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Slide 1 Copyright © 2005. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Textbook For Nursing.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 Copyright © 2005. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Textbook For Nursing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Textbook For Nursing Assistants Chapter 6 – Those We Care For

2 Slide 2 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. There is much more to being a nursing assistant than blood pressures and bedpans A health care worker can go to the most well-known schools, receive the most intense training, and graduate at the top of his class, but if he is not able to connect on a human level with his patients or residents, he will fail Those We Care For

3 Slide 3 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Patients, Residents, and Clients

4 Slide 4 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Patients, Residents and Clients A Patient A person who is receiving health care in a hospital, clinic, or extended- care facility A person who is living in a long-term care facility or an assisted-living facility A person who is receiving care in his or her own home, from a home health care agency A ResidentA Client

5 Slide 5 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. There are three general types of illnesses or conditions that can cause a person to need health care services: An acute illness A chronic illness A terminal illness Those We Care For

6 Slide 6 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. An acute illness is a condition characterized by a rapid onset and a relatively short recovery time Because the onset is rapid, acute illnesses are usually unexpected Examples: Pneumonia Appendicitis A broken bone Acute Illness

7 Slide 7 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. A chronic illness is a condition that is ongoing Examples: Diabetes Asthma Arthritis High blood pressure (hypertension) Chronic Illness

8 Slide 8 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. A terminal illness is an illness or condition from which recovery is not expected Examples: Some types of cancer End-stage emphysema Some heart conditions Terminal Illness

9 Slide 9 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Those We Care For: Grouping Grouped according to ages Grouped according to type of illness and medical condition Grouped according to special needs PEOPLE

10 Slide 10 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Terms that are often used to describe people: Surgical patients Medical patients Obstetrical patients Pediatric patients Geriatric patients Psychiatric patients Rehabilitation patients Sub-acute or extended-care patients Intensive care patients Those We Care For: Grouping

11 Slide 11 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Have illnesses or conditions that are treated by surgery Examples: Appendicitis Certain types of tumors Surgical Patients

12 Slide 12 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Have an illness or condition that is treated with interventions other than surgery, such as medication, physical therapy, or radiation Examples: Pneumonia Myocardial infarction (“heart attack”) Stroke Some stomach disorders (such as ulcers) Medical Patients

13 Slide 13 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Are pregnant or have just given birth Obstetric care extends throughout the pregnancy and labor and delivery, and then continues for about 8 weeks after delivery Obstetrical Patients

14 Slide 14 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Are children and adolescents Sometimes special considerations must be taken into account when providing treatment and care for younger patients, because a child’s body does not function in exactly the same way as an adult’s Pediatric Patients

15 Slide 15 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Are older adults (i.e., those 75 years and older) Health care workers who specialize in geriatrics are trained to recognize the physical and mental effects of the normal aging process and help older adults adjust to these changes Geriatric Patients

16 Slide 16 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Are people with impaired mental health Are often treated on an outpatient basis, using a combination of counseling and medication If deemed a danger to themselves or others, may be admitted to a health care facility for treatment Psychiatric Patients

17 Slide 17 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Are those who are undergoing therapy to restore their highest level of physical, emotional or mental, or vocational functioning Examples: People born with physical disabilities or deformities People who have had a stroke or are recovering from surgery or an injury People with substance abuse problems Rehabilitation Patients

18 Slide 18 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Are usually recovering from an acute illness or condition They do not need the total care provided by a hospital, but are not quite ready to return home Examples: Intravenously administered medications Physical therapy Sub-acute Patients

19 Slide 19 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Patients needing very specialized, or intensive, care are usually admitted to an intensive care unit or a special care unit Examples: After heart or brain surgery After suffering from a heart attack or stroke Intensive Care Patients

20 Slide 20 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Growth and Development

21 Slide 21 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Changes that occur physically are known as growth Growth is demonstrated by changes in height and weight and by physical maturation of the body’s organ systems Changes that occur psychologically or socially are known as development Development is evidenced by changes in a person’s behavior and way of thinking Growth and Development

22 Slide 22 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Occurs continuously throughout a person’s lifespan, from conception until death Occurs step by step and in an orderly progression. Each stage has specific characteristics and tasks that must be accomplished before the person can progress to the next stage Tasks of growth and development progress from the simple to the complex, head to toe, and from the center of the body outward Occurs at variable rates for each individual, and may occur unevenly or in spurts Principles of Growth and Development

23 Slide 23 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Infancy (birth to 1 year) Toddler hood (1 to 3 years) Preschool (3 to 5 years) School-age (5 to 12 years) Adolescence (12 to 20 years) Young adulthood (20 to 40 years) Middle adulthood (40 to 65 years) Later adulthood (65 to 75 years) Older adulthood (75 years and beyond) Stages of Growth and Development

24 Slide 24 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Infancy (birth to 1 year) Physical and psychological changes occur most rapidly New tasks are accomplished on a weekly and monthly basis The infant begins to smile and laugh, recognize parents and siblings, play peek-a-boo, and say simple words He progresses from drinking only mother’s milk or formula to feeding himself solid foods Stages of Growth and Development

25 Slide 25 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Toddler hood (1 to 3 years) Physical growth slows down during toddler hood Development of the muscular and nervous systems allows the toddler to become quite active and permits greater control of the bladder and bowels Toilet training begins The toddler learns the words to express emotions, such as “sad” or “scared” Remember that medical procedures that require separation of the child and the caregiver can be very frightening for a toddler Stages of Growth and Development

26 Slide 26 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Preschool (3 to 5 years) The preschooler’s physical coordination improves a great deal, and she learns to dress herself and tie her own shoes Toileting becomes more independent Children become aware of gender differences Begins to develop a conscience and is able to more easily follow rules Stages of Growth and Development

27 Slide 27 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. School-age (5 to 12 years) Major physical growth spurts lead to increase in both height and weight Improvement in writing and drawing ability Actively seeks approval from authority figures and peers Morals develop and school-aged children may feel very strongly about issues being either right or wrong, with no gray area Spirituality and religious beliefs, as well as a concern for other living things, also take root during this developmental stage Stages of Growth and Development

28 Slide 28 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Adolescence (12 to 20 years) Adolescence begins at the onset of puberty Physical growth and development during adolescence is considerable Psychologically, the period of adolescence is stormy Adolescents may be self-conscious about their changing bodies and increased awareness of their own sexuality They begin to question the moral teachings of authority figures and parents Stages of Growth and Development

29 Slide 29 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Young adulthood (20 to 40 years) Young adults typically enjoy stable, supporting friendships and good health The physical changes that occur in young adults are generally minor The adult height is achieved during adolescence Stages of Growth and Development

30 Slide 30 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Middle adulthood (40 to 65 years) Middle adulthood frequently finds people at the height of their careers and productivity Adults find themselves in the role of caretaker to their children as well as to their aging parents Physically, the middle adult begins to show signs of aging, such as wrinkles or a few gray hairs Women typically experience menopause While good health is usually still enjoyed, some chronic illnesses, such as hypertension and diabetes, become apparent during this stage Stages of Growth and Development

31 Slide 31 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Later adulthood (65 to 75 years) The physical signs of aging and the development of chronic illnesses become more prevalent Strength diminishes, as do many senses, such as hearing and sight During this stage, many people must cope with the loss of friends or a spouse due to death Stages of Growth and Development

32 Slide 32 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Older adulthood (75 years and beyond) A primary task in this stage is preparing for one’s own death Many must adjust to failing health and a growing dependency on others Enjoy sharing the wisdom of their years with younger people Stages of Growth and Development

33 Slide 33 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Basic Human Needs

34 Slide 34 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Clearly, all patients and residents are not alike The people you will care for will be in different growth and development stages, and as such, they will have different needs The primary mission of health care is to administer to the physical and emotional needs of those we care for Basic Human Needs

35 Slide 35 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs A need can be defined as something that is essential for a person’s physical and mental health Abraham Maslow (1908–1970), a famous American psychologist, defined what he thought to be the basic human needs Maslow’s pyramid, called Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs, reflects Maslow’s belief that the more basic, lower-level needs must be met, at least to some degree, before the higher-level needs can be met What Exactly are Needs?

36 Slide 36 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Maslow’s Pyramid Needs to be met first

37 Slide 37 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Oxygen, water, food, shelter, elimination, rest and sleep, physical activity, and sexuality Meeting the physiologic needs is essential for survival and is of the highest priority A person must have enough oxygen or he will die within minutes Nursing assistants perform many duties that assist patients in meeting their physiologic needs: Assisting with meals Toileting Ambulating Providing a relaxing environment in which to sleep Physiologic Needs

38 Slide 38 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Safety and security needs are both physical and emotional Nursing assistants follow policies and procedures that are designed to ensure their own safety, as well as that of their patients or residents To prevent the spread of infection, a nursing assistant follows the procedure for handwashing In order to protect a resident who is at risk for falling, the nursing assistant always makes sure that the resident has his walker close at hand Safety and Security Needs

39 Slide 39 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. All people need to feel loved, accepted, and appreciated by others People meet this need for one another by showing affection and forming close (intimate) relationships By taking an interest in the person and showing respect for the person’s specific likes and dislikes, nursing assistants can help to meet that person’s need to feel loved, accepted, and appreciated by others A smile A kind word A gentle touch Love and Belonging Needs

40 Slide 40 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Self-esteem is influenced by how a person perceives herself, and how she thinks others perceive her Everyone wants to be respected and thought well of by others Many things can affect the self-esteem of a person who is receiving health care, such as: Having to wear a hospital gown Having surgery that might cause the person’s physical appearance to change Having to depend on others for something he used to be able to do for himself Self-esteem Needs

41 Slide 41 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Nursing assistants help to preserve their patients’ and residents’ self-esteem by: Providing for privacy when it is necessary to expose someone’s body Allowing people to wear their own clothing Assisting people with basic grooming Self-esteem Needs

42 Slide 42 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. The highest level on the hierarchy of needs is self- actualization In order to achieve self-actualization, a person must reach his or her fullest potential Examples of goals that patients or residents may have include taking one step (for a person who has had a stroke) delivering a healthy baby (for a pregnant woman) returning home (for a person who has broken a hip) Self-actualization Needs

43 Slide 43 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. By helping people to meet their most essential needs first, you will enable them to meet their higher-level needs. For example It is difficult to work on a person’s self-esteem if he is struggling to breathe! Recognizing needs that people have difficulty meeting on their own, and helping them to meet these needs, is one of the most valuable contributions you will make as a nursing assistant Basic Human Needs

44 Slide 44 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. All human beings are sexual beings Heterosexuals are attracted to members of the opposite sex Homosexuals are attracted to members of the same sex Bisexuals are attracted to members of both sexes Transsexuals believe that they should be members of the opposite sex A transvestite is a person who becomes sexually excited by dressing as a member of the opposite sex In fact, most transvestites are heterosexual men Human Sexuality and Intimacy

45 Slide 45 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. There are many ways that, as a nursing assistant, you can help patients and residents to fulfill their need to be thought of as sexual beings Avoid being judgmental Help your patients and residents with rituals that make them feel either feminine or masculine Allow for privacy Always knock before entering a person’s room Nursing Assistants and Sexuality

46 Slide 46 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Culture and Religion

47 Slide 47 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Culture is another thing that makes human beings human. Culture is made up of the beliefs (including religious or spiritual beliefs), values, and traditions that are customary to a group of people While racial identity is often mixed with a person’s culture, race is a general characterization that describes skin color, body stature, facial features, and hair texture A person’s spiritual beliefs, or religion, are often very closely linked with his or her culture Culture and Religion

48 Slide 48 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Throughout your career, you may be lucky enough to care for people from many different cultural and religious backgrounds You will most likely encounter situations, practices, and beliefs that no book could have prepared you for! Take time to listen to your patients or residents, and to learn from them Exposure to cultures other than your own is enriching, both professionally and personally Culture and Religion

49 Slide 49 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Respecting The Individual

50 Slide 50 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. As a health care professional, you are trained to care for a person’s physical needs A holistic approach to health care takes into consideration a person’s emotional needs as well as his or her physical ones Making an effort to accommodate a person’s cultural beliefs and practices and allowing patients and residents to make decisions related to their own quality of life is one way that health care workers provide holistic care Respecting The Individual

51 Slide 51 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. What is it like to be a Patient or Resident?

52 Slide 52 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. What is it like to be a patient? Patients feel scared and lonely They feel sick They are unsure about their health, now and in the future What is it like to be a resident? Must adjust to loss of independence Must adjust to new home, and possibly a roommate Being a Patient or a Resident

53 Slide 53 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. When you must care for a patient or resident who makes you wish you had never chosen to be a nursing assistant (and you can be certain you will encounter patients or residents like this), stop and think for a moment about the reasons that person may be acting out of sorts When you look beyond the illness or condition, past the technical duties and procedures, and into that person’s eyes, you will find your reason for choosing to be a nursing assistant …a person who needs you very much The Nursing Assistant and the Individual

54 Slide 54 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. End of Presentation


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