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1-1 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 1 Chapter 21 Comparing Two Proportions
1-2 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 2 Teacher Tip If you haven’t already, this chapter is a great time to unveil the Tests menu on the student’s calculators. Finding these 2-sample results “by hand” is generally counter- productive. And many teachers choose this chapter to use the AP rubric “name or formula” choice. While writing the formulas is a skill to work on, the formulas in this chapter are extra complicated. Many recommend that students just write the name of the procedure for testing purposes along with the calculator output, as students often write incorrect parts of the formula.
1-3 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 3 Comparing Two Proportions Comparisons between two percentages are much more common than questions about isolated percentages. And they are more interesting. We often want to know how two groups differ, whether a treatment is better than a placebo control, or whether this year’s results are better than last year’s.
1-4 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 4 Another Ruler In order to examine the difference between two proportions, we need another ruler—the standard deviation of the sampling distribution model for the difference between two proportions. Recall, from Chapter 15, that standard deviations don’t add, but variances do. In fact, the variance of the sum or difference of two independent random quantities is the sum of their individual variances.
1-5 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 5 The Standard Deviation of the Difference Between Two Proportions Proportions observed in independent random samples are independent. Thus, we can add their variances. So… The standard deviation of the difference between two sample proportions is Thus, the standard error is
1-6 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 6 Assumptions and Conditions Independence Assumptions: Randomization Condition: The data in each group should be drawn independently and at random from a homogeneous population or generated by a randomized comparative experiment. The 10% Condition: If the data are sampled without replacement, the sample should not exceed 10% of the population. Independent Groups Assumption: The two groups we’re comparing must be independent of each other.
1-7 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 7 Assumptions and Conditions (cont.) Sample Size Condition: Each of the groups must be big enough… Success/Failure Condition: Both groups are big enough that at least 10 successes and at least 10 failures have been observed in each.
1-8 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 8 Teacher Tip Some books use a boundary of 5. The AP rubrics accept either value.
1-9 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 9 The Sampling Distribution We already know that for large enough samples, each of our proportions has an approximately Normal sampling distribution. The same is true of their difference.
1-10 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 10 The Sampling Distribution (cont.) Provided that the sampled values are independent, the samples are independent, and the samples sizes are large enough, the sampling distribution of is modeled by a Normal model with Mean: Standard deviation:
1-11 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 11 Two-Proportion z-Interval When the conditions are met, we are ready to find the confidence interval for the difference of two proportions: The confidence interval is where The critical value z* depends on the particular confidence level, C, that you specify.
1-12 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 12 Everyone into the Pool The typical hypothesis test for the difference in two proportions is the one of no difference. In symbols, H 0 : p 1 – p 2 = 0. Since we are hypothesizing that there is no difference between the two proportions, that means that the standard deviations for each proportion are the same. Since this is the case, we combine (pool) the counts to get one overall proportion.
1-13 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 13 Everyone into the Pool (cont.) The pooled proportion is where and If the numbers of successes are not whole numbers, round them first. (This is the only time you should round values in the middle of a calculation.)
1-14 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 14 Everyone into the Pool (cont.) We then put this pooled value into the formula, substituting it for both sample proportions in the standard error formula:
1-15 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 15 Compared to What? We’ll reject our null hypothesis if we see a large enough difference in the two proportions. How can we decide whether the difference we see is large? Just compare it with its standard deviation. Unlike previous hypothesis testing situations, the null hypothesis doesn’t provide a standard deviation, so we’ll use a standard error (here, pooled).
1-16 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 16 Two-Proportion z-Test The conditions for the two-proportion z-test are the same as for the two-proportion z-interval. We are testing the hypothesis H 0 : p 1 – p 2 = 0, or, equivalently, H 0 : p 1 = p 2. Because we hypothesize that the proportions are equal, we pool them to find
1-17 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 17 Two-Proportion z-Test (cont.) We use the pooled value to estimate the standard error: Now we find the test statistic: When the conditions are met and the null hypothesis is true, this statistic follows the standard Normal model, so we can use that model to obtain a P-value.
1-18 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 18 What Can Go Wrong? Don’t use two-sample proportion methods when the samples aren’t independent. These methods give wrong answers when the independence assumption is violated. Don’t apply inference methods when there was no randomization. Our data must come from representative random samples or from a properly randomized experiment. Don’t interpret a significant difference in proportions causally. Be careful not to jump to conclusions about causality.
1-19 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 19 What have we learned? We’ve now looked at inference for the difference in two proportions. Perhaps the most important thing to remember is that the concepts and interpretations are essentially the same—only the mechanics have changed slightly.
1-20 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 20 What have we learned? (cont.) Hypothesis tests and confidence intervals for the difference in two proportions are based on Normal models. Both require us to find the standard error of the difference in two proportions. We do that by adding the variances of the two sample proportions, assuming our two groups are independent. When we test a hypothesis that the two proportions are equal, we pool the sample data; for confidence intervals we don’t pool.
1-21 Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 21, Slide 21 AP Tips Make sure to check your conditions! Two independent groups is an important new condition. Don’t forget it! When stating your conclusion, make it clear that you are talking about the difference of two proportions. These formulas are complicated! If you write them on an assessment, make sure they’re right!
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