maximum Platform Time10:00Minimum Platform Time (tripper)2:00Maximum Platform Time (tripper)5:59Report Allowance (start of run)0:15Clear Allowance (end of run)Clear Allowance (end of first half of split run)0:05Report Allowance (start of second half of split run)Maximum Spread13:00Run Type Limits50% minimum straight runs25% maximum split runs25% maximum trippersGuarantee (Daily)8:00Overtime (Daily)Time and a half over 8:00Spread PenaltyTime and a half over 10:00ReliefsMust be at ‘Point A’All reliefs are taken as travels using a car0:10 travel time from garage to Point A
50 Understanding Reliefs Relief locations are the places where drivers begin and end their shift.Because one bus may remain in operation for more than one driver’s shift, knowing where relief locations are and how drivers will travel to the relief location is critical in runcutting.For this exercise we assume all reliefs occur at one end of the route and that 10 minutes of travel time are required to get from the garage to the relief location.Drivers may be asked to walk to a relief point, take transit, or may be driven in a company car.The simplest relief is done by pull-out meaning all drivers begin their work day by pulling out a new bus, avoiding change overs
51 Ideal Run LengthGenerally, transit operators prefer full time runs that do not have significant overtime or bonus time. So, an ideal run length is:8 hours – sign-in or report time – clear time or end of run time – travel time to the route.In our example: 8 hours – 15 min – 15 min – 10 min or about 7:20.
52 Estimate the Runs Required Looking back at our block guide, we had 7 blocks with a total of 54:31 platform time.Dividing 54:31 by 7:20 we get about 7.5 or either 7 or 8 runs.
53 Begin with Straight Blocks 56789101112131415161718192021Blocks 2 and 3 are good candidates for straight runs. Beginning with Block 2:Start Time = 6:01Report time = 15 Min or 5:46Ideal end time = 13:11 + clear time and travel would = 8 hour run.BUT, reliefs are all done at Point A, and this block will pass Point A at 12:09 or 13:39.Block1234567
54 Where to Cut?To decide where to cut block 2, we need to look at the two options and see which one has the minimum total pay hours.While neither option is ideal, cutting at 12:09 will be 27 minutes less pay hours every day.A few minutes every day add up!27 minutes of savings over 255 weekdays per year is nearly 115 hours. With salary and benefits, this would be well over $5000 annually at most transit properties – perhaps significantly more!
55 Continue Cutting Straight Runs Block 2 is cut at 12:09 into Run 1 and Run 2Now we can cut blocks 3 and 5 in the same manner.Again, think through your choices about the best place to make your cut.Click to continueClick to continueBlock123456716891017181920211112131415Run 112:09Run 2Run 312:39Run 4Run 513:09Run 6Here is our run summary:Click for summary
56 Now Look at What’s LeftCombining blocks 1 and 6 and 4 with 7 would give us two split runs.BUT WAIT!We could make four trippers instead, but that would make more than 25% of our runs part-time.Illegal
57 So NOW WHAT?!?Our problems are magnified because we are only cutting a single run. Let’s assume we can have one run exceed the spread rule – remember you’ll need permission for this.
58 Completed Run Cut Here’s the completed run cut. Click here to open a copy with formulas
59 Checking the RunsNow carefully check that you have all trips covered, all numbers add up and totals calculated correctly.Click to show each runBlock123456716891017181920211112131415Run 7aRun 7bRun 1Run 2Run 3Run 4Run 8Run 5Run 6Run 9
60 Now Summarize Your Results Click here to open the table with formulas
61 Relationship Between Service and Runcutting As you complete your runcut, you may think of ways the service could be changed at minimal cost, or in ways that save cost.In our example, we have over 5 hours of total guarantee time. We could easily add a trip on Block 3 at very little cost, reducing the guarantee time.Runcutting, scheduling and planning are often an iterative process.When you begin your runcut, you may notice that adjusting the schedule slightly can either add service at no cost, or could save significantly with a slight trim.Good schedulers do not just cut what’s in front of them, but make sure everyone responsible understands the implications of the schedule.
62 Relationship Between Service and Runcutting The runcutter should be thinking like a planner and like a passenger at the same time. The technical work or runcutting is not hard, but identifying the best solution for your agency is!
63 Runcutting Terminology Here are some additional terms your property may use:operator paddle The paddle comes in many shapes, sizes and formats. The aim of the paddle is to provide the operator with information regarding his or her workday – what time the work day starts/ends, how to get to/from relief locations, and the trips to be operated (complete with times at all timepoints).run number The unique number assigned to each work assignment on a specific day.run guide The run guide, a version of which is provided above, displays a summary of each run – where it starts, finishes etc, along with information about the length of runs. It may also include a breakdown of hours and penalties. This report is used across the organization as a means of quickly reviewing runs.
64 Moving On You have reached the end of the basic Runcutting section. For a more advanced example to work on independently, click hereTo move on to Roserting, our next step in the scheduling process click here
66 RosteringrosteringThe process of grouping daily operator runs into packages of weekly work assignments. The finished product is known as a roster or a bid package.sign-upThe process in which operators select work assignments. Most agencies have three or four sign-ups each year. Sign-up is also called “bid,” “line-up”, “pick,” “shake-up,” and “mark-up.”sign-up or bid periodThe period of time that a specific sign-up is in effect, usually three or four months.Rostering is the process of grouping daily operating runs into packages of weekly work assignments. Weekly work assignments typically include five daily runs, each close to or over eight hours for full-time drivers. Those five days can be any five days in the week. Rosters generally remain in effect throughout the sign-up period.
67 Two types of rosters There are two primary types of rosters: If your property uses a cafeteria style bid, it is important to monitor to ensure that the runs being selected are “legal” and follow the rules established by your contract and practice. Errors allowed in bidding may result in costly rebids.There are two primary types of rosters:Agency Developed Rosters are built by the schedulers. Drivers bid on weekly work schedules that have already been packaged with days off pre-determined.Cafeteria-style or Operator Selected Rosters allow the operator to bid on their daily runs and days off to form a weekly work assignment from a master list.In addition a master list of extra board or stand by runs are posted. Assignments on the extra board provide coverage for vacant runs on a daily or weekly basis.
68 Variations on Cafeteria Rosters There are several variations within cafeteria-style rostering based on specific constraints in the labor agreement or past practice. These include:Days off must be consecutive unless consecutive days are no longer available;Routes cannot be mixed during the work week if the same route is available for all days;Run types (straight/split) cannot be mixed until necessary to form a full weekly assignment;A minimum number of off-duty hours must separate each run picked.
69 Implications of Rostering Approaches ProsConsCafeteriaDrivers may be more conscientious when they have more control.May result in lower absenteeism, higher retention ratesSenior operators may choose very long runs for high overtime pay. Junior operators may be left with shorter runs with make up time required.May not be most economical approach.Need to verify that selected runs are “legal”.Agency PickUsually most cost effective approach.Operators may resent limited selection of assignments and may feel that the agency is putting savings ahead of morale.
70 Some Useful Rostering Terms extraboard A group of operators who provide coverage of vacant runs and other work on a daily or weekly basis. Operators may pick the extraboard during a sign-up or may be assigned to the extraboard if no more runs are available. stand-by time Time that an operator spends at the garage at the agency’s direction awaiting assignment of a run or a piece of work. Usually associated with a show-up by an extraboard operator, stand-by is intended to provide a pool of operators that will be available to fill runs vacated by unscheduled absences. make-up time Time added to an operator’s work hours to bring the total up to the guaranteed minimum (usually eight hours per day or 40 hours per week). Full-time operators often have an 8 hour guarantee, even if their runs are short of 8 hours.
71 Rostering ExampleCalculate the number of operators you will need.(Number of Weekday Runs x 5 + Number of Saturday Runs + Number of Sunday Runs) /5 Day Work Week =Number of Operators RequiredFor our rostering example, we will use the Route 97 runcut you have already completed.Click here to open the completed runcut, which is shown in the next slide.Because Route 97 only operates on weekdays, available days off are Saturdays and Sundays only.For routes that operate only Monday through Friday, the number of operators needed equals the number of weekday runs unless four day schedules are allowed.
72 Run Cut for Rostering – Example Here’s our Route 97 Runcut
73 How Many Operators Do We Need? Weekly Total Runs5 Days of Work Per OperatorTotal # Operators =Weekly Total RunsWeeklySun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat TotalTotal # Operators = 45/5 = 9 operators needed
74 Agency Developed Rosters A common convention for creating a master list of weekly rosters is shown here:The top number in each daily cell refers to the run number. The bottom number is the amount of work hours in that day’s run.Work hours can be totaled for the week, allowing us to add columns for make up time, overtime and spread time if relevant and calculate weekly pay hours.Agencies will often try more than one roster before finalizing a pick for operators
75 Creating ConsistencyFor our first attempt, we may assign operators to the same run every day. This creates a consistent assignment, but may also not be the most economical roster.Start by assigning Run 101 to the first Roster numbered 1001Now, fill in the rest of the Roster table, with a total of nine runs, numbered 101 to 109.CLICK HERE to see the resultsClick here to open a Roster Variation 1
76 How Can We Increase Efficiency? One goal in creating our roster might be to get as many weekly work assignments as close to 40 hours as possible – minimizing the need for overtime and make up pay.This is usually accomplished by mixing long runs with shorter ones, assuming overtime and make up time are calculated by the week NOT by the day.Another consideration may be creating overtime versus creating a demand for more operators.Overtime is not necessarily always bad – in a climate where it is hard to recruit operators, more overtime may be tolerated.
77 Optimize for Weekly Overtime Mixing long days with shorter runs on other days can minimize overtime.See if you can combine Run 107, which is over 9 hours long with other shorter runs to reduce overall pay hours.Click here to see a completed Roster variation.Click here to open a Roster Variation 2
78 Optimize for Daily Overtime The solution calculated in Variation 2 works well if overtime is calculated on a weekly basis. What if it is calculated on a daily basis?Click here to see the previous solution with daily overtime and penalty calculation.Click here to open a Roster Variation 3
79 Compare the SolutionsWhile the total hours are the same, the cost and efficiency of these alternatives is different.Variation 2 is the most efficient roster because it has no overtime and less make-up time. Variation 2 saves almost 9 pay hours per week.
80 Cafeteria RostersUnder the cafeteria approach, operators build their own rosters by picking their weekly work from the master run list and master days off list.These master lists are either the actual Run Guide shown earlier or derived from the Run Guide.Agencies with weekly (but not) daily guarantees often benefit more from agency developed rosters and should avoid cafeteria rostering if possible.
81 Moving On You have reached the end of this tutorial. Runcutting, scheduling and planning are often an iterative process.When you begin your runcut, you may notice that adjusting the schedule slightly can either add service at no cost, or could save significantly with a slight trim.Good schedulers do not just cut what’s in front of them, but make sure everyone responsible understands the implications of the schedule.You have reached the end of this tutorial.For a more advanced example of rostering to work on independently, click here
82 End Really, you are done. Exit now via the Esc key The slides after this one are for reference only and are not in any particular order.
83 SPECIAL TOPIC – Route efficiency In the Route 97 example, we had a 73 minute cycle time and a 30 minute headway. To achieve a 30 minute headway, three buses will be needed on a 90 minute cycle time. That gives us or 17 extra minutes of layover – a total of 24 minutes of layover. That means that for every 66 minute round trip in running time the bus will be “sitting” for 24 minutes or more than 25% of the time it is in operation. That is very inefficient. What could we do to improve this?One option would be to increase the amount of service provided. With a 73 minute cycle time, we could provide service every 20 minutes on 80 minute cycle, adding only 7 minutes to our layover. That’s much more efficient – we increase service by 50% but add only one bus. Ridership might not justify that much service and the route productivity could suffer.Another option would be to revise the route, using the “extra time” to extend the route farther at either end and provide more coverage.A third option would be to combine this route with another route that has problems making its time and reallocating time between the two routes.There is no right answer…a good scheduler flags the problem and works with management or planning staff to sort out the problem rather than just accepting an inefficient schedule.Click here to return to the presentation
84 Completed Blocking Sheet — Partial Click here to return to the presentation
85 Completed Blocking Sheet FinalClick here to return to the presentation
86 Block Numbers and Pull Times Click here to return to the presentation
87 Click here to return to the presentation Roster exampleClick here to return to the presentation
88 Completed roster variation 2 Click here to return to the presentation
89 Completed roster variation 3 Click here to return to the presentation
90 Click here to return to the presentation Definitionsroundtrip cycle time Round trip running time plus required layover time. Layover is required time at one or both ends of the route for the driver to rest and return to schedule timepoint Timepoints should be placed at major intersections or other points along the route, and should be spaced an average of about 10 minutes apart. Timepoints are generally used as the points included in a public timetable and are also used to help drivers “pace themselves” when driving their route. layover Many transit operators make a distinction between “layover” or the driver’s rest period between trips and “recovery” or the time allotted in the schedule to allow a late bus to get back on schedule. For the purposes of these exercises, we have included both types of time under the heading of “layover”. When calculating layover you must know your property’s standards for the minimum amount of layover required, and whether that time must be evenly allocated at each end, and/or is required in both directions.Click here to return to the presentation
91 Summarizing Results Click here to return Values Formulas Tip Garage DepartFind first instant of block numberGarage ArriveWhen does each bus finish for the dayHoursDifference between start of the day and end of the day.MileageNumber of Eastbound trips times the distance Eastbound +Number of Westbound trips times the distance Westbound +Number of Pull Trips to "A" times the pull distance +Number of Pull Trips from "D" times the pull distance.ValuesFormulas
92 End of slidesSlides between the last stop sign and this slide are for reference only. Click on the stop sign to get to the real end of the presentation.
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