Presentation on theme: "Lifespan Development Tracing the physical, social, emotional, and cognitive development from birth to death."— Presentation transcript:
Lifespan Development Tracing the physical, social, emotional, and cognitive development from birth to death.
Developmental Psychology The study of how people change from birth to old age. – Examines how and why changes occur – Emotional, Physical, Cognitive, Social Essential Questions 1.How much do individuals differ from each other (diversity vs. universality) 2.How much does one individual differ over time (stability vs. change) 3.Is our growth the result of nature or nurture?
How do we study “development”? MethodExamplePros/Cons? Cross-Sectional Does driving ability decrease with age? Study spatial abilities of individuals at various ages (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 year-olds) Spatial ability decline may indicate worsened driving skills? Inexpensive and quick Avoids high dropout rate Differences across age groups may be due to cohort differences rather than age. Longitudinal How do a person’s morals evolve over time? Give examples of moral dilemmas and measure responses. Take the SAME GROUP OF PEOPLE over the course of SEVERAL YEARS and study their individual changes Rich detail dependent mostly on time only Eliminates differences due to cohorts Expensive and time consuming Potential for high attrition rate- participants may drop out Biographical or Retrospective (Case study) How does isolation affect a child? Study of Genie? Generate great detail recall often untrustworthy Time consuming and expensive.
Babies Prenatal and Infant Development What factors can affect children before birth? What can newborn babies do?
The Progression of Prenatal Development Prenatal Development-the stage of development from conception to birth. Embryo-a developing human between 2 weeks and 3 months after conception. Fetus-a developing human between 3 months after conception and birth. Placenta-an organ that nourishes the embryo and fetus.
Developmental Disturbances Teratogens-toxic substances such as alcohol or nicotine that cross the placenta and may result in birth defects. Critical period-a time when certain internal and external influences have a major effect on development; at other periods, the same influences will have little or no effect.
Effects of Teratogens Alcohol is the drug most often abused by pregnant women (Riley et al., 2003). – Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) facial deformities, heart defects, stunted growth, and cognitive impairments. (1973) Excerpt: The Broken Cord Smoking – Cause of over 100,000 miscarriages a year. – Babies are more likely to suffer low birth weight which is liked to other developmental problems.
Prenatal Development Week by week development
Newborn Babies *Neonates- newborn babies. Reflexes Rooting – Baby turns its head toward something that brushes its cheek and gropes around with mouth Sucking – Newborn’s tendency to suck on objects placed in the mouth Swallowing – Enables newborn babies to swallow liquids without choking Grasping – Close fist around anything placed in their hand Stepping – Stepping motions made by an infant when held upright
Reflexes (Cont.) Babinski – When the sole of a baby’s foot is touched, the toes curl up and out Moro – The “Startle Reflex” – Babies arms will open when startled, then will be brought in close to the body Crawling – When placed on the stomach, a baby will make a crawling motion
Temperament Characteristic patterns of emotional reactions and emotional self-regulation Thomas and Chess identified three basic types of babies – Easy Good-natured, easy to care for, adaptable – Difficult Moody and intense, react to new situations and people negatively and strongly – Slow-to-warm-up Inactive and slow to respond to new things, and when they do react, it is mild – Kagan’s “Shy Child” Temperament is cyclical May predict temperament later in life
Perceptual Abilities Habituation Example - Learning Habituation Example Vision – Clear for 8-10 inches – Good vision by 6 months – Preferences: Depth perception – Visual cliff research Visual cliff research Other senses – Ears are functional prior to birth – Infants particularly tune in to human voices – Taste and smell are fully functional
Check Your Understanding Two reflexes normally disappear after two to three months. They are a. Sucking and swallowing b. Grasping and rooting c. Stepping and grasping d. Stepping and rooting Temperament differences in babies are attributable to a. Biological factors b. maternal emotions during pregnancy c. Parental reactions to an infant’s crying after a baby’s birth d. All of the above Newborns prefer looking at what kind of patterns? a. Colorful ones b. Moving ones c. Contrasting ones
Infancy and Childhood Do young children think differently from adults? What are the steps of physical, cognitive, moral, and social development?
Physical Development Children grow about 10 inches and gain about 15 pounds in first year Growth occurs in spurts, as much as 1 inch overnight Growth slows during second year
Social Development What are the most important aspects of a child’s physical, psychological, social, emotional, and cognitive development? – Nature vs. Nurture- Is a child capable of interacting, learning, etc. because of inherited intelligence? – Is parental scaffolding essential to growth? – How important is social interaction with other children? – Education? How can we study the relative influence of natural, biological development and the influence of parents and peers?
The Case of Genie Father was abusive Thought she was mentally retarded Isolated her in a room – Fed her enough to sustain life – Abused her – Strapped her to a “potty chair” This is an extreme case- What happens when children are simply “neglected”?
Motor/Memory Development Developmental norms – Ages by which an average child achieves various developmental milestones Maturation – Automatic biological unfolding of development in an organism as a function of passage of time Memory not solidified until after 3 rd birthday – Known as “infantile amnesia” – Development of hippocampus?
Journal Entry: How do you decide when to break rules or not?
Jean Piaget Swiss psychologist (1896-1980) Most influential theorist in the area of cognitive development. Believed that cognitive development is a way of adapting to the environment. In his view, children are intrinsically motivated to explore and understand things. Progress through 4 basic stages of cognitive development. Cognitive Development
Criticisms of Piaget's Theory Distinct stages in cognitive development that are progressed through in order? Infants do not understand world? Social interaction in cognitive development? – Lee Vygotsky and “scaffolding” Methods?
“Heinz dilemma” In Europe, a woman was near death from cancer. One drug might save her: a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only come up with about half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, “No.” The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. (Kohlberg, 1969) *Should the husband have done that? Why?
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development (3:24)Moral Development Preconventional (preadolescence) – “Good” behavior is mostly to avoid punishment or seek reward Conventional (adolescence) – Behavior is about pleasing others and, in later adolescence, becoming a good citizen Postconventional – Emphasis is on abstract principles such as justice, equality, and liberty – What makes for a good society? Is society right?
Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory Research shows that many people never progress past the conventional level Theory does not take cultural differences into account Theory is considered by some to be sexist in that girls often scored lower on tests of morality
Language Development Cooing (2-3 months) – Non-descript sounds Babbling (3-4 months) – Make the sounds of all language – Grunts, “ba”, “da” Intonation (4-6 months) – Rising and lowering of pitch – Can distinguish between own language and foreign language – By 1 year, babies use intonation to communicate Excitement, Anger, Curiosity
Language Dev’t (cont.) By 6 months, babies can recognize their own names First words (12 months) – Dada Holophrases (12-18 months) – One word sentence – “Up!”, “Down!”, “More!”
Language (con’t) Naming (1-2 years) – “Dog!” (very often used incorrectly for objects of any similarity) Short Sentences (2 years) – “My ball”, “I do it” Long sentences (2-3 years) – “Lea sad” becomes “Lea is sad” Overregularizaton – “Goed” instead of “went” – Good news: These kids get the basic rules By 5-6, vocabulary is 2,500 words
Theories of Language Development Skinner theorized that language develops as parents reward children for language usage – Repeating a baby’s noise – Congratulating them for communicating Chomsky proposed the language acquisition device – A neural mechanism for acquiring language presumed to be “wired into” all humans – Criticism: Children who were not “reinforced” as often (grew up in institutions or homes) developed more slowly
Language Development Bilingualism and the development of a second language – When small children learn two languages at once, they have one Broca’s area – When adolescents learn a second language, two Broca’s areas are needed
Social Development -Parent-Child Relationships in Childhood -Relationships with self and peers
Erikson’s Psychosocial Development StageConflictImportant EventDescription Infancy (0-18 mo)Trust vs. MistrustFeeding
Development of Attachment Imprinting (Lorenz): Imprinting (Lorenz) – Tendency to follow the first moving thing seen – Occurs in many species of animals- not humans! – If we hatched a chick and put a dog in front of it, the dog becomes the Mommy. Attachment – Humans form a bond with those who care for them in infancy – Based upon interaction with caregiver – Harlow revisitied – Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Autonomy – Sense of independence Socialization – Process by which children learn appropriate attitudes and behaviors
Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation
Secure – Will explore freely while the mother is present, will engage with strangers, will be visibly upset when the mother departs and happy to see the mother return – Child will not engage with a stranger if their mother is not in the room – Knowledge of a “secure base”
Anxious-Ambivalent (or Resistant) Insecure Anxious of exploration and of strangers, even when the mother is present Child is extremely distressed when mother departs When mother returns, child will remain close to the mother but resentful and resistant when the mother initiates attention Baby may also hit or push his mother and doesn’t “cling”
Anxious-Avoidant Insecure Will avoid or ignore the caregiver - showing little emotion when the caregiver departs or returns May run away from his caregiver when they approach and fail to cling to them when they pick him up The child will not explore very much regardless of who is there. Strangers will not be treated much differently from the caregiver There is not much emotional range displayed regardless of who is in the room or if it is empty.
Relationships With Other Children Solitary play – Children first play by themselves Parallel play – As they get older, children play side-by-side with other children, but not interacting Cooperative play – By about 3 or 3½, children begin playing with others
Relationships With Other Children Peer group – A network of same-aged friends and acquaintances who give one another emotional and social support – When children start school, peers begin to have greater influence Non-shared environment – Unique aspects of the environment that are experienced differently by siblings
When Attachment Goes Wrong Reactive Attachment Disorder – Inappropriate behaviors in social contexts – Inhibited vs. disinhibited Eastern European Orphanages Genie Today
Do Now: How do your parents react when you: – Receive a good grade on your report card? – Have a good game or performance? – Receive a bad grade on your report card? – Come home after your curfew? – Get a driving ticket?
Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Permissive-indulgent – Parents are very attentive and supportive, but do not set limits on behavior – Children tend to be immature, disrespectful, impulsive, and out of control Permissive-indifferent – Parents have too little control and often are indifferent and neglectful – Children tend to become overly dependent and lack social skills and self-control
Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Authoritarian – Tightly control children’s behavior and insist on obedience – Can produce children who have poor communication skills, who are moody, withdrawn, and distrustful Authoritative – Parents provide firm structure, but are not overly controlling – Parents listen to their children’s opinions and explain their decisions, bur are still clearly in charge – Children tend to become self-reliant and socially responsible
Scenario You receive a bad grade on your report card (not that this would ever happen to you)… You walk in the door and your parent….
Role Play!!! Read your assigned parenting style and reenact a scenario in which the parent displays this behavior and the child reacts
Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages For your assigned stage, you must: – Define stage (w/ ages) – Explain the “conflict” and the main “question” that needs to be answered – Give an example of how one might resolve this conflict – State the consequence of failing to resolve this conflict – Create a bumper sticker with a slogan and picture of a person who is in this stage
Sex-Role Development Gender identity – Knowledge of being a boy or girl – Occurs by age 3 Gender constancy – Child realizes that gender cannot change – Occurs by age 4 or 5
Sex-Role Development Gender-role awareness – Knowing appropriate behavior for each gender Gender stereotypes – Beliefs about presumed characteristics of each gender Sex-typed behavior – Socially defined ways to behave different for boys and girls – May be at least partly biological in origin
Social Changes Consequence of early and late developers Adolescent sexual activity – Approximately ¾ of males and ½ of females between 15 and 19 have had intercourse – Average age for first intercourse is 16 for boys and 17 for girls Teenage pregnancy – Rate of teen pregnancy has fallen in the last 50 years – Highest in U.S. of all industrialized nations- Why?
Social Development (Cont.) Erikson’s Identity vs. Role Confusion Identity crisis- Intense period of self-exploration Forming an identity – Achievement Successfully find identity – Foreclosure Settle for identity others wish for them Foreclosure and homosexuality? – Moratorium Explore various identities – Diffusion Resistance to “find themselves”
Cognitive Changes Imaginary audience – Adolescent delusion that everyone else is always focused on them – Can lead to self-esteem issues (if they expect others perceive them negatively) – Satisfaction in appearance related to higher self esteem- why? Personal fable – Delusion that they are unique and very important Invulnerability – Nothing can harm them – Invulnerability and Driving Invulnerability and Driving
“Storm” and “Stress” of Adolescence It has been observed in the past that adolescents are overly stressed and can exhibit that through their “attitudes” or behavior Many have believed that hormones make teenagers more stressed Truth: 75% are content and had positive self-images – Those who don’t- Constantly being controlled, as in where to go and when to sleep/wake up, contributes to stress (schedules that don’t match their biological clocks)
Social Changes Relationships with peers – Adolescents often form cliques, or groups with similar interests and strong mutual attachment – Unisex at first, then mixed-sex, then couples – 16-19- less group-oriented, more about dating Relationships with parents – Adolescents test and question every rule and guideline from parents
Adolescence and Suicide Suicide is the sixth leading cause of death among those 5-14 years old. Suicide is the third leading cause of death among those 15-24 years old. Between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, the suicide rate among U.S. males aged 15-24 more than tripled (from 6.3 per 100,000 in 1955 to 21.3 in 1977). Among females aged 15-24, the rate more than doubled during this period (from 2.0 to 5.2). The youth suicide rate generally leveled off during the 1980s and early 1990s, and since the mid-1990s has been steadily decreasing. Between 1980-1996, the suicide rate for African-American males aged 15- 19 has also doubled. Risk factors for suicide among the young include suicidal thoughts, psychiatric disorders (such as depression, impulsive aggressive behavior, bipolar disorder, certain anxiety disorders), drug and/or alcohol abuse and previous suicide attempts, with the risk increased if there is situational stress and access to firearms.
Over 36,000 people in the United States die by suicide every year. Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death for adults between the ages of 18 and 65 years in the United States. Currently, suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. A person dies by suicide about every 15 minutes in the United States. Every day, approximately 101 Americans take their own life. There are an estimated 8-25 attempted suicides for every suicide death. Nearly 1,000,000 people make a suicide attempt every year. Men are nearly 4 times more likely to die by suicide than women. Women attempt suicide 3 times as often as men. Suicide rates are highest for people between the ages of 40 and 59. White individuals are most likely to die by suicide, followed by Native American peoples. Click here to view.Click here to view Other Suicide Statistics
Why? The Mysterious Workings of the Adolescent Brain The Mysterious Workings of the Adolescent Brain
Love, Partnerships, and Parenting Forming partnerships (1:15) Forming partnerships – First major event of adulthood is forming and maintaining close relationships Parenthood – Having children alters dynamics of relationships – Marital satisfaction often declines after birth of child Divorce – Unlucky March? Unlucky March?
Other Issues The World of Work – Balancing career and family obligations is a challenge – United States vs. Europe* Cognitive Changes – Thinking is more flexible and practical- realize that there can be more than one correct answer! – Vocabulary and Verbal memory increase through 50s; Reasoning and spatial awareness increase through 40s; perceptual speed declines at 25; math skills decline at 40 – Can be improved with rehearsal!! (Don’t stop doing crosswords)
Other issues Personality Changes – Psychological health increases – Less self-centered, better coping skills – Some men and women have a midlife crisis- 10% Vs. midlife transition- reassess and recreate goals The "Change of Life" – Menopause – Reproduction ceases
Empty Nest Myth Article by Lindsay Lyon
Physical Changes In late adulthood, physical deterioration is inevitable A person’s response to these changes are important- “You’re only as old as you feel.” 98 year old playing the piano
Social Development Independent and satisfying lifestyles Retirement- – Most people will stop working and face challenges with that sudden change Sexual behavior- – Research shows that many older couples continue to be sexually active
Social Development Integrity vs. Despair What are the most common regrets of those who are at the end of life?
Cognitive Changes Research has demonstrated that those who continue to “exercise” their mental abilities can delay mental decline Alzheimer’s disease afflicts approximately 10% of people over 65 and perhaps as many as 50% of those over 85 Alzheimer’s disease
Death Is it possible to die from a broken heart? Psychosomatic disorders – Psychological disorders that manifest as physical disorders – Tension headaches, high blood pressure, death? – Dying of a Broken Heart? Dying of a Broken Heart?
Evidence “Stress cardiomyopathy is a condition in which intense emotional or physical stress can cause rapid and severe heart muscle weakness. “ 90% of patients are female Affects contractions of the heart Different than a typical heart attack http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC260011 4/
Other Psychosomatic Illnesses Why would stress lead to a “rapid decline” in other patients who are suffering from diseases? What does stress do to the body? – How are resources “redistributed”? – Where is stress cardiomyopathy? Other psychosomatic consequences?
Facing the End of Life Kubler-Ross’s stages of dying – Denial – Anger – Bargaining – Depression – Acceptance
Do Now: A 4 year old child is shown a box of crayons and is asked what may be inside. When he guesses that crayons are inside, you show the child that there are actually markers inside. When you ask the child what the next person that walks into the room will think is in the box, the child responds, “markers”. What characteristic is this displaying? Why do 3 year olds cover their eyes when they play “hide and seek” and expect that you won’t see them?