# Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Chapter 25 Paired Samples and Blocks.

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Slide 25- 2 Paired Data Data are paired when the observations are collected in pairs or the observations in one group are naturally related to observations in the other group. Paired data arise in a number of ways. Perhaps the most common is to compare subjects with themselves before and after a treatment. When pairs arise from an experiment, the pairing is a type of blocking. When they arise from an observational study, it is a form of matching.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Slide 25- 3 Paired Data (cont.) If you know the data are paired, you can (and must!) take advantage of it. To decide if the data are paired, consider how they were collected and what they mean (check the W’s). There is no test to determine whether the data are paired. Once we know the data are paired, we can examine the pairwise differences. Because it is the differences we care about, we treat them as if they were the data and ignore the original two sets of data.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Slide 25- 4 Paired Data (cont.) Now that we have only one set of data to consider, we can return to the simple one-sample t-test. Mechanically, a paired t-test is just a one-sample t-test for the mean of the pairwise differences. The sample size is the number of pairs.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Slide 25- 5 Assumptions and Conditions Paired Data Assumption: The data must be paired. Independence Assumption: The differences must be independent of each other. Check the: Randomization Condition Normal Population Assumption: We need to assume that the population of differences follows a Normal model. Nearly Normal Condition: Check this with a histogram or Normal probability plot of the differences.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Slide 25- 6 The Paired t-Test When the conditions are met, we are ready to test whether the paired differences differ significantly from zero. We test the hypothesis H 0 :  d =  0, where the d’s are the pairwise differences and  0 is almost always 0.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Slide 25- 7 The Paired t-Test (cont.) We use the statistic where n is the number of pairs. is the ordinary standard error for the mean applied to the differences. When the conditions are met and the null hypothesis is true, this statistic follows a Student’s t-model on n – 1 degrees of freedom, so we can use that model to obtain a P-value.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The table below represents mileage driven by 11 employees during an ordinary five day work week and a flexible four day work week. Was the 4 day work week successful in reducing miles driven? Slide 25- 8 Name5 Day Mileage4 Day Mileage Jeff27982914 Betty77246112 Roger75056177 Tom8381102 Aimee45923281 Greg81074997 Larry G12281695 Tad87186606 Larry M10971063 Leslie Lee 8089 3807 6392 3362

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Calculator – just like a one sample t-test Stats-Tests-2:T-test Slide 25- 9

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Slide 25- 10 Confidence Intervals for Matched Pairs When the conditions are met, we are ready to find the confidence interval for the mean of the paired differences. The confidence interval is where the standard error of the mean difference is The critical value t* depends on the particular confidence level, C, that you specify and on the degrees of freedom, n – 1, which is based on the number of pairs, n.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Paired T-Interval Example Find a 95% confidence interval for the difference mean age between 170 married wives and husbands. The mean difference is 2.2 years with a standard deviation of 4.1 years. Calc: Stats- Tests-8:TInterval Slide 25- 11

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Slide 25- 12 Blocking Consider estimating the mean difference in age between husbands and wives. The following display is worthless. It does no good to compare all the wives as a group with all the husbands—we care about the paired differences.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Slide 25- 13 Blocking (cont.) In this case, we have paired data—each husband is paired with his respective wife. The display we are interested in is the difference in ages: Insert histogram from page 579 of the text.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Slide 25- 14 Blocking (cont.) Pairing removes the extra variation that we saw in the side-by-side boxplots and allows us to concentrate on the variation associated with the difference in age for each pair. A paired design is an example of blocking.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley 1-sample t-test or 2-sample t-test or paired t-method? 1) random samples of 50 men and 50 women are asked to imagine buying a birthday present for their best friend. We want to estimate the difference in how much they are will to spend. 2) Mothers of twins were surveyed and asked how often in the past month strangers has asked whether the twins were identical. 3) Are parents equally strict with boys and girls? In a random sample of families, researchers asked a brother and a sister from each family to rate how strict their parents were. Slide 25- 15

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Slide 25- 16 What Can Go Wrong? Don’t use a two-sample t-test for paired data. Don’t use a paired-t method when the samples aren’t paired. Don’t forget outliers—the outliers we care about now are in the differences. Don’t look for the difference in side-by-side boxplots.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Slide 25- 17 What have we learned? Pairing can be a very effective strategy. Because pairing can help control variability between individual subjects, paired methods are usually more powerful than methods that compare individual groups. Analyzing data from matched pairs requires different inference procedures. Paired t-methods look at pairwise differences. We test hypotheses and generate confidence intervals based on these differences. We learned to Think about the design of the study that collected the data before we proceed with inference.

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