2Section 1 Properties of Ocean Water Objectives:List substances that are dissolved in ocean waterExplain how a thermocline formsCompare and Contrast properties of ocean waterPredict the solubility of salt in water at different temperatures
3Skills Warm-up What’s in Water? Suppose that you have a glass of pure water, a glass of fresh water, and a glass of salt water.If you evaporated the water, what would be left behind in each glass?
4Origin of Ocean Water When earth first formed, it was very ________ Active volcanoes sent ________ ________and ___________ outOne of the gasses was _________________The released gasses gathered in a layer to become the __________________
5Origin of Ocean WaterAfter earth’s surface cooled, the water vapor ________________ into droplets of waterWater droplets combined and fell to earth as _________Rainwater flowed over earth’s surface and formed _________ and __________Water then pooled in large connected basins – the _____________
6Our Oceans 4 Oceans Pacific Ocean – largest ocean ___________ covers ______ of the earthcontains _______ of earth’s salt water
7Chemical Properties of Ocean Water Ocean water is a mixture of dissolved__________tiny amounts of many __________As rivers flow across earth, these substances are picked upWhen rivers reach the ocean, the substances are deposited as _________ ______ or used by _______ _____________
8Chemical Properties of Ocean Water Major dissolved gasses________ ________ ____________Major dissolved salts
9Salinity The number of _______ __ ______ in 1 kg of water Average salinity of ocean water is _________Salinity varies from one part of the ocean to anotherWhat causes high salinity:High _______________Low _______________________________What causes low salinity:Melting ____________Where fresh water meets salt water (___________)
11Physical Properties of Ocean Water _______________Top of water column directly heated by ______ – depth of 100 to 400 metersSummer surface temps are _________ than winterTemp varies from place to place – water is warmer near the __________ and cooler near the __________
12Physical Properties of Ocean Water Just beneath the surface water is a zone where water temp decreases rapidly - ______________Thermocline forms because warm surface water ______ __ ____ ___ colder waterDepth of thermocline changes with the __________ and with ___________Below the thermocline, water temp decreases only _____________
14Ocean Water and Living Things Organisms that live in the ocean use substances dissolved in ocean water to survive_________ – use dissolved nitrate for growth_____ __________– use calcium to build tough, thick shells_________ – use silica to build tiny, intricate shells
15Ocean Water and Living Things Many organisms depend on __________For what????Sunlight can’t _______________ too far into ocean waterThese organisms must live in _______ ________ near the shore or _________ on top of the waterExamples – algae and diatoms
16Ocean Water and Living Things Some organisms move up and down in the water column by changing their ________Fish have a _________ ____________Fill with gas from bloodstream – fish is less dense – fish risesEmpty swim bladder – fish is more dense – fish sinks deeperOrganisms that live in deep ocean water must withstand great _____________
17Drinkable Ocean WaterYou shouldn’t drink ocean water – it has too much _________ for your body to processYou will actually get more ___________!Some areas of the world don’t have enough fresh waterThey drink ocean water by removing the salt - ________________
18Desalination Ocean water is pumped into a chamber and __________ Water turns to __________Steam is sent to another chamber where it cools and _____________Salt is too __________ and is left behindWater from condensed steam is fresh and ________________But fossil fuels need to be used to heat the water
19Check and Explain 1. What substances are dissolved in ocean water? 2. What is a thermocline? Explain how it forms.3. Explain the following properties of ocean water: composition, temperature, salinity, and density.4. Imagine you have a glass of water at room temperature. You mix salt into the water until no more will dissolve. Then you put the glass in the refrigerator. What will happen to the salt in the water?
23Section 2 Ocean Currents Objectives:Describe the major ocean current patterns in the Pacific and Atlantic oceansIdentify two factors that drive ocean currentsCompare and Contrast surface currents and deep currentsPredict the effects of the Coriolis force
24Skills Warm-up At the Edge Imagine that you are riding in the center of a merry-go-round.You want to throw a ball to a friend at the edge of the merry-go-round.Where would your friend have to sit to be able to catch the ball?
26Ocean CurrentsIf you were on a boat adrift in the ocean near Antarctica, the boat would travel in a _____________ direction.It would be carried along in a flow of water called a ____________Current – a flow of water moving through the oceanA strong current flows in a clockwise direction around _____________
27Ocean Currents Currents flow through all parts of the ocean _______ __________ – flow horizontally at or near the top of the ocean_______ __________ – flow horizontally far beneath the surfaceOcean water also flows _____________Ocean water can flow down toward the ocean floor or up toward the surface
28Surface CurrentsSurface currents are driven by _______ that blow for long distances over the ocean’s surfaceThe winds blow in a ________ ______ because of the Coriolis effect__________ __________ – caused by the earth’s rotation, bends the earth’s winds and ocean currents
31Surface Currents and Wind Patterns Earth rotates in an ___________ directionEarth’s motion makes winds blowing toward the equator curve ____________Winds blowing toward the poles curve ____________Surface currents in the ocean form similar patternsIf winds change direction, so do surface currents
32Surface Currents in the World Ocean ________ currents flow from the equator________ currents flow from the polesSurface currents form a circular pattern called a ________Gyres in the northern hemisphere flow ________________Gyres in the southern hemisphere flow ________________
33Deep CurrentsThe movement of surface currents has little effect on _______ ________ __________Deep currents are kept in motion by __________ differencesCold water is the most dense and is at the ____________This deep cold water flows toward the ___________, but the Coriolis effect bends them ______________
34Deep CurrentsWhere winds blow in a constant direction parallel to the coast, surface currents and deep currents can mixWind pushes warm surface water _______ _____ ____ ______________ _______ _________ moves up to take its place_____________– the upward movement of deep waterUpwelling brings ___________ up from the ocean floor – attracts marine animals
36Shoreline CurrentsNear shoreline, _______ currents form that travel only __________ __________________________ _________ – when waves approach the shore at an angle and create a zigzag pattern parallel to shore
37Shoreline CurrentsIf there is a __________ or ___________, longshore currents can be trappedOnce it finds an opening, the longshore current breaks out forcefullyA narrow, powerful stream of water flows at a right angle to the shore – ______ __________Very _______________ – swim parallel to shore
38Shoreline Currents____________ – forms when water carried to the shore in waves pulls __________ toward the oceanUsually it is not strong enough to be dangerousBut, if wave action is _________ or ocean bottom _______ _________ sharply, it can pull swimmers out to deeper water
39Upwelling and Fisheries In areas of ___________, winds blow warm surface water away from the coastCold, deep water moves in to fill the spaceThis cold, deep water contains large amounts of _____________ that support _________ and feed _________These are the areas of the world’s most __________ fishing grounds
41Upwelling and Fisheries Usually the upwelling area along the ________ coast of S. A. is very productiveBut, when ____ _________ comes, upwelling stopsEl Nino is a disturbance of ocean currents and winds that occurs every _______ _______It warms coastal waters, not allowing the nutrient rich colder waters upNo nutrients – no fish!
43Check and Explain1. Describe the surface currents in the North Pacific Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean.2. What two factors cause ocean currents to form?3. How do surface currents and deep currents differ? How are they similar?4. What direction would a plane have to travel to reach a city directly south of its starting point if winds were blowing to the east? Why?
45Section 3 Ocean Waves Objectives: Explain how waves form Identify the parts of an ocean waveExplain how to measure wave motionDefine how a water particle moves as a wave passes
46WavesOcean waves form when _________ pushes against the ocean’s surface_________ from the wind pushing makes ripples form__________ is transferred from the wind to the water, making a waveThe _________ a wave surface becomes, the more energy it can absorb from the wind
48Mechanics of Wave Motion When you watch a wave move, the water appears to _______ __________But, the water barely moves at allIt is ______ ___________ that moves forward, not the water particlesWater particles actually move in a circular __________________ motion
49Characteristics of Waves Ocean waves form _____ _______ ________Wind blows over open water causing unevenly space, ragged ______ ___ _________ to formAs the wave energy continues to travel, the waves form an even series of smooth, low hills of water called ____________
51Wave Action and EnergyAs a wave gets closer to shore, its height __________ and its wavelength ____________As wave reaches shallow water some of the wave energy transfers up increasing ______ _________When wave contacts the ocean floor, friction slows down the deeper part of wave but wave crest keeps moving and ________ _________
52Wave Action and Energy Waves carry a large amount of _________ When a wave breaks all the energy is ___________ against the shoreCan destroy property and disrupt boating and shippingCan build a ___________ – high, sloping wall built at an angle to the shoreThis forces waves to break away from the shore and it is protected from the full force of the waves
54Earthquakes and Ocean Waves The most dramatic and destructive ocean waves are caused by _______________Earthquake causes part of the ocean floor to ______ ______This pushes overlying water up, forming a ________ of waterAs bulge settles down, it creates a series of _______ ___________These ___________ waves can travel at speeds of over 700km/hour
56Rogue WavesJune 3, 1984 the Marques sailing ship was sunk - 19 of its 28 crew members were lostThe cause was a _______ ________ that seemed to come out of nowhereRogue waves occur when two ordinary waves ___________If their crests and troughs line up, their energy is added together and can form a wave up to ___ _________ __________
57Check and Explain 1. How do ocean waves form? 2. Name the parts of an ocean wave.3. Imagine you are on the deck of a boat on a calm day. How can you determine the period of the waves passing under the boat?4. Imagine a small piece of driftwood floating in the ocean. Describe its motion as a wave passes under it. What does this tell you about how a water particle moves as a wave passes?
61Section 4 Tides Objectives: Describe the effect of gravity on earth’s waterExplain why tides changeCompare and Contrast the different types of daily tide patternsPredict the effects of tides on fishing
62Gravity and Ocean Water The sun and moon are large objects that exert __________ _______ on the earth_________ _________ shows the effects of gravity more than the solid earthEvery day the level of the ocean surface rises and falls because of the gravitational pull of the sun and the moon________ – the daily changes in water level
63Gravity and Ocean Water Gravitational pull of the moon on the ocean is ________ on the side of earth _______ the moonThis causes the ocean to bulge on that sideOn the side of earth ________ the moon, the moon’s gravity pulls the _____ ______ towards it and away from its oceanThis also causes a bulge
64Gravity and Ocean Water As the earth rotates, _____ _______ occur in areas of the earth’s surface beneath the bulges______ _______– the highest level that ocean water reaches on the shoreLow tides occur in areas between the bulges_____ ________– the lowest level that ocean water reaches on the shore
65Daily Tide PatternsEvery _______ ______ has at least one high tide and one low tide every dayFactors that influence daily tide patterns________________________________________________________________________Tide patterns repeat every 24 hours and 50 minutesBecause a complete cycle takes slightly ______ than a day, tides occur at different times
66Daily Tide Patterns_____________________– two high tides and two low tides each dayAtlantic coast of U.S._____________________ – one high tide and one low tide each daySoutheastern U.S. along Gulf of Mexico______________________– mix of diurnal and semidiurnal tide patternsPacific coast of U.S.
67Monthly Tide Cycles Tide heights can vary each month ______________– daily tides cycles with the greatest difference between high and low tides______________ – daily tides cycles with the least difference between high and low tidesPeriods of spring and neap tides occur twice each month and are caused by the changing positions of the sun and moon
68Tides and Living Things Some organisms live on the shore __________ the level of the highest tide and the lowest tide – must ___________Sand dollarsHermit crabsSeaweedAs tide changes, they may be _________ with water or __________ to air and sunFish are also affected by tides and may come _________ to shore to feed during high tide
69Grunion Life cycle of the grunion fish depends on _______ __________ They swim onto the beach to _________ during the highest spring tidesThey ________ their eggs in the sand, where they will develop until the next spring tideThe rising water stimulates the eggs to ________ and the young grunion swim out to sea
70Tidal Power – Provides Energy Power plant at mouth of ________ ________ in FranceHuge _______ was built across the river with _________ beneath the surface for water to flow throughInside the tunnels are large spinning _________Spinning turbines operate _____________ that produce electricity
71Check and Explain 1. How does gravity cause tides? 2. Why do tides change over the course of a month?3. What is the difference between a semidiurnal tide pattern and a diurnal tide pattern?4. When would a person going fishing on a beach have the best chance of catching a fish? Explain your answer.