Presentation on theme: "Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning 1. Preconventional (Focus on self, avoid punishment, obey authority) 2. Conventional (Focus on how others will see."— Presentation transcript:
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning 1. Preconventional (Focus on self, avoid punishment, obey authority) 2. Conventional (Focus on how others will see you, social rules, obey laws/norms) 3. Post-conventional (Focus on ideals, principles, values, and rights “life is sacred” )
4 Component Model of Morality Moral reasoning alone is insufficient to produce moral behaviour 1. Moral sensitivity (interpreting the situation as moral). 2. Moral judgment (judging which of the available actions are most justified). 3. Moral motivation (prioritising moral issues). 4. Moral character (being able to construct and implement moral actions).
Moral Dilemmas A Callous Passerby Roger Smith, a quite competent swimmer, is out for a leisurely stroll. During the course of his walk he passes by a deserted pier from which a teenage boy who apparently cannot swim has fallen into the water. The boy is screaming for help. Smith recognizes that there is absolutely no danger to himself if he jumps in to save the boy; he could easily succeed if he tried. Nevertheless, he chooses to ignore the boy's cries. The water is cold and he is afraid of catching a cold -- he doesn't want to get his good clothes wet either. "Why should I inconvenience myself for this kid," Smith says to himself, and passes on. Does Smith have a moral obligation to save the boy? If so, should he have a legal obligation as well?
Conduct Disorder 9% of males, 2 % of females under age 18 Basic rights of others are violated, social norms and rules violated Disturbance of conduct lasting at least 6 months during which 3 of the following have been present: Has stolen without confrontation of victim Ran away from home more than twice Often lies Deliberately engages in fire setting Often truant from school Broken into someone else care, house, etc. Cruel to animals Forced someone into sexual activity Initiates physical fights Used a weapon in more than one fight Stolen with confrontation of a victim Physically cruel to people
Oppositional Defiant Disorder Pattern of behavior is negative, hostile, and defiant but basic rights of others are not violated More males than females Disturbance of conduct lasting at least 6 months during which 5 of the following have been present (more so than the average person of the same age): Often loses temper Often argues with adults Often refuses adult requests Deliberately does things to annoy other people Often blames others for his/her mistakes Easy annoyed Often angry and resentful Often spiteful and resentful Often swears or uses obscene language
Antisocial Behavior Comes in many forms, degrees Likely a number of paths Poor parenting > child conduct problems > peer rejection + academic failure > deviant peer group > antisocial behavior “Poor parenting” can result from low SES, low education, unemployment, marital discord/divorce, etc. Amplifying effect = stressors greater for those who already have negative traits or poor social skills
Antisocial Behavior: Cross-Cultural Differences
Antisocial Behavior: Cross- Cultural Difference
Antisocial Behavior In stark contrast to the amplifying effect of “normal” antisocial behavior, antisocial personality disorder seems to be relatively unmalleable.
Antisocial Personality Disorder A personality disorder = enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, or thinking about world, exhibited in a range of contexts; inflexible and maladaptive (often recognizable by adolescence or earlier) Conduct disorder prior to age 15 and A pattern of irresponsible and antisocial behavior since age 15 including at least 4 of the following: Unable to sustain consistent work behavior Fails to conform to social norms; lawful behavior Irritable and aggressive Fails to honor financial obligations Impulsive No regard for the truth (lies, cons, uses aliases) Reckless regarding own and others’ safety If parent, lacks ability to function as responsible parent Has never sustained a monogamous relationship for more than a year Lacks remorse
Antisocial Personality Disorder Emotional/Interpersonal Problems Glib and superficial Egocentric Lack of remorse or guilt Lack of empathy Deceitful and manipulative Shallow emotions Social Problems Impulsive Poor behavior controls Need for excitement Lack of responsibility Early behavior problems Adult antisocial behavior