Psychology 3053 The Trait Perspective 3 1. Has a comprehensive taxonomy of personality traits been developed? (continued) 2. Do personalities change across the lifespan? 3. What is a personality disorder?
By the end of today’s class, you should be able to: 2.identify sex differences in and correlates of the five factor taxonomy. 3. discuss criticisms of the five factor taxonomy. 4 4 1.describe the five factor personality taxonomy. 4. review research regarding personality stability vs. change across the lifespan.
8. distinguish between antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. 5 5 7.review the primary symptoms of schizoid and antisocial personality disorders. 6. distinguish between the “clusters” of personality disorders. 5. describe the general features of personality disorders.
Psychology 3056 Factor analysis of common traits in the English language suggests that there are five groups of highly inter-correlated traits. 6 These reflect five personality dimensions or “superordinate” traits: Has a comprehensive taxonomy of personality traits been developed? (continued)
DimensionExample Adjectives Openness to Experience Curious, imaginative, artistic vs. conventional, uncreative, unimaginative. ConscientiousnessEfficient, organized, thorough vs. careless, disorderly, lazy. Extraversion Forceful, sociable, energetic vs. inhibited, shy, unadventurous. AgreeablenessForgiving, sympathetic, understanding vs. cruel, harsh, stubborn. NeuroticismAnxious, insecure, moody vs. calm, even-tempered, stable. 7
Psychology 3058 Score 1: Openness to Experience (F=M*) FemalesX = 19.4SD = 2.925%ile = 1875%ile = 21 MalesX = 20.3SD = 2.825%ile = 1875%ile = 22 Score 2: Conscientiousness (F>M*) FemalesX = 20.2SD = 3.225%ile = 1975%ile = 23 MalesX = 18.8SD = 3.325%ile = 1775%ile = 21 BFT: Big Five Test X = Mean SD = Standard deviation 25%ile and below = Low scores 75%ile and above = High scores 8
Psychology 30510 In general, openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness are correlated with positive outcomes. 10 Neuroticism is correlated with negative outcomes.
Psychology 30511 Examples: Openness, extraversion: More positive life events. 11 Conscientiousness: Greater physical health and longer lifespan. Agreeableness: Lower levels of depression. Neuroticism: Poorer physical health and shorter lifespan.
Psychology 30513 Two findings have emerged from studies that have assessed the five factor taxonomy across the lifespan: 13 Do personalities change across the lifespan?
Psychology 30514 (a)In general, mean scores on: extraversion and neuroticism decrease. openness remains stable. conscientiousness and agreeableness increase. this pattern holds across cultures (e.g., Britain, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Spain, Turkey; McCrae et al, 2000).
Psychology 30515 (b) In general, rank order ratings (i.e., rank order position) remains stable. NameAgreeableness Score at 10 Agreeableness Score at 30 Joan2040 Daniel4060 Michael6080
What is a personality disorder (PD)? According to the DSM V, a PD is: 1. An enduring pattern of inner experience and behaviour that deviates markedly from the expectations of one’s culture. Manifest in 2 or more of the following: Cognition, affect, interpersonal functioning, impulse control. 16
2. The enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations. 3. The enduring pattern leads to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. 4. The enduring pattern is stable and of long duration, and its onset can be traced back to adolescence or early adulthood. 17
The DSM-V identifies 10 personality disorders organized in 3 clusters: Cluster A: The eccentric cluster, social awkwardness, engage in odd or eccentric behaviour. Cluster B: The erratic cluster, demonstrate reduced emotional control. Cluster C: The anxious cluster, engage in anxiety- avoiding behaviour. 18
Examples: 1. Schizoid PD: A pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. Manifest in 4 or more of the following: 19
Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, including being part of a family. Almost always chooses solitary activities. Has little, if any, interest in having sexual experiences with another person. Takes pleasure in few, if any, activities. Lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives. Appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others. Shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affectivity. 20
Case study: As an undergraduate, Roger volunteered in the lab of one of his professors. He was responsible, showing up on time and doing the work he was given. However, he seemed detached from the work, never getting too excited or appearing to be even interested, though he volunteered to work for several semesters. Roger often worked in the lab at night. On several occasions, graduate students complained that Roger “stared” at them from the hallway and is “spooky.” Roger lived with his younger brother. The brother handled most of the daily chores. Roger spent most of his time studying and reading. In class, he never spoke to classmates. Outside of class, he did not socialize with friends, nor did he participate in any extracurricular activities. After graduating, Roger returned to live with his parents, in a room above their garage; he has been living there for the past 15 years. Every few years, Roger e-mails his professor to update him on his life. When his professor attempts to reply, he receives a message that the e-mail address is no longer available. Roger changes his e-mail address to avoid further correspondence. 21
Prevalence: 3.1%-4.9% (Grant et al., 2004; Lenzenweger et al., 2007). M>F. 22
2. Antisocial PD: A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others, occurring since 15, as indicated by 3 or more of the following: 23
Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors, as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations. Indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another. 24
Case study: Ms. R was referred to a therapist as part of a rehabilitation program. She is serving time in prison for fraud. She perpetrated a scam that involved hundreds of victims. Many of her victims lost their life savings and suffered grievous and life-threatening stress symptoms. She is annoyed that she must attend therapy but tries to hide her displeasure by claiming to be eager to “heal and reform herself.” When asked how she felt that three of her victims died of heart attacks as a result of her misdeeds, she barely suppresses an urge to laugh out loud and then denies any responsibility. Her “clients” were adults who knew what they were doing; had the scam worked, they would have all become “filthy rich.” As she discusses her life history with the therapist, she confesses that she began stealing at the age of 9, has had countless extramarital affairs, and has frequent conflict with her daughter. The most recent conflict resulted in her daughter’s suicide attempt. 25
Prevalence: 0.2%-3.3% (Goldstein et al., 2007; Lenzenweger et al., 2007; Torgersen et al., 2001). M>F. 26
Behavioural features: Parasitic lifestyle, poor behavioural control, promiscuous sexual behaviour, early behaviour problems, lack of realistic long-term goals, impulsivity, irresponsibility, failure to accept responsibility for actions, juvenile delinquency, criminal versatility. Affective/interpersonal features: Glibness/superficial charm, grandiose sense of self-worth, need for stimulation/proneness to boredom, pathological lying, manipulative, lack of remorse or guilt, shallow affect, callous/lack of empathy. 27 Antisocial PD vs. psychopathy:
By the end of today’s class, you should be able to: 2.identify sex differences in and correlates of the five factor taxonomy. 3. discuss criticisms of the five factor taxonomy. 28 1.describe the five factor personality taxonomy. 4. review research regarding personality stability vs. change across the lifespan.
8. distinguish between antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. 29 7.review the primary symptoms of schizoid and antisocial personality disorders. 6. distinguish between the “clusters” of personality disorders. 5. describe the general features of personality disorders.