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 Objectives: › List substances that are dissolved in ocean water › Explain how a thermocline forms › Compare and Contrast properties of ocean water ›

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Presentation on theme: " Objectives: › List substances that are dissolved in ocean water › Explain how a thermocline forms › Compare and Contrast properties of ocean water ›"— Presentation transcript:

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2  Objectives: › List substances that are dissolved in ocean water › Explain how a thermocline forms › Compare and Contrast properties of ocean water › Predict the solubility of salt in water at different temperatures

3  What’s in Water? › Suppose that you have a glass of pure water, a glass of fresh water, and a glass of salt water. › If you evaporated the water, what would be left behind in each glass?

4  When earth first formed, it was very ________  Active volcanoes sent ________ ________and ___________ out  One of the gasses was _________________  The released gasses gathered in a layer to become the __________________

5  After earth’s surface cooled, the water vapor ________________ into droplets of water  Water droplets combined and fell to earth as _________  Rainwater flowed over earth’s surface and formed _________ and __________  Water then pooled in large connected basins – the _____________

6  4 Oceans › ___________  Pacific Ocean – largest ocean › covers ______ of the earth › contains _______ of earth’s salt water

7  Ocean water is a mixture of dissolved › __________ › tiny amounts of many __________  As rivers flow across earth, these substances are picked up  When rivers reach the ocean, the substances are deposited as _________ ______ or used by _______ _____________

8  Major dissolved gasses › ____________________________  Major dissolved salts

9  The number of _______ __ ______ in 1 kg of water  Average salinity of ocean water is _________  Salinity varies from one part of the ocean to another  What causes high salinity: › High _______________ › Low _______________ › ________________  What causes low salinity: › High _______________ › Melting ____________ › Where fresh water meets salt water (___________)

10 Parts of salt per 1000 parts ocean water

11  _______________  Top of water column directly heated by ______ – depth of 100 to 400 meters  Summer surface temps are _________ than winter  Temp varies from place to place – water is warmer near the __________ and cooler near the __________

12  Just beneath the surface water is a zone where water temp decreases rapidly - ______________  Thermocline forms because warm surface water ______ __ ____ ___ colder water  Depth of thermocline changes with the __________ and with ___________  Below the thermocline, water temp decreases only _____________

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14  Organisms that live in the ocean use substances dissolved in ocean water to survive › _________ – use dissolved nitrate for growth › _____ __________– use calcium to build tough, thick shells › _________ – use silica to build tiny, intricate shells

15  Many organisms depend on __________  For what????  Sunlight can’t _______________ too far into ocean water  These organisms must live in _______ ________ near the shore or _________ on top of the water  Examples – algae and diatoms

16  Some organisms move up and down in the water column by changing their ________  Fish have a _________ ____________ › Fill with gas from bloodstream – fish is less dense – fish rises › Empty swim bladder – fish is more dense – fish sinks deeper  Organisms that live in deep ocean water must withstand great _____________

17  You shouldn’t drink ocean water – it has too much _________ for your body to process  You will actually get more ___________!  Some areas of the world don’t have enough fresh water  They drink ocean water by removing the salt - ________________

18  Ocean water is pumped into a chamber and __________  Water turns to __________  Steam is sent to another chamber where it cools and _____________  Salt is too __________ and is left behind  Water from condensed steam is fresh and ________________  But fossil fuels need to be used to heat the water

19  1. What substances are dissolved in ocean water?  2. What is a thermocline? Explain how it forms.  3. Explain the following properties of ocean water: composition, temperature, salinity, and density.  4. Imagine you have a glass of water at room temperature. You mix salt into the water until no more will dissolve. Then you put the glass in the refrigerator. What will happen to the salt in the water?

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21  Text page 344

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23  Objectives: › Describe the major ocean current patterns in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans › Identify two factors that drive ocean currents › Compare and Contrast surface currents and deep currents › Predict the effects of the Coriolis force

24  At the Edge › Imagine that you are riding in the center of a merry-go-round. › You want to throw a ball to a friend at the edge of the merry-go-round. › Where would your friend have to sit to be able to catch the ball?

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26  If you were on a boat adrift in the ocean near Antarctica, the boat would travel in a _____________ direction.  It would be carried along in a flow of water called a ____________  Current – a flow of water moving through the ocean  A strong current flows in a clockwise direction around _____________

27  Currents flow through all parts of the ocean  _______ __________ – flow horizontally at or near the top of the ocean  _______ __________ – flow horizontally far beneath the surface  Ocean water also flows _____________ › Ocean water can flow down toward the ocean floor or up toward the surface

28  Surface currents are driven by _______ that blow for long distances over the ocean’s surface  The winds blow in a ________ ______ because of the Coriolis effect  __________ __________ – caused by the earth’s rotation, bends the earth’s winds and ocean currents

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30  Ocean currents movie

31  Earth rotates in an ___________ direction  Earth’s motion makes winds blowing toward the equator curve ____________  Winds blowing toward the poles curve ____________  Surface currents in the ocean form similar patterns  If winds change direction, so do surface currents

32  ________ currents flow from the equator  ________ currents flow from the poles  Surface currents form a circular pattern called a ________  Gyres in the northern hemisphere flow ________________  Gyres in the southern hemisphere flow ________________

33  The movement of surface currents has little effect on _______ ________ __________  Deep currents are kept in motion by __________ differences  Cold water is the most dense and is at the ____________  This deep cold water flows toward the ___________, but the Coriolis effect bends them ______________

34  Where winds blow in a constant direction parallel to the coast, surface currents and deep currents can mix  Wind pushes warm surface water _______ _____ ____ ________  ______ _______ _________ moves up to take its place  _____________– the upward movement of deep water  Upwelling brings ___________ up from the ocean floor – attracts marine animals

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36  Near shoreline, _______ currents form that travel only __________ ______________  ____________ _________ – when waves approach the shore at an angle and create a zigzag pattern parallel to shore

37  If there is a __________ or ___________, longshore currents can be trapped  Once it finds an opening, the longshore current breaks out forcefully  A narrow, powerful stream of water flows at a right angle to the shore – ______ __________  Very _______________ – swim parallel to shore

38  ____________ – forms when water carried to the shore in waves pulls __________ toward the ocean  Usually it is not strong enough to be dangerous  But, if wave action is _________ or ocean bottom _______ _________ sharply, it can pull swimmers out to deeper water

39  In areas of ___________, winds blow warm surface water away from the coast  Cold, deep water moves in to fill the space  This cold, deep water contains large amounts of _____________ that support _________ and feed _________  These are the areas of the world’s most __________ fishing grounds

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41  Usually the upwelling area along the ________ coast of S. A. is very productive  But, when ____ _________ comes, upwelling stops  El Nino is a disturbance of ocean currents and winds that occurs every _______ _______  It warms coastal waters, not allowing the nutrient rich colder waters up  No nutrients – no fish!

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43  1. Describe the surface currents in the North Pacific Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean.  2. What two factors cause ocean currents to form?  3. How do surface currents and deep currents differ? How are they similar?  4. What direction would a plane have to travel to reach a city directly south of its starting point if winds were blowing to the east? Why?

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45  Objectives: › Explain how waves form › Identify the parts of an ocean wave › Explain how to measure wave motion › Define how a water particle moves as a wave passes

46  Ocean waves form when _________ pushes against the ocean’s surface  _________ from the wind pushing makes ripples form  __________ is transferred from the wind to the water, making a wave  The _________ a wave surface becomes, the more energy it can absorb from the wind

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48  When you watch a wave move, the water appears to _______ __________  But, the water barely moves at all  It is ______ ___________ that moves forward, not the water particles  Water particles actually move in a circular __________________ motion ss05_int_wavemotion/index.html

49  Ocean waves form _____ _______ ________  Wind blows over open water causing unevenly space, ragged ______ ___ _________ to form  As the wave energy continues to travel, the waves form an even series of smooth, low hills of water called ____________

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51  As a wave gets closer to shore, its height __________ and its wavelength ____________  As wave reaches shallow water some of the wave energy transfers up increasing ______ _________  When wave contacts the ocean floor, friction slows down the deeper part of wave but wave crest keeps moving and ________ _________

52  Waves carry a large amount of _________  When a wave breaks all the energy is ___________ against the shore  Can destroy property and disrupt boating and shipping  Can build a ___________ – high, sloping wall built at an angle to the shore  This forces waves to break away from the shore and it is protected from the full force of the waves

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54  The most dramatic and destructive ocean waves are caused by _______________  Earthquake causes part of the ocean floor to ______ ______  This pushes overlying water up, forming a ________ of water  As bulge settles down, it creates a series of _______ ___________  These ___________ waves can travel at speeds of over 700km/hour

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56  June 3, 1984 the Marques sailing ship was sunk - 19 of its 28 crew members were lost  The cause was a _______ ________ that seemed to come out of nowhere  Rogue waves occur when two ordinary waves ___________  If their crests and troughs line up, their energy is added together and can form a wave up to ___ _________ __________

57  1. How do ocean waves form?  2. Name the parts of an ocean wave.  3. Imagine you are on the deck of a boat on a calm day. How can you determine the period of the waves passing under the boat?  4. Imagine a small piece of driftwood floating in the ocean. Describe its motion as a wave passes under it. What does this tell you about how a water particle moves as a wave passes?

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59  Tsunami move

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61  Objectives: › Describe the effect of gravity on earth’s water › Explain why tides change › Compare and Contrast the different types of daily tide patterns › Predict the effects of tides on fishing

62  The sun and moon are large objects that exert __________ _______ on the earth  _________ _________ shows the effects of gravity more than the solid earth  Every day the level of the ocean surface rises and falls because of the gravitational pull of the sun and the moon  ________ – the daily changes in water level

63  Gravitational pull of the moon on the ocean is ________ on the side of earth _______ the moon  This causes the ocean to bulge on that side  On the side of earth ________ the moon, the moon’s gravity pulls the _____ ______ towards it and away from its ocean  This also causes a bulge

64  As the earth rotates, _____ _______ occur in areas of the earth’s surface beneath the bulges  ______ _______– the highest level that ocean water reaches on the shore  Low tides occur in areas between the bulges  _____ ________– the lowest level that ocean water reaches on the shore

65  Every _______ ______ has at least one high tide and one low tide every day  Factors that influence daily tide patterns › ________________________ ________________________ › ________________________  Tide patterns repeat every 24 hours and 50 minutes  Because a complete cycle takes slightly ______ than a day, tides occur at different times

66  _____________________– two high tides and two low tides each day › Atlantic coast of U.S.  _____________________ – one high tide and one low tide each day › Southeastern U.S. along Gulf of Mexico  ______________________ – mix of diurnal and semidiurnal tide patterns › Pacific coast of U.S.

67  Tide heights can vary each month  ______________– daily tides cycles with the greatest difference between high and low tides  ______________ – daily tides cycles with the least difference between high and low tides  Periods of spring and neap tides occur twice each month and are caused by the changing positions of the sun and moon

68  Some organisms live on the shore __________ the level of the highest tide and the lowest tide – must ___________ › Sand dollars › Hermit crabs › Seaweed  As tide changes, they may be _________ with water or __________ to air and sun  Fish are also affected by tides and may come _________ to shore to feed during high tide

69  Life cycle of the grunion fish depends on _______ __________  They swim onto the beach to _________ during the highest spring tides  They ________ their eggs in the sand, where they will develop until the next spring tide  The rising water stimulates the eggs to ________ and the young grunion swim out to sea

70  Power plant at mouth of ________ ________ in France  Huge _______ was built across the river with _________ beneath the surface for water to flow through  Inside the tunnels are large spinning _________  Spinning turbines operate _____________ that produce electricity

71  1. How does gravity cause tides?  2. Why do tides change over the course of a month?  3. What is the difference between a semidiurnal tide pattern and a diurnal tide pattern?  4. When would a person going fishing on a beach have the best chance of catching a fish? Explain your answer.

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73  Read Chapter 14 review – page 335 and complete: › Check Your Vocabulary › Check Your Knowledge

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