4 Factors that affect the height & size of a wave Strength of the windLength of time the wind blowsDistance over which the wind blows
5 Main parts of a wave: Trough = lowest part of the wave (bottom) Crest = highest part of the wave (top)Wavelength = horizontal distance between crests & troughsWave Height = vertical distance between crest & trough
6 Tsunami waves result from earthquakes releasing energy underwater *The most damaging part of a tsunami wave is the wave height.
7 Waves are a form of energy that travels through water Waves are a form of energy that travels through water. The water does not actually move, but instead the energy is moving. The particles move in a circular path.
8 A breaker wave at the beach crashes into the shore because the shore slows the bottom of the wave, but the top continues to move forward.Surfers ride breaker waves to the beach.(Microsoft Clip Art)
9 Waves during a storm During a Storm, waves can get very large and strong (Microsoft Clip Art
10 TIDesDefinition:The daily rise and fall of Earth’s water on its coastlines(Microsoft Clip Art)
11 Causes of tides: Gravitational pull of the SUN & earth &MOON
12 Examples of Tide cycles: Daily Tide Cycle: HIGH & LOW – 2 times each day 12 hours apart
18 Misc. info about tides:If it’s low tide at 4 am, when will the next low tide occur?4 pm (They occur 12 hours apart!)
19 Draw a picture of the Moon, Earth & Sun aligned during a SPRING TIDE: Draw a picture of the Moon, Earth & Sun aligned during a NEAP TIDE:
20 CurrentsDefinition: Large streams of moving water that flows through the oceans.Surface currents are driven by the wind.
21 Factors that affect CURRENTS: Coriolis Effect – Effect of Earth’s rotation on currents & Temperature
22 Factors that affect CURRENTS: a. Coriolis Effect – the shifting of winds and currents caused by Earth’s rotation. As Earth spins it causes the winds & currents to follow a certain path. Currents and Winds in the Northern Hemisphere move clockwise Currents and Winds in the Southern Hemisphere move counter clockwise
23 Coriolis effect causes currents to move in specific directions
24 TemperatureWarm currents flow from the equator toward the poles. The water becomes dense as it cools. The cold water flows back towards the equator. This cycle is similar to convection currents
26 The Gulf Stream is one of the most famous surface currents The Gulf Stream is one of the most famous surface currents. This current has been used by sailors to speed up their travel times. It exists because of the winds that blow in regular directions.
27 UPWELLING:is the circulation in the ocean that brings cold water to the surface. This is caused by winds pushing the top levels of warmer water away, which allows the colder water to rise and fill the area. Schools of fish live in this area because of the nutrients.
28 Misc. info. About currents: RIP CURRENT – rush of water that flows rapidly back to sea through a narrow opening in a sandbar
29 What causes cold deep currents to begin moving in the oceans near the poles? The sinking of cold dense water from the poles causes deep cold currents to begin moving in the oceans near the poles.
30 How are waves, tides & currents different? Which is caused by gravitational pull between the Earth, Sun & Moon?Which is a large stream of water flowing through the oceans?Which is formed as energy is transferred from the wind through the water?TideCurrentWave
31 Spring & Neap tides Coriolis Strength of the wind 4. What do we call the monthly tide cycles?5. Currents and winds curve and move due tothe spin of Earth on its axis. This iscalled the ________________ effect.6. What are the 3 factors that affect the size ofocean waves?Spring & Neap tidesCoriolisStrength of the windLength of time the wind blowsDistance over which the wind blows
32 deep cold ocean high low 7. Warm currents near the equator flow towards the poles & cold, dense water near the poles flows back towards the equator. This causes ___________________ currents in the ocean. 8. Daily tide cycles that happen 2 times everyday & 12 hours apart are called _______ & ______ tides.deep cold oceanhighlow