Presentation on theme: "Lifespan Development Tracing the physical, social, emotional, and cognitive development from birth to death."— Presentation transcript:
1Lifespan DevelopmentTracing the physical, social, emotional, and cognitive development from birth to death.
2Developmental Psychology The study of how people change from birth to old age.Examines how and why changes occurEmotional, Physical, Cognitive, SocialEssential QuestionsHow much do individuals differ from each other (diversity vs. universality)How much does one individual differ over time (stability vs. change)Is our growth the result of nature or nurture?
3How do we study “development”? MethodExamplePros/Cons?Cross-SectionalDoes driving ability decrease with age?Study spatial abilities of individuals at various ages (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 year-olds)Spatial ability decline may indicate worsened driving skills?Inexpensive and quickAvoids high dropout rateDifferences across age groups may be due to cohort differences rather than age.LongitudinalHow do a person’s morals evolve over time?Give examples of moral dilemmas and measure responses.Take the SAME GROUP OF PEOPLE over the course of SEVERAL YEARS and study their individual changesRich detail dependent mostly on time onlyEliminates differences due to cohortsExpensive and time consumingPotential for high attrition rate-participants may drop outBiographical or Retrospective (Case study)How does isolation affect a child?Study of Genie?Generate great detailrecall often untrustworthyTime consuming and expensive.
4Babies Prenatal and Infant Development What factors can affect children before birth?What can newborn babies do?
5The Progression of Prenatal Development Prenatal Development-the stage of development from conception to birth.Embryo-a developing human between 2 weeks and 3 months after conception.Fetus-a developing human between 3 months after conception and birth.Placenta-an organ that nourishes the embryo and fetus.
6Developmental Disturbances Teratogens-toxic substances such as alcohol or nicotine that cross the placenta and may result in birth defects.Critical period-a time when certain internal and external influences have a major effect on development; at other periods, the same influences will have little or no effect.
7Effects of TeratogensAlcohol is the drug most often abused by pregnant women (Riley et al., 2003).Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)facial deformities, heart defects, stunted growth, and cognitive impairments. (1973)Excerpt: The Broken CordSmokingCause of over 100,000 miscarriages a year.Babies are more likely to suffer low birth weight which is liked to other developmental problems.
10*Neonates- newborn babies. ReflexesRootingBaby turns its head toward something that brushes its cheek and gropes around with mouthSuckingNewborn’s tendency to suck on objects placed in the mouthSwallowingEnables newborn babies to swallow liquids without chokingGraspingClose fist around anything placed in their handSteppingStepping motions made by an infant when held upright
11Reflexes (Cont.) Babinski Moro Crawling When the sole of a baby’s foot is touched, the toes curl up and outMoroThe “Startle Reflex”Babies arms will open when startled, then will be brought in close to the bodyCrawlingWhen placed on the stomach, a baby will make a crawling motion
12Temperament Temperament is cyclical Characteristic patterns of emotional reactions and emotional self-regulationThomas and Chess identified three basic types of babiesEasyGood-natured, easy to care for, adaptableDifficultMoody and intense, react to new situations and people negatively and stronglySlow-to-warm-upInactive and slow to respond to new things, and when they do react, it is mildKagan’s “Shy Child”Temperament is cyclicalMay predict temperament later in life
13Perceptual Abilities Habituation Example - Learning Vision Clear for 8-10 inchesGood vision by 6 monthsPreferences:Depth perceptionVisual cliff researchOther sensesEars are functional prior to birthInfants particularly tune in to human voicesTaste and smell are fully functional
17Check Your Understanding Two reflexes normally disappear after two to three months. They area. Sucking and swallowingb. Grasping and rootingc. Stepping and graspingd. Stepping and rootingTemperament differences in babies are attributable toa. Biological factorsb. maternal emotions during pregnancyc. Parental reactions to an infant’s crying after a baby’s birthd. All of the aboveNewborns prefer looking at what kind of patterns?a. Colorful onesb. Moving onesc. Contrasting ones
18Do young children think differently from adults? Infancy and ChildhoodDo young children think differently from adults?What are the steps of physical, cognitive, moral, and social development?
19Physical DevelopmentChildren grow about 10 inches and gain about 15 pounds in first yearGrowth occurs in spurts, as much as 1 inch overnightGrowth slows during second year
20Social DevelopmentWhat are the most important aspects of a child’s physical, psychological, social, emotional, and cognitive development?Nature vs. Nurture- Is a child capable of interacting, learning, etc. because of inherited intelligence?Is parental scaffolding essential to growth?How important is social interaction with other children?Education?How can we study the relative influence of natural, biological development and the influence of parents and peers?
21The Case of Genie Father was abusive Thought she was mentally retarded Isolated her in a roomFed her enough to sustain lifeAbused herStrapped her to a “potty chair”This is an extreme case- What happens when children are simply “neglected”?
22Motor/Memory Development Developmental normsAges by which an average child achieves various developmental milestonesMaturationAutomatic biological unfolding of development in an organism as a function of passage of timeMemory not solidified until after 3rd birthdayKnown as “infantile amnesia”Development of hippocampus?
23Journal Entry:How do you decide when to break rules or not?
24Jean Piaget Swiss psychologist (1896-1980) Cognitive DevelopmentJean Piaget Swiss psychologist ( )Most influential theorist in the area of cognitive development.Believed that cognitive development is a way of adapting to the environment.In his view, children are intrinsically motivated to explore and understand things.Progress through 4 basic stages of cognitive development.
25COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Sensory-Motor Stage (birth to 2 years)Object permanencePreoperational Stage (2-7 years)Egocentric; Conservation errors; Animism; ArtificialismConcrete Operations (7-11 years)Principles of conservation; ReversibilityFormal Operations (11-15 years)Understand abstract ideas
27Criticisms of Piaget's Theory Distinct stages in cognitive development that are progressed through in order?Infants do not understand world?Social interaction in cognitive development?Lee Vygotsky and “scaffolding”Methods?
28“Heinz dilemma”In Europe, a woman was near death from cancer. One drug might save her: a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only come up with about half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, “No.” The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. (Kohlberg, 1969)*Should the husband have done that? Why?
29Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development (3:24) Preconventional (preadolescence)“Good” behavior is mostly to avoid punishment or seek rewardConventional (adolescence)Behavior is about pleasing others and, in later adolescence, becoming a good citizenPostconventionalEmphasis is on abstract principles such as justice, equality, and libertyWhat makes for a good society? Is society right?
30Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory Research shows that many people never progress past the conventional levelTheory does not take cultural differences into accountTheory is considered by some to be sexist in that girls often scored lower on tests of morality
31Language Development Cooing (2-3 months) Babbling (3-4 months) Non-descript soundsBabbling (3-4 months)Make the sounds of all languageGrunts, “ba”, “da”Intonation (4-6 months)Rising and lowering of pitchCan distinguish between own language and foreign languageBy 1 year, babies use intonation to communicateExcitement, Anger, Curiosity
32Language Dev’t (cont.)By 6 months, babies can recognize their own namesFirst words (12 months)DadaHolophrases (12-18 months)One word sentence“Up!”, “Down!”, “More!”
33Language (con’t) Naming (1-2 years) Short Sentences (2 years) “Dog!” (very often used incorrectly for objects of any similarity)Short Sentences (2 years)“My ball”, “I do it”Long sentences (2-3 years)“Lea sad” becomes “Lea is sad”Overregularizaton“Goed” instead of “went”Good news: These kids get the basic rulesBy 5-6, vocabulary is 2,500 words
34Theories of Language Development Skinner theorized that language develops as parents reward children for language usageRepeating a baby’s noiseCongratulating them for communicatingChomsky proposed the language acquisition deviceA neural mechanism for acquiring language presumed to be “wired into” all humansCriticism: Children who were not “reinforced” as often (grew up in institutions or homes) developed more slowly
35Language DevelopmentBilingualism and the development of a second languageWhen small children learn two languages at once, they have one Broca’s areaWhen adolescents learn a second language, two Broca’s areas are needed
36Social Development Parent-Child Relationships in Childhood Relationships with self and peers
37Erikson’s Psychosocial Development StageConflictImportant EventDescriptionInfancy (0-18 mo)Trust vs. MistrustFeeding
38Development of Attachment Imprinting (Lorenz):Tendency to follow the first moving thing seenOccurs in many species of animals- not humans!If we hatched a chick and put a dog in front of it, the dog becomes the Mommy.AttachmentHumans form a bond with those who care for them in infancyBased upon interaction with caregiverHarlow revisitiedAinsworth’s Strange SituationAutonomySense of independenceSocializationProcess by which children learn appropriate attitudes and behaviors
42SecureWill explore freely while the mother is present, will engage with strangers, will be visibly upset when the mother departs and happy to see the mother returnChild will not engage with a stranger if their mother is not in the roomKnowledge of a “secure base”
43Anxious-Ambivalent (or Resistant) Insecure Anxious of exploration and of strangers, even when the mother is presentChild is extremely distressed when mother departsWhen mother returns, child will remain close to the mother but resentful and resistant when the mother initiates attentionBaby may also hit or push his mother and doesn’t “cling”
44Anxious-Avoidant Insecure Will avoid or ignore the caregiver - showing little emotion when the caregiver departs or returnsMay run away from his caregiver when they approach and fail to cling to them when they pick him upThe child will not explore very much regardless of who is there. Strangers will not be treated much differently from the caregiverThere is not much emotional range displayed regardless of who is in the room or if it is empty.
46Relationships With Other Children Solitary playChildren first play by themselvesParallel playAs they get older, children play side-by-side with other children, but not interactingCooperative playBy about 3 or 3½, children begin playing with others
47Relationships With Other Children Peer groupA network of same-aged friends and acquaintances who give one another emotional and social supportWhen children start school, peers begin to have greater influenceNon-shared environmentUnique aspects of the environment that are experienced differently by siblings
48When Attachment Goes Wrong Reactive Attachment DisorderInappropriate behaviors in social contextsInhibited vs. disinhibitedEastern European OrphanagesGenie Today
49Do Now: How do your parents react when you: Receive a good grade on your report card?Have a good game or performance?Receive a bad grade on your report card?Come home after your curfew?Get a driving ticket?
50Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Permissive-indulgentParents are very attentive and supportive, but do not set limits on behaviorChildren tend to be immature, disrespectful, impulsive, and out of controlPermissive-indifferentParents have too little control and often are indifferent and neglectfulChildren tend to become overly dependent and lack social skills and self-control
51Baumrind’s Parenting Styles AuthoritarianTightly control children’s behavior and insist on obedienceCan produce children who have poor communication skills, who are moody, withdrawn, and distrustfulAuthoritativeParents provide firm structure, but are not overly controllingParents listen to their children’s opinions and explain their decisions, bur are still clearly in chargeChildren tend to become self-reliant and socially responsible
52ScenarioYou receive a bad grade on your report card (not that this would ever happen to you)…You walk in the door and your parent….
53Role Play!!!Read your assigned parenting style and reenact a scenario in which the parent displays this behavior and the child reacts
54Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages For your assigned stage, you must:Define stage (w/ ages)Explain the “conflict” and the main “question” that needs to be answeredGive an example of how one might resolve this conflictState the consequence of failing to resolve this conflictCreate a bumper sticker with a slogan and picture of a person who is in this stage
55Sex-Role Development Gender identity Gender constancy Knowledge of being a boy or girlOccurs by age 3Gender constancyChild realizes that gender cannot changeOccurs by age 4 or 5
56Sex-Role Development Gender-role awareness Gender stereotypes Knowing appropriate behavior for each genderGender stereotypesBeliefs about presumed characteristics of each genderSex-typed behaviorSocially defined ways to behave different for boys and girlsMay be at least partly biological in origin
58Social Changes Consequence of early and late developers Adolescent sexual activityApproximately ¾ of males and ½ of females between 15 and 19 have had intercourseAverage age for first intercourse is 16 for boys and 17 for girlsTeenage pregnancyRate of teen pregnancy has fallen in the last 50 yearsHighest in U.S. of all industrialized nations- Why?
59Social Development (Cont.) Erikson’s Identity vs. Role ConfusionIdentity crisis- Intense period of self-explorationForming an identityAchievementSuccessfully find identityForeclosureSettle for identity others wish for themForeclosure and homosexuality?MoratoriumExplore various identitiesDiffusionResistance to “find themselves”
60Cognitive Changes Imaginary audience Personal fable Invulnerability Adolescent delusion that everyone else is always focused on themCan lead to self-esteem issues (if they expect others perceive them negatively)Satisfaction in appearance related to higher self esteem- why?Personal fableDelusion that they are unique and very importantInvulnerabilityNothing can harm themInvulnerability and Driving
61“Storm” and “Stress” of Adolescence It has been observed in the past that adolescents are overly stressed and can exhibit that through their “attitudes” or behaviorMany have believed that hormones make teenagers more stressedTruth: 75% are content and had positive self-imagesThose who don’t- Constantly being controlled, as in where to go and when to sleep/wake up, contributes to stress (schedules that don’t match their biological clocks)
62Social Changes Relationships with peers Relationships with parents Adolescents often form cliques, or groups with similar interests and strong mutual attachmentUnisex at first, then mixed-sex, then couplesless group-oriented, more about datingRelationships with parentsAdolescents test and question every rule and guideline from parents
63Adolescence and Suicide Suicide is the sixth leading cause of death among those 5-14 years old.Suicide is the third leading cause of death among those years old.Between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, the suicide rate among U.S. males aged more than tripled (from 6.3 per 100,000 in 1955 to 21.3 in 1977). Among females aged 15-24, the rate more than doubled during this period (from 2.0 to 5.2). The youth suicide rate generally leveled off during the 1980s and early 1990s, and since the mid-1990s has been steadily decreasing.Between , the suicide rate for African-American males aged has also doubled.Risk factors for suicide among the young include suicidal thoughts, psychiatric disorders (such as depression, impulsive aggressive behavior, bipolar disorder, certain anxiety disorders), drug and/or alcohol abuse and previous suicide attempts, with the risk increased if there is situational stress and access to firearms.
64Other Suicide Statistics Over 36,000 people in the United States die by suicide every year.Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death for adults between the ages of 18 and 65 years in the United States.Currently, suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States.A person dies by suicide about every 15 minutes in the United States.Every day, approximately 101 Americans take their own life.There are an estimated 8-25 attempted suicides for every suicide death.Nearly 1,000,000 people make a suicide attempt every year.Men are nearly 4 times more likely to die by suicide than women. Women attempt suicide 3 times as often as men.Suicide rates are highest for people between the ages of 40 and 59.White individuals are most likely to die by suicide, followed by Native American peoples. Click here to view.
65Why?The Mysterious Workings of the Adolescent Brain
67Love, Partnerships, and Parenting Forming partnerships (1:15)First major event of adulthood is forming and maintaining close relationshipsParenthoodHaving children alters dynamics of relationshipsMarital satisfaction often declines after birth of childDivorceUnlucky March?
68Other Issues The World of Work Cognitive Changes Balancing career and family obligations is a challengeUnited States vs. Europe*Cognitive ChangesThinking is more flexible and practical- realize that there can be more than one correct answer!Vocabulary and Verbal memory increase through 50s; Reasoning and spatial awareness increase through 40s; perceptual speed declines at 25; math skills decline at 40Can be improved with rehearsal!! (Don’t stop doing crosswords)
69Other issues Personality Changes The "Change of Life" Psychological health increasesLess self-centered, better coping skillsSome men and women have a midlife crisis- 10%Vs. midlife transition- reassess and recreate goalsThe "Change of Life"MenopauseReproduction ceases
72Physical ChangesIn late adulthood, physical deterioration is inevitableA person’s response to these changes are important- “You’re only as old as you feel.”98 year old playing the piano
73Social Development Independent and satisfying lifestyles Retirement- Most people will stop working and face challenges with that sudden changeSexual behavior-Research shows that many older couples continue to be sexually active
74Social Development Integrity vs. Despair What are the most common regrets of those who are at the end of life?
75Cognitive ChangesResearch has demonstrated that those who continue to “exercise” their mental abilities can delay mental declineAlzheimer’s disease afflicts approximately 10% of people over 65 and perhaps as many as 50% of those over 85
76Death Is it possible to die from a broken heart? Psychosomatic disordersPsychological disorders that manifest as physical disordersTension headaches, high blood pressure, death?Dying of a Broken Heart?
77Evidence“Stress cardiomyopathy is a condition in which intense emotional or physical stress can cause rapid and severe heart muscle weakness. “90% of patients are femaleAffects contractions of the heartDifferent than a typical heart attack
78Other Psychosomatic Illnesses Why would stress lead to a “rapid decline” in other patients who are suffering from diseases?What does stress do to the body?How are resources “redistributed”?Where is stress cardiomyopathy? Other psychosomatic consequences?
79Facing the End of Life Kubler-Ross’s stages of dying Denial Anger BargainingDepressionAcceptance
80Do Now:A 4 year old child is shown a box of crayons and is asked what may be inside. When he guesses that crayons are inside, you show the child that there are actually markers inside. When you ask the child what the next person that walks into the room will think is in the box, the child responds, “markers”. What characteristic is this displaying?Why do 3 year olds cover their eyes when they play “hide and seek” and expect that you won’t see them?