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BAHAN KAJIAN MK. DASAR ILMU TANAH SUHU TANAH: PERILAKU DAN KEPENTINGANNYA Dihimpun oleh: Soemarno Jurusan Tanah FP UB Oktober 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "BAHAN KAJIAN MK. DASAR ILMU TANAH SUHU TANAH: PERILAKU DAN KEPENTINGANNYA Dihimpun oleh: Soemarno Jurusan Tanah FP UB Oktober 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 BAHAN KAJIAN MK. DASAR ILMU TANAH SUHU TANAH: PERILAKU DAN KEPENTINGANNYA Dihimpun oleh: Soemarno Jurusan Tanah FP UB Oktober 2011

2 Soil Heat Flow and Temperature R.L. Snyder and K.T. Paw U Regents of the University of California Created - June 22, 2000 Last Revision –June 13, diunduh 6/2/2012 Neglecting small energy components, the energy balance on a surface can be expressed using the following equation, where R n is net radiation, G is the soil heat flux density, H is the sensible heat flux density, and LE is the latent heat flux density. Net Radiation = Soil HFD + Sensible HFD + Latent HFD R n = G + H + LE DEFINISI Temperature (T) is a measure of the heat stored ( o C or K) Upper temperature (T 1 ) is the temperature at depth z 1 Lower temperature (T 2 ) is the temperature at depth z 2 Volumetric Heat Capacity is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit volume by one Kelvin (J m -3 K -1 ) Thermal Conductivity (C 1 ) is the ratio of the heat flux density to the temperature gradient in (W m -1 K -1 )

3 SOIL HEAT FLUX DENSITY Soil heat flux density (G) is the conduction of energy per unit area in response to a temperature gradient. For small depth changes, (1) Here, the thermal conductivity C 1 = KA, where K is the heat conductivity of the material in W m -3 K -1 and A is the surface area in m 2, so for heat flow through a unit surface area C 1 has the units W m -1 K -1. In Eq. 1, is positive when the temperature decreases with depth in the soil. The negative sign is included to make G positive when heat is transferring downward. Because of instrument limitations, it is not possible to accurately measure the temperature gradient unless there is sufficient distance between the sensors. Consequently, G is estimated as (2) where z 2 is sufficiently far below z 1 to allow for a measurable difference between T 2 and T 1. Equation 2 assumes that C 1 is constant with depth in the soil. …… diunduh 6/2/2012

4 DIFUSIFITAS PANAS Thermal Diffusivity (k) is the ratio of the thermal conductivity to the volumetric heat capacity. (3) C 1 =the thermal conductivity (W m -1 K -1 ) r s = the apparent soil density (kg m -3 ) C p = the apparent mass specific heat capacity (J kg -1 K -1 ) C V = volumetric heat capacity (J m -3 K -1 ) k = thermal diffusivity (m 2 s -1 ) where (4) So the thermal conductivity in terms of diffusivity and volumetric heat capacity is (5) Therefore, G can be expressed in terms of diffusivity, volumetric heat capacity, and the temperature gradient as: In terms of the temperature gradient, G is

5 The variable k is useful as a measure of how fast the temperature of a soil layer changes. The rate at which the heat content of a layer of soil changes depends on the volumetric heat capacity (C V ) and the rate of temperature change of the soil volume per unit time. For a unit surface area, the rate of change in heat storage within the soil layer is expressed as For a unit surface area, the rate of change in heat storage within the soil is also equal to the change in heat flux density through the soil layer. Assuming that the physical properties of the soil are constant with depth in the soil and equating these two expressions, we get which simplifies to (8) …… diunduh 6/2/2012.

6 k : DIFUSIVITAS PANAS Therefore, k is useful to determine the rate of temperature change of a soil layer. Recall that k is directly proportional to C 1 and inversely proportional to C v. Both C 1 and C v increase as the water content of the soil increases; however, C 1 increases more rapidly with water content when the soil is dry and it slows as the soil becomes wet. C v continues to increase even when the soil is relatively wet. Consequently, for a dry soil, k increases with water content, but it slows and sometimes decreases when the soil nears saturation. As a result, the maximum change in temperature with time will occur at a water content below saturation. …… diunduh 6/2/2012

7 CIRI-CIRI THERMAL DARI TANAH Heat capacity depends on the mineral, organic matter, and water content of a soil. The apparent heat capacity (C v ) on a volume basis has the units J m -3 K -1 and on a mass basis (C p ) it has the units J kg -1 K -1. Equation used to express heat capacity. J m -3 K -1 = (kg m -3 )(J kg -1 K -1 ) where r s is the apparent density in kg of moist soil per m 3, r b is the bulk density of the soil in kg of dry soil per m 3, c pav is the average heat capacity on a mass basis for the solid constituents of the soil in J per kg of dry soil per Kelvin, q m is the water content on a mass basis in kg of water per kg of dry soil, and c pw is the heat capacity of water on a mass basis in J per kg of H 2 0 per Kelvin. The heat capacity of the solid constituents of the soil (C pav ) depends on the amount of sand, clay, silt, and organic matter in the soil. For most mineral soils, J kg -1 K -1 …… diunduh 6/2/2012

8 KAPASITAS PANAS The heat capacity of the water component of the soil (q mcpw ) depends on the water content and the heat capacity for water. J kg -1 K -1 The volumetric heat capacity is r w c pw, which is approximated as J m -3 K -1 and the volumetric water content q v in m 3 H 2 O per m 3 of dry soil is Therefore, the heat capacity of the soil component is approximated as and the heat capacity of the water component is approximated as:

9 KAPASITAS PANAS Substitution into Eq. 13 gives the following approximation for C v. J m -3 K -1 Because we are interested in heating and cooling the soil, it is useful to have an expression for the amount of energy (Q) needed to raise or lower the temperature of a known volume (V) of soil from T i to T f. The equation is J = J m -3 K -1 (K) m 3 …… diunduh 6/2/2012

10 PEMANASAN TANAH Soil temperature is vital to plant growth and health. All plants react to certain stimuli, such as light, oxygen levels, and soil temperature. When the plant is in conditions that are favorable, it will grow and remain healthly, but if these stimuli change or lessen, it can negate growth and cause sickness. Soil temperature plays a vital role in this process, as the winter months drop the temperature of the soil to low levels, leading to unhealthy plants. Soil heating places a heating source either directly in the soil, or beneath the plants, and keeps the soil itself at a constant temperature, ensuring continued success of the vegetation. …… diunduh 6/2/2012

11 ISCO th International Soil Conservation Organisation Conference – Brisbane, July 2004 Conserving Soil and Water for Society: Sharing Solutions Paper No. 777 page 1 SOIL TEMPERATURE IN MAIZE CROPS AS FUNCTION OF SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEMS G.A. Dalmago, H. Bergamaschi, F. Comiran, C.A.M. Bianchi, J.I. Bergonci and B.M.M. Heckler …… diunduh 6/2/2012 A field experiment was conducted in Eldorado do Sul, Brazil (30°05’S; 51°39’W), during the cropping season of 2002/03, in a subtropical climate. The maize was sown in rows spaced of 0.75 m, with a population of plant ha-1. Around 5 t/ha of dry matter of a winter mixture composed by Avena strigosa + Vicia sativa were added to the soil. The temperature was monitored at different soil layers in the root zone. At the beginning of plant growth the highest soil temperatures occurred in the conventional system in all soil layers. Differences among daily averages reached to 5°C in maximum and 2°C in minimum temperatures, at 2.5 cm depth. After 30 days from plant emergence the highest temperatures occurred in the no-tillage system, which was related to the interception of solar radiation by leaves. However, variations among the cropping systems decreased as the plants covered the soil surface. The daily trend of the soil thermal regime was similar for both the tillage systems. A crescent delaying on maximum and minimum temperatures when increasing the soil depth was observed.

12 REZIM THERMAL TANAH The soil thermal regime depends on the energy changes at its surface and the heat flux in the subsuperficial layers. The heat flux into the soil depends on the weather conditions, the presence if soil coverage and the physical properties of the soil profile. The magnitude of the heat flux in the soil is related to its thermal conductivity, calorific capacity and vertical thermal gradient, which are affected by the water content in the soil profile. Both the soil coverage and water content in the soil are influenced by the tillage system. Hence, the soil thermal regime must be different in no- till soils when compared to soils submitted to conventional tillage systems.. …… diunduh 6/2/2012

13 SUHU TANAH – LENGAS TANAH The soil moisture affects its thermal regime by increasing its calorific capacity and thermal conductivity. However, the most relevant factor affecting the soil temperature seems to be the presence of coverage on the soil surface, when comparing the no-tillage to conventional systems. The straw in the surface intercepts and reflects a great part of the incoming solar radiation (Baver et al., 1972), reducing the heat flux toward the soil profile in comparison to conventional tillage systems (Azzoz et al., 1997). Nevertheless, the influence of the straw on the soil thermal regime depends on several physical characteristics such as color, quantity and distribution of straw on the surface, which are variable over the time. The straw on the soil surface may affects also the content of organic matter into the superficial soil layers and hence the soil thermal regime. The organic matter may allow increments on the water storage in those soil layers, increasing its calorific capacity. Azzoz, R.H. et al. (1997). Impact of tillage and residue management on soil heat flux. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 84, Baver, L.D., Gardner, W.H. and Gardner, W.R. (1972). The thermal regime of soils. In ‘Soil physics’. New York, John Wiley. p …… diunduh 6/2/2012

14 SUHU TANAH – MULSA PERMUKAAN As a consequence of this set of influences, diurnal soil temperatures may be reduced in no-tillage system, in comparison to conventional soil management. Decreases of about 10°C (Lal, 1975) or 15°C (Derpsch et al., 1985) due to the presence of straw on the surface of no tilt soils were registered. However, differences of about 4 to 5°C in both maximum temperatures and daily thermal amplitudes are frequent to occur, if comparing the no- tillage and conventional tillage systems (Sidiras and Pavan, 1984). Lal, R. (1975). Role of mulching techniques in tropical soil and water management. Technical Bulletin. p37. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan. Sidiras, N. and Pavan, M.A. (1984). Influência do sistema de manejo na temperatura do solo. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo 10, …… diunduh 6/2/2012

15 SUHU TANAH - PERKECAMBAHAN Decreases in the soil temperature close to the surface may allow good stands of crops such as soybeans and maize, during periods of high incoming solar radiation (Derpsch et al., 1985). According to Neumaier et al. (2003) injuries in soybean seedlings may occur if the soil temperature overpasses 35°C; besides, dumping off in soybean seedlings was observed around 45°C. According to Lal (1974) soil temperatures of about 37-38°C may affect stands of maize crops. Derpsch, R., Sidiras, N. and Heinzmann, F.X. (1985). Manejo do solo com coberturas verdes no inverno. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 20, Lal, R. (1974). Effect of constant and fluctuating soil temperature on the growth, development and nutrient uptake of maize seedlings. Plant and Soil, Amsterdam, 40, Neumaier, N. et al. (2003). Determinações das temperaturas causadoras do tombamento fisiológico em plântulas de soja. In ‘XIII Congresso Brasileiro de Agrometeorologia’, Anais. p Sociedade Brasileira de Agrometeorologia, Santa Maria. …… diunduh 6/2/2012

16 Soil temperature profiles in maize cropped in no-tillage (left) and conventional tillage (right) systems, at different times of a sunny day - December 18th of EEA/UFRGS, Brazil.. …… diunduh 6/2/2012

17 Temperature at different soil depths in maize cropped in no tillage (left) and conventional tillage (right) systems, in December 18th of sunny day (above) and December 12th of cloudy without rain day (bellow). EEA/UFRGS, Eldorado do Sul, Brazil.. …… diunduh 6/2/2012

18 SUHU TANAH – TANAM BENIH The chart below displays the relationship between soil temperature, days to emergence, and the percentage of sown seeds to germinate: the percentage of any seeds to germinate is maximum at the optimal temperature for that species. As the temperature declines or advances from the optimal temperature, two things happen at the same time. While the percentage of seeds to germinate decreases, the number of days to germination increases. That is the fundamental relationship between germination and temperature. diunduh 6/2/2012

19 Percentage of Normal Vegetable Seedlings Produced at Different Temperatures. Numbers in ( ) are the days to seedling emergence. Number in red = optimal daytime soil temperature for maximum production in the shortest time. …… diunduh 6/2/2012 Crops32ºF41ºF50ºF59ºF68ºF77ºF86ºF95ºF104ºF Asparagus (53) 80(24) 88(15) 95(10) 79(12) 37(19) 0 Beans, lima (31) 82(18) 90(7) 88(7) 2 0 Beans, snap (16) 90(11) 97(8) 47(6) 39(6) 0 Beets 0 53(42) 72(17) 88(10) 90(6) 97(5) 89(5) 35(5) 0 Cabbage (15) 93(9) 0(6) 99(5) 0(4) 0 0 Carrots 0 48(51) 93(17) 95(10) 96(7) 96(6) 95(6) 74(9) 0 Cauliflower (20) 60(10) 0(6) 63(5) 45(5) 0 0 Celery 0 72(41) 70(16) 40(12) 97(7) Cucumber (13) 99(6) 99(4) 99(3) 49 Eggplant (13) 53(8) 60(5) 0 0 Lettuce 98(49) 98(15) 98(7) 99(4) 99(3) 99(2) 12(3) 0 0 Muskmelon (8) 94(4) 90(3) 0 0 Okra (27) 89(17) 92(13) 88(7) 85(6) 35(7) Onions 90(136) 98(31) 98(13) 98(7) 99(5) 97(4) 91(4) 73(13) 2 Parsley (29) 0(17) 69(14) 64(13) 50(12) 0 0 Parsnips 82(172) 87(57) 79(27) 85(19) 89(14) 77(15) 51(32) 1 0 Peas 0 89(36) 94(14) 93(9) 93(8) 94(6) 86(6) 0 0 Peppers (25) 96(13) 98(8) 95(8) 70(9) 0 Radish 0 42(29) 76(11) 97(6) 95(4) 97(4) 95(3) 0 0 Spinach 83(63) 96(23) 91(12) 82(7) 52(6) 28(5) 32(6) 0 0 Sweet Corn (22) 97(12) 97(7) 98(4) 91(4) 88(3) 10 Tomatoes (43) 98(14) 98(8) 97(6) 83(6) 46(9) 0 Turnips (5) 98(3) 99(2)100(1) 99(1) 88(3) Watermelon (12) 90(5) 92(4) 96(3) 0

20 CIRI-CIRI THERMAL TANAH The rate at which heat is exchanged between the collector loop of the ground source heat pump and the ground is determined mainly by the thermal properties of the Earth. Thermal conductivity is the capacity of a material to conduct or transmit heat, whilst thermal diffusivity describes the rate at which heat is conducted through a medium. For a horizontal loop system in a shallow (1 to 2 m) trench then the properties of the superficial deposits are important, whilst for a vertical loop system it is the properties of the bedrock geology that are important. Thermal conductivity varies by a factor of more than two (1.5 to 3.5 W m- 1 K-1) for the range of common rocks encountered at the surface and can vary significantly for many superficial deposits. The thermal conductivity of superficial deposits and soils will depend on the nature of the deposit, the bulk porosity of the soil and the degree of saturation. An approximate guide to the thermal conductivity of a superficial deposit can be made using a simple classification based on soil particle size and composition. Deposits containing silt or clay portions will have higher thermal conductivities than those of unsaturated clean granular sand. Clean sands have a low thermal conductivity when dry but a higher value when saturated. diunduh 6/2/2012

21 Typical rock thermal diffusivities range from about m2 day- 1 for clays to about 0.17 m2 day-1 for high conductivity rocks such quartzites. Many rocks have thermal diffusivities in the range to m2 day-1. Typical values of thermal conductivity and diffusivity for superficial deposits …… diunduh 6/2/2012

22 Effects of soil temperature on shoot and root growth and nutrient uptake of 5-year-old Norway spruce seedlings M. Lahti, P. J. Aphalo, L. Finér, A. Ryyppö, T. Lehto and H. Mannerkoski. Tree Physiol (2005) 25 (1): diunduh 6/2/2012 Soil temperature is a main factor limiting root growth in the boreal forest. To simulate the possible soil-warming effect of future climate change, 5-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were subjected to three simulated growing seasons in controlled environment rooms. The seedlings were acclimated to a soil temperature of 16 °C during the first (GS I) and third growing seasons (GS III), but were assigned to random soil-temperature treatments of 9, 13, 18 and 21 °C during the second growing season (GS II). In GS II, shoot diameter growth was lowest in the 21 °C treatment and root growth was lowest in the 9 °C treatment. In GS III, shoot height and root length growth improved in seedlings that had been kept at 9 °C during GS II, indicating compensatory growth in response to increased soil temperature. The temporary decrease in soil temperature had no long-lasting significant effect on seedling biomass or total nutrient uptake. At the end of GS III, fine roots of seedlings exposed to a soil temperature of 21 °C in GS II were distributed more evenly between the organic and mineral soil layers than roots of seedlings in the other treatments. During GS II and GS III, root growth started earlier than shoot growth, decreased during the rapid shoot elongation phase and increased again as shoot growth decreased.

23 Biomass and its relative allocation to the different parts of the seedlings in the soil-temperature treatments at the beginning (GS I) and end of the experiment (GS III). Initial measurements were taken from four extra seedlings harvested at the beginning of the experiment. Vertical bars are SE for total shoots and roots (n = 4). Needles formed in GS I = C+2, GS II = C+1 and GS III = C. …… diunduh 6/2/2012

24 Effects of soil temperature on root growth and on phosphate uptake along Pinus radiata roots G.D. Bowen Australian Journal of Soil Research 8(1) diunduh 6/2/2012 At 3 weeks, uptake of phosphate along roots of seedlings grown in soil at 25°C was greatest in the apical centimetre and decreased sharply along the roots. By contrast uptake was markedly more sustained along the roots of seedlings grown in soil at 14°C and here the greatest uptake occurred several centimetres behind the apex. No one pattern of ion uptake along roots can be assumed to hold for all conditions of growth when constructing mathematical models of ion uptake from soil. Increasing soil temperature from 15°C to 25°C approximately doubled total root length of 3-week seedlings of Pinus radiata; primary root length was increased but the main effect was due toa marked increase in the number and length of lateral roots. Lateral root growth of the 3- week seedlings was almost completely suppressed in the soil at 11°C. Roots of 3-week sterile seedlings growing in phosphate-deficient nutrient solution were considerably smaller than those of pine grown in complete nutrient solution at 15°C but not at 25°C. This interaction of temperature and phosphate deficiency did not occur with soil grown seedlings. The sustained phosphate uptake along roots grown at the low soil temperature did not compensate for greater root growth (and therefore soil exploration) at higher temperatures, for P content of 3- week seedlings grown in soil at 25°C was considerably greater than that of seedlings grown in soil at 15°C. In phosphate poor soils low temperature depression of root growth will seriously restrict phosphate uptake. A modification of the scanning method for uptake sites along roots showed translocation to occur from all parts of the root with rather less translocation from the apical centimetre than from other parts.

25 Soil temperature and root growth T. C. Kaspar, W. L. Bland. Soil Science (1992) Vol 154, Issue: 4, p growth/…… diunduh 6/2/2012 Soil temperature affects both the rate and thoroughness with which a plant root system permeates soil. Root system expansion is a function of two temperature-dependent processes, growth and development. Growth processes, like cell elongation, increase root length and diameter. Development controls duration of growth and initiation of new roots and reproductive organs. Interpreting root temperature responses requires an understanding of how development and growth interact. Soil temperature affects growth of root system components, initiation and branching, orientation and direction of growth, and root turnover. Genotypic differences in root response to soil temperature exist between and within plant species. In natural soil profiles, root system expansion is affected by seasonal patterns of soil temperature. As soil warming advances downward, progressively deeper soil layers become suitable for root growth. In temperate regions, soil temperature often limits the rate of rooting-depth increase and the maximum depth attainable. A simple temperature-based model to predict rooting depth with time indicates that rooting depth may follow the downward progression of a particular isotherm, which has sometimes been observed in the field.

26 Effect of soil temperature on root growth in top and small fruit crops. Trunov-IA. SadovodstvoiVinogradarstvo 1994 No (1994). growth-in-top-and-small-fruit-crops/…… diunduh 6/2/2012 "In root growth studies between 1967 and 1985 numerous top and small fruit crops were assessed for minimum temperature requirement to initiate growth in primary, secondary and tertiary roots in spring and autumn. The data are tabulated. In spring, primary roots were observed to start growth at temperatures as low as ÂC. The least demanding in this respect was wild pear followed by Paradizka Budagovskogo rootstock, Malus prunifolia, plum and sour cherry. In small fruit crops these roots started growth at 1-4Â; strawberry primary roots started to grow at the lowest temperature followed by black currants and raspberries. Secondary roots started to grow at  in top fruit crops and at  in small fruit crops, and tertiary roots at  in top fruit crops, and 9-16 in small fruit crops.“

27 Effect of root temperature on budbreak, shoot growth, and fruit-set of'Cabernet Sauvignon'grapevines W. Mark Kliewer. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture (1975). Vol 26, Issue: 2. Pages: diunduh 6/2/2012 Three-year-old dormant 'Cabernet Sauvignon' vines, growing in 5-gallon containers in a greenhouse, were pruned to two 10- node canes and then grown for 9 weeks in water baths With root temperatures kept at 11, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 C. Air temperatures were the same for all treatments, fluctuating between a minimum of 20 C at night and a maximum of 32 C in the day. Budbreak and bloom occurred 3 to 8 days earlier at C than at 11 C. The number of buds that broke per vine increased with temperature, and was 2 to 3 times as great at C as at C. Total shoot growth per vine, measured as length or dry weight, was maximal at 30 C root temperature, as was also the total number of leaves and leaf area per vine. Average shoot length, dry weight per unit length of stem, leaf area, and leaf and cluster dry weights were significantly less at 35 C than at lower root temperatures. With an increase in temperature between 15 and 35 C, there was a decrease in percent dry matter in stems but an increase in leaves. The number of cluster per vine was proportional to the number of buds that broke. The number of berries set per vine did not differ significantly with temperature. However, the number of berries per cluster was significantly greater at 11 C than at root temperatures of 20 C or higher, with berry set approximately proportional to leaf area per cluster.

28 Influence of Root Temperature and Rootstock on Budbreak, Shoot Growth, and Fruit Composition of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevines Grown under Controlled Conditions Asfaw Zelleke and W. Mark Kliewer. Am. J. Enol. Vitic 1979 vol. 30 no diunduh 6/2/2012 Two-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines grafted to rootstocks A x R #1, Rupestris St. George, SO4, and own- rooted growing in 20-liter containers were pruned to two 10-node canes and placed in water baths maintained at 12 or 25°C in a greenhouse. Air temperature was the same for all treatments. Total vine growth (shoot length, dry weight, and leaf area) was about threefold greater at 25°C than at 12°C root temperature. Budbreak was also greater at 25°C than at 12°C; however, the number of berries set per vine did not differ significantly between root temperatures. Fruitset per dm 2 leaf area with St. George stocks was about half that of the other rootstocks at both root temperatures. Degree Brix, pH, proline and K were significantly less in fruits grown at 12°C root temperature than at 25°C. However, the level of total acidity and malate in fruits were higher for all stocks at 12°C root temperature than at 25°C. The level of arginine in berries was little affected by soil temperature. Fruits from vines on St. George stock had the highest level of arginine, proline, K, and pH and the lowest total acidity.

29 Effect of root temperature, rootstock and fertilization on bud- break, shoot growth and composition of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ grapevines Asfaw Zelleke, W.Mark Kliewer. Scientia Horticulturae. Vol 13, Issue 4, December 1980, Pages 339–347. diunduh 6/2/2012 Two-year-old ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ grapevines on own-roots or on A×R No. 1 (Ganzin 1) rootstock were grown at low (12°C) or high (25°C) root temperatures in combination with 2 fertilizer treatments (0 and 2.4, 1.2 and 1.2 grams of N,P,K, respectively, per 20-liter pot) in a greenhouse for a period of 15 weeks. The dormant vines were pruned to two 10-node canes just prior to initiation of temperature and fertilizer treatments. Air temperatures ranged between 15°C at night and 30°C during the day, and were the same for all treatments. The time of bud-break was earlier at high root temperature than at low temperature, with fertilization than without fertilization, and with own- rooted vines than with vines on A × R stock. The number of buds that broke and total shoot growth were significantly higher at 25°C than at 12°C. Fertilized vines also had significantly greater bud-break and shoot growth than unfertilized vines at both 12 and 25°C root temperatures. More buds broke and developed on A × R vines than on own-rooted vines at 12°C; whereas, at 25°C they did not differ significantly. Shoot growth of own-rooted vines, on the other hand, was significantly greater than vines on A × R stock at both low and high root temperatures. The levels of arginine, NO 3 and total N in roots was greater at low root temperature than at high root temperature. High root temperature, however, increased the concentration of total N in leaf blades and NO 3 in blades and petioles of own-rooted vines compared to low root temperature. Fertilization increased the concentration of nitrogenous substances in leaves and roots of all vines. The levels of K, Ca and Mg in leaf blades, petioles and roots were generally higher at 25 than at 12°C root temperature. The level of K was higher in leaves and roots of vines on own-roots than vines on A × R; however, the Ca and Mg content of these tissues did not show any consistent trends between A × R and own-rooted vines.

30 Grapevine Response to Soil Temperature: Xylem Cytokinins and Carbohydrate Reserve Mobilization from Budbreak to Anthesis Stewart K. Field, Jason P. Smith, Bruno P. Holzapfel, W. James Hardie and R.J. Neil Emery. Am. J. Enol. Vitic June 2009 vol. 60 no diunduh 6/2/2012 Potted Shiraz grapevines, in a glasshouse, were exposed to two different soil temperatures (13°C and 23°C) to evaluate the effects on vegetative growth and floral development from dormancy to anthesis. Soil temperature had no effect on the time of budbreak, anthesis, or the number of flowers per inflorescence. At anthesis total biomass was similar for both treatments, whereas shoot biomass was greater in the warm soil. From dormancy to anthesis, both root and trunk biomass decreased in the cool soil and only root biomass decreased in the warmer soil, but by twice as much as that in the cool soil. During dormancy to anthesis decreases in total nonstructural carbohydrate accounted for most of the decrease in root biomass. At budbreak, 14 cytokinins representing four recognized classes were present in bleeding sap, with trans-zeatin riboside and isopentenyl adenosine as the dominant forms. Total and active free base cytokinin concentrations were similar for both treatments, while sap from vines in the warm soil had significantly lower concentrations of nucleotide cytokinins. However, delivery of cytokinins was significantly greater in the warm soil treatment. By anthesis, cytokinin concentrations were similar for both treatments, but total cytokinin concentrations in xylem sap had decreased by almost 90% from budbreak. Root-generated cytokinins appear to be associated with the mobilization of the carbohydrate reserves at the end of dormancy and the ensuing shoot growth. Comparison of results with those of previous studies reveals that, because of apical dominance and correlative inhibition, the response to soil temperature in terms of number of buds to break and time of budbreak is conditioned by the number of nodes per cane.

31 Heat stress affects flowering, berry growth, sugar accumulation and photosynthesis of Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevines grown in a controlled environment Dennis H. Greer, Chris Weston Functional Plant Biology 37(3) 206–214 diunduh 6/2/2012 High temperatures during the growing season characterise many grape growing regions in Australia and elsewhere in the world, and impact on many processes including growth and berry development. To quantify the impact of heat on the Vitis vinifera L. cv. Semillon, potted vines were grown in controlled environments and exposed to a temperature regime of 40/25°C at flowering, fruit set, veraison and mid- ripening stages. Vegetative and reproductive development was measured throughout and leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance tracked during heat exposures. Accumulation of soluble solids was determined during ripening. Leaf growth and stem extension were unaffected by heat whereas flowers completely abscised. Berries treated at fruit set developed normally and those treated at veraison and mid-ripening stopped expanding and sugar content stopped increasing. Photosynthesis was also affected on each occasion, with rates declining by 35% and taking 12 days to recover. Up to 10 mg carbon g (berry dry weight) –1 day –1 was required for ripening after veraison. For vines heat treated at veraison and mid-ripening, net carbon acquisition rates fell to below 4 mg carbon g (leaf dry weight) –1 day –1, which is inadequate to supply berry carbon requirements. This suggests that the impacts of heat on the ripening process can be traced back to the supply of carbon.

32 Impacts of using polyethylene sleeves and wavelength selective mulch in vineyards. I. Effects on air and soil temperatures and degree day accumulation P. A. Bowen, C. P. Bogdanoff, B. Estergaard Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 2004, 84:(2) diunduh 6/2/2012 Effects on soil and air temperatures of wavelength-selective polyethylene mulch applied in planted rows, and clear polyethylene enclosures (sleeves) applied around vine canes or cordons for 7 wk in the spring were determined in three Merlot vineyards in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia. Three sleeve configurations were studied: single-layer and closed at bottom; single-layer with bottom ventilation added after 5 wk; and double-layer with bottom ventilation added after 5 wk. All sleeves were perforated at the top between two supporting trellis catch wires, and were stapled closed at the bottom under the cordon or cane. Sleeve removal was either all at once or in two stages by first opening the top then removing the sides 6 d later. The sleeves increased mean air temperatures by ca. 1 to 2°C and maximum temperatures by ca. 5 to 8°C, and decreased minimum temperatures by ca. 1 to 2 °C, depending on the vineyard, measurement period, and sleeve configuration. Adding bottom ventilation to sleeves increased the mean minimum nighttime temperature by ca. 1°C at one vineyard but had no effect at the other two sites. Degree day (base 10°C) accumulati on inside sleeves was 1.5 to 2 times that of ambient, depending on the site, which increased total degree day accumulations for the season by 4.1 to 7.9%. The polyethylene mulch increased soil temperatures by ca. 2°C continuously over the diurnal period at two of the vineyards, but at the third where there was significant weed growth under the mulch the increase was less and only at night.

33 Plant and Soil Volume 93, Number 2Volume 93, Number 2, , DOI: /BF The effects of soil temperature on the response of lettuce seedlings to starter fertilizer P. A. Costigan. diunduh 6/2/2012 A pot experiment is described which investigated the effects of placing starter fertilizer, 1 cm beneath the seeds, on growth and nutrient uptake in lettuce seedlings at two soil temperatures (10°C and 20°C). At both temperatures the presence of starter fertilizer increased nutrient concentrations within the plants. At 20°C there was no growth response to the starter treatments. However, at 10°C there was a large response to the application of starter fertilizer. The best treatment was a combination of NH 4 H 2 PO 4 and KH 2 PO 4 which increased plant dry weight by 64% at 19 days from sowing. Nutrient deficiency caused a significant increase in the root length/shoot weight ratio of the control plants at 10°C. The responses to the starter were shown to be determined by the balance between the demand for nutrients from the shoots and the supplying power of the roots.

34 The Effects of Soil Temperature on Plant Growth, Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation in Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq.The Effects of Soil Temperature on Plant Growth, Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation in Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq.(pp ) Paul Reddell, G. D. Bowen, A. D. Robson New Phytologist Vol. 101, No. 3, Nov., diunduh 6/2/2012 The effects of soil temperatures between 15 and 30oC on plant growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation in seedlings of Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq. inoculated with Frankia from two different sources were examined. The optimum soil temperature for the growth of plants dependent on symbiotic nitrogen fixation was 25 oC. Decreasing the soil temperature below 25oC markedly decreased plant growth that was reliant on symbiotically fixed nitrogen, effects on the growth of plants supplied with mineral nitrogen were much smaller. At 15oC there was no response in plant growth to inoculation after 148 d, whereas plants supplied with nitrogenous fertilizer were 10 times the weight of uninoculated plants. Nodulation was delayed at 15 and 20oC with nodules formed at 15oC fixing no nitrogen in these studies. The production of fewer nodules at 20oC than at 25oC was partly compensated by the production of larger nodules. Nodule growth at 20 to 30oC was a prime determinant of nitrogen fixed, with the exception of one Frankia at 20oC. The amount of nitrogen-fixed g-1 nodule was the same for the two Frankia sources at 25 and 30oC, differences in effectiveness being due to nodule development. However, differences in the effectiveness of the two Frankia sources at 20oC were related to differences both in nodule development and in nitrogen-fixing ability. The absence of nitrogen fixation at 15oC would be expected to limit the natural distribution of Casuarina species reliant on symbiotically fixed nitrogen to areas where soil temperatures exceed 15oC for a major part of the potential growing season.

35 Interactive effects of soil temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide and soil N on root development, biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat during vegetative growth Mayra E. Gavito, Peter S. Curtis, Teis N. Mikkelsen and Iver Jakobsen. J. Exp. Bot. (2001) 52 (362): diunduh 6/2/2012 Nutrient requirements for plant growth are expected to rise in response to the predicted changes in CO 2 and temperature. In this context, little attention has been paid to the effects of soil temperature, which limits plant growth at early stages in temperate regions. A factorial growth ‐ room experiment was conducted with winter wheat, varying soil temperature (10 °C and 15 °C), atmospheric CO 2 concentration (360 and 700 ppm), and N supply (low and high). The hypothesis was that soil temperature would modify root development, biomass allocation and nutrient uptake during vegetative growth and that its effects would interact with atmospheric CO 2 and N availability. Soil temperature effects were confirmed for most of the variables measured and 3 ‐ factor interactions were observed for root development, plant biomass components, N ‐ use efficiency, and shoot P content. Importantly, the soil temperature effects were manifest in the absence of any change in air temperature. Changes in root development, nutrient uptake and nutrient ‐ use efficiencies were interpreted as counterbalancing mechanisms for meeting nutrient requirements for plant growth in each situation. Most variables responded to an increase in resource availability in the order: N supply >soil temperature >CO 2.

36 ISCO th International Soil Conservation Organisation Conference – Brisbane, July 2004 Conserving Soil and Water for Society: Sharing Solutions Paper No. 648 page 1 EFFECT OF SOIL USE CHANGE ON SOIL TEMPERATURE REGIME M. Tejedor, C. Jiménez, M. Rodríguez and G. Morillas diunduh 6/2/2012 A main objective today is to protect soils against external aggression. The type of use to which the soil is put plays an important role in that it can help protect or, conversely, accelerate degradation processes. Among the parameters affected are structure, soil moisture regime and soil temperature regime. In this paper we examine the changes in soil temperature regime caused by a modification of vegetation. The study was carried out on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) on a site with Andisols. The site is situated on the north face of the island, at 870 m.a.s.l., in an area with annual rainfall of around 650 mm, and frequently influenced by the trade winds. Three adjacent plots originally covered with cloud forest were put to different uses. The natural, but degraded, vegetation of tree-heath (Erica arborea, Chamaecytisus proliferus, Cistus symphytifolius) was maintained in one case, but removed from the other two plots. One of the two was used for cultivation (Solanum tuberosum) while the other was abandoned and gradually taken over by herbaceous plants (Pteridium aquilinum, Cistus symphytifolius, Rumex maderensis, Rubus ulmifolius). Soil temperature at 50 cm was measured monthly over a period of 4 years ( ). The results obtained show the influence of the type of covering: whereas the soil with natural vegetation has an isomesic temperature regime, the regime in the cultivated soil is thermic, as is the case of the soil with the herbaceous plant cover, albeit bordering on isomesic. The decisive effect of the natural vegetation in capturing atmospheric moisture is therefore evident.

37 Effect of mulch on soil temperature, moisture, weed infestation and yield of groundnut in northern Vietnam A. Ramakrishna, Hoang Minh Tam, Suhas P. Wani, Tranh Dinh Long. Field Crops Research 95 (2006) 115–125 %20soil%20temperature.pdf…… diunduh 7/2/2012 Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the chief foreign exchange earning crops for Vietnam. However, owing to lack of appropriate management practices, the production and the area under cultivation of groundnut have remained low. Mulches increase the soil temperature, retard the loss of soil moisture, and check the weed growth, which are the key factors contributing to the production of groundnut. On-farm trials were conducted in northern Vietnam to study the impact of mulch treatments and explore economically feasible and eco-friendly mulching options. The effect of three mulching materials (polythene, rice straw and chemical) on weed infestation, soil temperature, soil moisture and pod yield were studied. Polythene and straw mulch were effective in suppressing the weed infestation. Different mulching materials showed different effects on soil temperature. Polythene mulch increased the soil temperature by about 6 8C at 5 cm depth and by 4 8C at 10 cm depth. Mulches prevent soil water evaporation retaining soil moisture. Groundnut plants in polythene and straw mulched plots were generally tall, vigorous and reached early flowering. Use of straw as mulch provides an attractive and an environment friendly option in Vietnam, as it is one of the largest rice growing countries with the least use of rice straw. Besides, it recycles plant nutrients effectively.

38 Hu, W., Duan, S., Sui, Q., High yield technology for groundnut. Int. Arachis Newsletter 15 (Suppl.), 1–22.. diunduh 15/2/2012 Mulches are known to increase the soil temperature since the sun’s energy passes through the mulch and heats the air and soil beneath the mulch directly and then the heat is trapped by the ‘‘greenhouse effect’’ (Hu et al., 1995).

39 The effect of soil temperature and moisture on organic matter decomposition and plant growth. R C Hood. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies (2001) Volume: 37, Issue: 1, Pages: matter-decomposition-plant-growth/…… diunduh 7/2/2012 The effect of soil temperature and moisture on plant growth and mineralisation of organic residues was investigated using 15N- labelled soybean residues and temperature-controlled tanks in the glasshouse. Treatments were arranged in a factorial design with: three soil temperatures (20, 26 and 30 degrees C), two soil moisture regimes (8% (-800 Kpa) or 12% (-100 Kpa)), soybean residues added (enriched at 1.82 atom % 15N excess) or no residues; and either sown with ryegrass or not sown. Pots were sampled six weeks after planting and 15N-enrichment and delta13C of the plant and soil fractions were determined. Soil inorganic N was also periodically measured. Available inorganic N increased significantly with addition of residues and generally decreased with increasing temperature. Plant dry matter decreased significantly with increase in soil temperature and increased with increasing moisture. Root-to- shoot ratio declined with increased temperature and moisture. Percentage nitrogen derived from residues (%Ndfr) increased linearly with increased temperature and moisture. Delta13C decreased linearly with increasing temperature and decreasing moisture status. There was a significant correlation between transpiration and dry matter production, but there was no correlation between water use efficiency and delta13C. The results suggest that C: N ratio of the root material effects the root turnover and in turn the water supply capacity of the root system..

40 JSTOR: Florida Entomologist Vol.75, No. 4, p.539, diunduh 7/2/2012 TEMPERATURE TANAH Soil temperature greatly influences the rates of biological, physical, and chemical processes in the soil. Within a limited range, the rates of chemical reactions and biological processes double for every 10 degree increase. Soil temperature governs the rates and directions of soil physical processes and chemical reactions, and influences biological processed. Different pathogen species and strains have different thermal limits for survival, germination and infection Phytophthora clandestina caused pre- and post-emergence damping-off in subterranean clover under a range of soil temperature (10, 15, 20 and 30 °C) and moisture (65 and 100% WHC and flooding) conditions in a glasshouse. The greatest reductions in seedling survival occurred in saturated and flooded soil conditions. Most severe root disease occurred at a soil temperature of 10°, followed by 15 and 20°. P. clandestina interacted with F. oxysporum, but not with Fusarium avenaceum, Phoma medicaginis, Pythium irregulare and Rhizoctonia solani, to produce more severe root rot than did each fungus alone. Influence of soil temperature, moisture and other fungal root pathogens on pathogenicity of Phytophthora clandestina to subterranean clover D.H. Wong, K. Sivasithamparam, M.J. Barbetti Transactions of the British Mycological Society. Vol. 86, Issue 3, 1986, Pages 479–482Vol. 86, Issue 3

41 Sci. agric. (Piracicaba, Braz.) vol.52 no.3 Piracicaba Sept./Dec Effect of polyethylene mulches on soil temperature and tomato yield in plastic greenhouse. N.A. Streck; F.M. Schneider; G.A. Buriol; A.B. Heldwein …… diunduh 7/2/2012 The effect of soil mulching with transparent, black, white, and co-extruded white-on-black polyethylene sheets on soil temperature and tomato yield was evaluated in the Subtropical Central Region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experiment was carried out from August 21, 1994 to December 2, 1994 in a 10m x 25m nonheated plastic greenhouse located at the county of Santa Maria. Highest soil temperatures were obtained under transparent mulch. Maximum amplitude of soil temperature waves was smaller under opaque mulches. Tomato yield was not significantly affected by mulch treatments, however, a tendency of greater yield was observed for opaque mulches as compared to transparent mulch. Among opaque mulches, the highest yield was obtained from white mulches.

42 HAYNES, R.J. The use of polyethylene mulches to change soil microclimate as revealed by enzyme activity and biomass nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus. Biology and Fertility of Soil, v.5, n.3, p , ROSENBERG, N.J. Microclimate: the biological environment. New York: John Wiley, p. LIAKATAS, A.; CLARK, J.A.; MONTEITH, J.L. Measurements of the heat balance under plastic mulches. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, v.36, p , MULSA DAN SUHU TANAH Soil temperature can be differentially affected by the type of PE mulch with temperatures generally following the order: transparent mulch > black mulch > white mulch (HAYNES, 1987). This is caused primarily through changes in the components of the radiation balance, due to the effect of mulches on albedo, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and soil heat flux (ROSENBERG, 1974; LIAKATAS et al., 1986). Transparent materials present high transmissivity to solar radiation and thus they are more effective in increasing soil temperature in comparison to the opaque materials, which higly reflect or absorb solar radiation (ROSENBERG, 1974). Mulsa sangat berguna untuk membantu pertumbuhan tanaman. Mulsa berguna untuk menjaga kelembaban tanah serta menekan pertumbuhan gulma dan penyakit. Bahan mulsa dibedakan menjadi mulsa organik dan anorganik.

43 ISHS Acta Horticulturae 156: XII Working Party on Greenhouse Cucumbers EFFECT OF SOIL TEMPERATURE ON GROWTH OF CUCUMBER IN DIFFERENT AIR TEMPERATURE AND RADIATION REGIME – POSTER H. Krug, F. Thiel. diunduh 7/2/2012 In model experiments (s. Krug and Liebig, 1979a + b, 1984) using temperature controlled beds (figure 1) in greenhouses with different set points for the heating unit of the air, the effect of soil temperature, air temperature, irradiance and ontogenetic growth and their interactions on wilting, vegetative growth, and yielding of cucumber plants (c.v. 'Pepinex 69') were investigated. Ontogenesis was regarded by the growth phases. 1.: one week after planting, 2.: one week after planting to anthesis at the 8th node, 3.: following growth. Wilting was valued by grades from 0 (fully turgescent) to 4 (strong) wilting. Soil temperatures causing wilting ≥ 1 were 16° C during the 1. phase, close below 16° C during the 2. and 3. phase in spring and autumn and close below 14° C during the 2. phase and at 12° C during the 3. phase in summer. There was no significant effect of air temperature caused by heating. Sensibility increased with short term high irradiance in winter, but decreased with long term high irradiance (and higher temperatures) in summer. Moreover sensibility decreased with ontogenesis. Length growth of the stems was significantly promoted by higher soil temperature (up to 23° C) only during the 1. phase. Leaf growth was promoted by higher soil temperature during the 1. and 2. phase, especially in combination with high irradiance and high air temperature. In the 3. phase there was no significant reaction to soil temperature. Low soil temperature causing wilting during the 1. phase showed a long term retartation of stem and leaf growth. Start of harvest (1 kg fruits) was earlier with higher air temperature (checked up to 23° C) and delayed by low soil temperature which caused wilting during the 1. phase. Yield of stem fruits was increased by soil temperature increasing from 16 to 18° C, especially of those cucumbers planted in winter. Market quality was not significantly effected by soil temperature (15 – 25° C).

44 Effect of Soil Moisture and Soil Temperature on the Development of Stemphylium Blight of Lentil MI Huq, ZMNA Khan. Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res. 46(1), 83-88, diunduh 7/2/2012 The soil moisture and the soil temperature at 7 a.m. and 1 p.m. were monitored in the lentil field. During the years of studies it was observed that the highest PDI was recorded on March 12 with corresponding soil temperature at 7 a.m. and 1 p.m. and soil moisture were maximum while the lowest PDI was recorded on January 30 when the aforesaid soil factors were minimum. The soil temperature and soil moisture were found positively correlated with disease development.

45 J. Amer. Soc. Hort Sci. 94(6): The Response of Avocado and Mango to Soil Temperature. Ibrahim M. Yusof2,3, David W. Buchanan2 and John F. Gerber. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. diunduh 7/2/2012 Mexican avocado seedlings and grafted 'Irwin' mangos grown under soil temperatures of 21, 27 and 32°C responded differently. The soil temperature statistically influenced the growth of the avocado seedlings but not the mangos. A soil temperature range of 21 to 27° was best for the growth of the avocado seedlings but temperatures greater than 27° reduced growth. The number of growth flushes was greater at 27° than either 21 or 32°. The avocado seedlings were tall and upright at 21° and were short and spreading at 32°. The mineral composition of both the avocado and the mango leaves changed with soil temperatures. The content of N and P in avocado and mango leaves was highest at 32° and lowest at 27°. The K content of the avocado leaves increased with temperature, but the Fe and Zn content decreased. In the mango Mg and Fe content was highest at 27° and lowest at 21°. Calcium content of the mango leaves decreased with soil temperature.

46 Haas, A. R. C Root temperature effects on the growth of walnut and avocado seedlings. Calif. Avo. Soc. Yrbk. 1939: Leal, F. J., and A. H. Krezdorn Rooting of avocado cuttings. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 77: …… diunduh 7/2/2012 The 'Puebla‘ avocado seedlings showed the greatest fresh and dry weight of leaves and trunk when the soil temperature was near 31 °C. The root fresh weight was greatest at 24°. Soil temperatures ranging from 24 to 31° produced the largest plants (Haas. 1939). Leal and Krezdorn (1964) found the 'Brogden' and 'Mexicola' avocado cuttings rooted best when no bottom heat was used. The 3 races of avocado, Mexican, Guatemalan and West Indian, come from different climatic regions and may show different responses to soil temperature. Mangos, on the other hand, may be less responsive to such temperatures.

47 Akinremi, O. O., McGinn, S. M. and McLean H. D. J Effects of soil temperature and moisture on soil respiration in barley and fallow plots. Can. J. Soil Sci. 79: 5–13. …… diunduh 7/2/2012 Agricultural systems are sources and sinks for carbon and to quantify the net effect of these systems on atmospheric CO2 concentration, the amounts of carbon fixed in primary production and that respired by the soil must be known. The objectives of our study were (1) to quantify the amount of soil respiration from fallow and barley plots during the growing season; and (2) to determine the relationship between these fluxes and soil temperature and moisture. This study was conducted on field plots measuring 200 by 200 m with one plot planted to barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) while the other plot was in fallow. Two automated chambers were permanently installed in the fallow plot and three in the barley plot at the start of the growing season. When CO2 fluxes were integrated over a 24-h period, the daily soil respiration under fallow ranged from a low of 1.6 g CO2 m–2 d–1 on a dry day to a high of 8.3 g CO2 m–2 d–1 on a wet day. The corresponding values for barley were 3.3 and 18.5 g CO2 m–2 d–1 in Similar values were obtained in 1996 and, on average, daily soil respiration under barley was twice of that under fallow. The integrated daily CO2 flux under fallow was strongly related to daily soil moisture and mean soil temperature with moisture alone accounting for 76 to 80% of the variation in CO2 flux. While good relationships were obtained between soil moisture and CO2 flux under fallow, the relationship under barley was not as good. The CO2 fluxes, measured eight times per day, displayed a diurnal pattern similar to that of soil temperature; however, there was no consistent quantitative relationship between these 3-hourly fluxes and temperature. A poor relationship was obtained when the fluxes during several days were related to soil temperature as soil moisture confounded flux-temperature relationship. Under the semi-arid conditions of southern Alberta, moisture is the main parameter controlling soil respiration during the growing season.

48 Soil temperature at 2.5 cm depth under fallow and barley in 1994 (a) diurnal trend during an 8-d period (days 183–190), (b) daily mean during the growing season.. Akinremi, O. O., McGinn, S. M. and McLean H. D. J Effects of soil temperature and moisture on soil respiration in barley and fallow plots. Can. J. Soil Sci. 79: 5–13.

49 Diurnal trend of soil respiration and soil temperature under fallow in Akinremi, O. O., McGinn, S. M. and McLean H. D. J Effects of soil temperature and moisture on soil respiration in barley and fallow plots. Can. J. Soil Sci. 79: 5–13.

50 Diurnal trend of soil respiration and soil temperature under barley in

51 The effect of soil temperature on nodulation of cowpeas (Vigna sinensis) H Philpotts Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 7(27) …… diunduh 7/2/2012 SUHU TANAH – NODULASI BINTIL AKAR In two pot experiments at Narrabri, New South Wales, Poona cowpeas (Vigna sinensis) were sown in a black chernozemic soil at 1, 2, and 4 inches, and at 1 1/2 and 4 inches with and without a straw mulch, to give a range of soil temperatures at the depth of sowing. It was found that the higher the soil temperature at sowing depth the lower was the percentage of plants with nodules and the number of nodules per plant..

52 Soil Temperature and Nitrogen Effects on Yield and Phosphorus Uptake by Sugar Beets' s. DUBETZ AND G. C. RUSSEI.L 2 Received for jmhlication April I}, ' 964. JOURNAL OF THE A. S. S. B. T. VOL. 13, No.3, OCrol\ER F)6"1 …… diunduh 7/2/2012 SUHU TANAH – KETERSEDIAAN N In general, these results showed that as the soil temperature increased from 7 to 27° C the dry matter and total phosphorus increased in both roots and tops of sugar beet seedlings. The early applications of nitrogen resulted in the highest dry matter and phosphorus content of seedling' roots. Time of nitrogen application had no effect on seedling beet tops. The results would indicate that early availability of nitrogen to the seedling would promote a more rapid root growth..

53 KETCHESON. J. T Some effects of soil temperature all phosphorus requirements of young corn plants in the greenhouse. Can. J. Soil Sci. 37: diunduh 7/2/2012 Low soil temperature depressed the growth of corn seedlings and the percentage phosphorus and total phosphorus were also lower at the low temperature.

54 DUBETZ, S., G. C. R USSELL, and D. T. ANDERSON Effect of soil temperature on seedling emergence. Can. J. Plant Sci. 42: …… diunduh 7/2/2012 The percentage emergence of sugar beet seedlings at soil temperatures of 13°, 18°, and 24° C was significantly increased over that at 6° C, and the speed of emergence increased as the temperature increased. Mulsa plastik untuk memperbaiki pertumbuhan kecmabah melon

55 NIELSEN, K. F., R. L. HALSTEAD, A. J. IVIACLEAN, R. M. HOLMES, and S. J. BOURGET. 1960a. Effects of soil temperature on the growth and chemical composition of lucerne. Proc. 8th Intern. Grassland Congo pp NIELSEN, K. F., R. L. HALSTEAD, A. J. MACLEAN, R. M. HOL,\IES, and S. J. BOURGET. 1960b. The influence of soil temperature all the growth and mineral composition of oats. Can. J. Soil Sci. 40: …… diunduh 7/2/2012 Nielsen et al. (1960a) found that the yield of roots and foliage of lucerne increased with increase in temperature to at least 19.4° C. The phosphorus content of the roots and foliage tended to increase with increasing temperature. Oats produced higher yields (1960b) of grain and straw when soil temperature was increased from 41 ° to 67° F (19.4° C). There was a trend toward increased concentration of phosphorus in the oat plants with increasing temperature.

56 Two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse at Egerton University, Tatton Farm, in Kenya. The main objective was to determine the effects of mulching on soil temperature and moisture, and if the practice can improve tomato yield and quality under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was a two factor Randomised Complete Block design with three replications. The mulch treatments were black (Ml), clear (M2), white painted (M3) and wheat straw (M4). Two tomato cultivars 'Money Maker' and 'Cal J' were used. Data on soil moisture and temperature were collected weekly for nine weeks beginning two weeks after transplanting. Plant height data were taken on weekly basis starting two weeks from transplanting up to the tenth week after transplanting. Yield and quality data were taken after harvesting. Weed and root length data were taken after removing the plastic mulches, while samples for carbohydrate partitioning analysis were also taken at the end of each experiment. Mulching significantly (P< 0.05) influenced soil moisture, temperature and weed weight and population density. Soil moisture was lower on bare soil compared to mulched plots, with plastic mulches being superior over the wheat straw. Significantly lower soil temperatures were recorded on wheat straw and the unmulched, while higher temperatures were recorded on the plastic mulched plots with the_black mulch giving the highest temperature. Significantly lower weed population density and weights were observed on the black mulch compared to the other types of mulches and bare ground. Mulching did not significantly affect plant height, root distribution, and carbohydrate partitioning among roots, stems, and leaves. The response of tomato plant growth to mulching depended on cultivar, 'Money Maker' giving higher plant height. Mulching did not significantly influence fruit yield and quality. Cultivar significantly (P< 0.05) influenced soil moisture, plant height, root growth, marketable fruit numbers, weight and size. On the other hand, cultivar did not significantly (P< 0.05) influence the total non-structural carbohydrates partitioning among tomato leaves, stems, and roots, weed population density and dry weight, fruit numbers and weight per plant, fruit numbers and weight per hectare, percent marketable fruit numbers and weight and total soluble solutes.. EFFECTS OF MULCHING ON SOIL TEMPERATURE AND MOISTURE, YIELD ANT) QUALITY OF TOMATO (L YCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) UNDER KENYAN HIGHLAND GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS A THESIS SUBMITTED TO GRADUATE SCHOOL, EGERTON UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN HORTICULTURE EGERTON UNIVERSITY, NJORO. NAOMI BOKE RIOBA

57 Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 61 (1992) Simulation of soil temperature in crops. Y. Luo, R.S. Loomis and T.C. Hsiao diunduh 7/2/2012 This paper presents a model that simulates soil temperature realistically with variable crop cover and soil water content and is also sufficiently small and fast to be included in a crop simulator. The model is developed according to principles of energy balance and soil heat transfer. Net radiation. sensible. latent. and ground-conductive heat fluxes are modified by foliage cover and cumulative evaporation as a basis for calculating the energy balance at the soil surface. Soil temperature at various depths is estimated with Fourier's heat transfer equation. One experiment measuring relative humidity at the soil surface was conducted to develop an equation for predicting vapor pressure at the soil surface. Two other field experiments measuring air and soil temperatures and energy balance components were carried out for model validation. The model well predicts energy fluxes at the soil surface. soil surface temperature. and soil temperature at various depths in crops. Canopy cover and soil surface wetness strongly influence energy balance and soil temperature whereas variation in soil porosity and soil thermal conductivity have little effect on soil temperature.

58 ISHS Acta Horticulturae 148: III International Symposium on Energy in Protected Cultivation EFFECT OF SOIL HEATING ON PLANT PRODUCTIVITY AND ENERGY CONSERVATION IN NORTHERN GREENHOUSES. A. Gosselin, M.J. Trudel. diunduh 7/2/2012 Soil warming (22–24°C) increased total yields of greenhouse tomato by 40% in the spring and by 8% in the fall. When grown under reduced air temperature in a plastic tunnel, tomato plant yields were increased by 27 and 24% for the spring and fall crops, respectively. In the fall, soil warming caused greater effects when night air temperature was reduced. Cucumber yields were increased by 36% by soil warming at spring, but were not significantly affected when grown in the fall. Economic and energetic studies showed that soil warming was profitable under the climatic conditions of Eastern Canada..

59 EFFECTS OF SOIL TEMPERATURE AND MOISTURE ON THE VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF EUROPEAN CHAFER LARVAE SHOREY, H. H.; GYRISCO, GEORGE G. Annals of the Entomological Society of AmericaAnnals of the Entomological Society of America, Vol. 53, No 5, September 1960, pp (5) 16…… diunduh 7/2/2012 Larvae of the European chafer, Amphimallon majalis (Raz.), in the field, moved down in the soil as it dried, though no pronounced change in their vertical distribution was observed until after the drying had proceeded below the range of available soil moisture. In laboratory studies, first- and second-instar larvae responded to a small moisture difference between two adjoining very dry soils, but did not respond to a similar slight moisture difference between two wetter soils. Overwintering second-instar larvae migrated downward earlier in the fall, arrived at a greater winter depth, and moved back toward the surface later in the spring than did third-instar larvae. In the laboratory, secondinstar larvae responded to an artificially created temperature gradient by moving in largest numbers to soils having temperatures between 17° and 27°C..

60 temperature-on-germination…… diunduh 7/2/2012 The effects of soil temperature on germination February 4th, 2011 Germination of seeds or growth of plant roots may be affected more by soil temperature than by any other physical factor except moisture. In temperate climates, soil temperatures may be too low for rapid germination and if adequate moisture is present, the seed or seedling may fall victim of diseases because of low vigor.soil temperatures In tropical climates, soil temperatures, particularly near the surface, may be too high for the seedling to get off to a vigorous start. Some seeds are particularly susceptible to high temperatures and germination and seedling vigor are reduced if the seeds must be stored at above-optimum temperatures.temperatures

61 Effects of soil temperature and depth on colonization and root and shoot growth of barley inoculated with vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizae indigenous to Canadian prairie soil K. M. Volkmar, W. Woodbury Canadian Journal of Botany, 1989, 67:(6) , /b diunduh 7/2/2012 The ability of vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizae indigenous to the Canadian prairie to colonize roots and promote growth of barley in 38 × 11 cm plastic tubes at soil temperatures of 12, 16, or 20 °C was examined. Mycorrhizal inoculum was placed 5 cm below the soil surface (PI) or dispersed throughout the soil (DI) prior to planting. Plants were harvested at stage 10.1 (Feeke's scale). Infection levels on PI and DI treatments were about 2 and 7%, respectively, with more infection occurring on DI roots. Soil temperature did not influence infection of DI plants but infection development beyond the inoculum source was greatest at 12 °C in PI plants. The dry shoot mass of DI plants was larger, but root mass was smaller than the PI and control plants irrespective of soil temperature. Root lengths of PI and DI plants were about 80 and 40% of control plants, irrespective of soil temperature with root length declining with soil depth on PI and control plants but not on DI treatments. Low infection level despite high inoculum potential indicated either a low rate of overwinter inoculum survival or an incompatibility between the host and endophyte. Significant growth promotion in spite of low levels of infection suggests that the mycorrhizal species that do colonize the root could be of economic value.

62 Soil & Tillage Research 80 (2005) 233–249 Strip-tillage effect on seedbed soil temperature and other soil physical properties Mark A. Licht, Mahdi Al-Kaisi ∗. diunduh 7/2/2012 The no-tillage system is perceived as having lower soil temperatures, wetter soil conditions, and greater surface penetration resistance compared with conventional and other conservation tillage systems. Concerns associated with the effect of the no-tillage system on certain soil physical properties (i.e. soil temperature, moisture, and compaction) prompted this study to evaluate the effect of an alternative tillage system, strip-tillage, on these physical properties, compared with chisel plow and no-tillage systems. The study was conducted on two Iowa State University research and demonstration farms in 2001 and One site was at the Marsden Farm near Ames, where the soils were Nicollet loam (Aquic Hapludolls) andWebster silty clay loam (Typic Haplaquolls). The second site was at the Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm near Nashua, where the soils were Kenyon loam (Typic Hapludolls) and Floyd loam (Aquic Hapludolls). Soil temperature increased in the top 5 cm under strip-tillage (1.2–1.4 ◦C) over no-tillage and it remained close to the chisel plow soil temperature. This increase in soil temperature contributed to an improvement in plant emergence rate index (ERI) under strip-tillage compared with no-tillage. The results show no significant differences in soil moisture status between the three tillage systems, although the strip-tillage soil profile has slightly greater moisture content than chisel plow. Moisture content through the soil profile particularly at the lower depths under all tillage treatments was greater than the plant available water (PAW). However, the changes in soil moisture storage were much greater with strip-tillage and chisel plowthan no-tillage from post-emergence to preharvest at 0–30 and 0–120 cm. It was observed also that most change in soil moisture storage occurred between post-emergence and tasseling. Penetration resistance was similar for both strip-tillage and no-tillage, but commonly greater than chisel plow. In general, the findings show that strip-tillage can contribute effectively to improve plant emergence, similar to chisel plowing and conserve soil moisture effectively compared with no-tillage.

63 Effect of ridge tillage, no-tillage, and conventional tillage on soil temperature, water use, and crop performance in cold and semi- arid areas in Northeast China. He, Jin; Li, Hongwen; Kuhn, N. J.; Wang, Qingjie; Zhang, Xuemin. Australian Journal of Soil Research. (December 1, 2010) …… diunduh 7/2/2012 Results from this research indicated that the RT system (no-tillage, residue cover, and ridge planting) was effective in improving soil temperature and water use in cold and semi-arid areas of Northeast China. Mean data indicate that adoption of the RT system increased soil temperature by [degrees]C in cold conditions and enhanced WUE by %, which has profound implications in this environment of insufficient accumulative temperature and drastically decreasing water availability. The faster crop growth and improved (9.9%) mean yield in the RT treatment also demonstrated that the radical change from the conventional fiat planting, ploughing, and residue removal system to the permanent ridge planting, no-tillage, and residue cover system did not negatively affect maize production. No tillage with residue cover also appeared to provide some advantage in soil temperature, yield, and WUE, compared with CT. Ridge tillage cropping systems clearly have the potential to make an important contribution to agricultural productivity. Ongoing research is needed on several aspects of this cropping system, including the balance of soil temperature and water content and the relationships between ridge tillage, productivity, soil quality, and environmental conditions. The absence of a suitable no-tillage planter for ridge tillage is likely to be a significant constraint to adoption and must be investigated in cold and semi-arid Northeast China.

64 Effect of water hyacinth mulch on soil temperature, moisture and yield of Chinese cabbage (brassica campestris L.) in Shanghai village. Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering (MACE), 2010 International Conference on June Wuhan. P diunduh 7/2/2012 The effect of water hyacinth mulching on soil temperature, moisture and Chinese cabbage yield were investigated. The water hyacinth mulched soil compared to unmulched treatments generally had higher temperature at 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil depths, and provided the higher soil accumulated temperature to the soil. The average diurnal temperature variation of water hyacinth mulched soil at 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depth were 5.5°C and 6.1°C, respectively, which was 1.8°C lower than unmulched soil. Water hyacinth mulch increases the soil moisture content both at the 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depth. Compared to unmulched soil, mean soil moisture content at 0-5 cm depth and at 5-10 cm depth of mulched soil were 12.24% and 11.81% higher, respectively. Water hyacinth mulch treatments increased the Chinese cabbage yield significantly over unmulched treatments that mulched plots produced the highest yields 257.1% higher than the unmulched plots. Use of water hyacinth as mulch provides an attractive and an environment friendly option in Shanghai village, as it is one of the most serious water hyacinth pollution areas with most fresh water hyacinth residues.

65 Effects of Low Soil Temperature on Transpiration, Photosynthesis, Leaf Relative Water Content, and Growth Among Elevationally Diverse Plant Populations Jay E. Anderson and S. J. McNaughton Ecology 54:1220– …… diunduh 7/2/2012 The effects of low soil temperature on photosynthesis and water relations were examined in 17 populations of 12 vascular plant species from native elevations ranging between 10 m and 3,170 m. Root permeability to water was sufficient in the majority of populations studied so that neither transpiration nor net photosynthesis was reduced at 3 degrees C soil temperature compared to the rates at 20 degrees C soil temperature. There was no evidence of differential natural selection along altitudinal gradients for ability to maintain photosynthesis rate when roots were chilled. Leaf relative water content was typically reduced in response to soil cooling. There is a critical relative water content above which both transpiration and photosynthesis are insensitive to water content reductions. Root chilling failed to reduce relative water content below this level in most populations studied. Low soil temperatures which had no adverse effects on transpiration or photosynthesis were found to significantly retard plant growth. The observed relative water content reductions might limit growth despite their failure to affect photosynthesis. Evidence for natural selection for ability to maintain turgor upon root chilling in high elevation populations was provided by an inverse relationship between the magnitude of depression in relative water content and native elevation. Thus, growth reduction at low soil temperatures must result from impaired turgor, decreased root growth and metabolism, or impaired cytokinin synthesis and translocation rather than direct limitation of carbon assimilation.

66 EFFECT OF SOIL MANAGEMENT ON THEIR THERMAL PROPERTIES. Dorota Dec1, José Dörner1 and Rainer Horn. J. Soil Sc. Plant Nutr. 9 (1) 2009 (26-39) …… diunduh 7/2/2012 In order to determine the effect of soil management on its thermal properties, undisturbed soil samples were taken from two tillage treatments (conventional and conservation treatment) at two depths (0-30cm and 30-60cm) of a Stagnic Luvisol (silt loam) before and after directly wheeling. The experimental field, located in Harste/Goettingen, Germany, was cultivated with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). To calculate thermal properties of the soil, the volumetric water content (TDR needles) and temperature (pT 100 thermistors) during the simulation of the daily fluctuation of temperature were registered in laboratory and then the thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity and heat diffusivity were calculated following the damping depth method and the statistical-physical model. The results showed that different tillage systems as well as compaction influenced soil thermal properties. Conservational tillage treatment with more stable and better developed soil structure at a depth of 0-30cm (which represents ploughing depth and decides differences between soil management) presented higher water content as the main factor deciding soil thermal properties. Values of thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity under this treatment were greater than under conventional. Thermal diffusivity, however, was lower. From the latter we can conclude that under conservation tillage treatment the soil can store more heat, but at the same time and as a result of the lower thermal diffusivity, the atmospheric variations do not affect the soil thermal regime strongly..

67 Tyson, E. Ochsner, R. Horton., Tusheng Ren A new perspective on soil thermal properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 65: Hillel, D Environmental Soil Physics. Academic Press, London, 771 P. …… diunduh 7/2/2012 Soil temperature and, consequently their thermal properties are one of the most important factors governing the exchange of energy and mass between the soil and the atmosphere (Tyson et al., 2001).. The influence of temperature on soil is noticeable already at the level of their formation, through their direct influence on the weathering of bedrock to produce mineral particles. The temperature influences biological processes, like the uptake of water and nutrients by roots, germination, seedling emergence and plant growth as well as influences decomposition of organic matter by microbes rising with a temperature increase (Hillel 1998).

68 Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 130 (2005) 237–253 Interacting effects of temperature, soil moisture and plant biomass production on ecosystem respiration in a northern temperate grassland Lawrence B. Flanagan *, Bruce G. Johnson …… diunduh 7/2/2012 Chamber measurements of total ecosystem respiration (TER) in a native Canadian grassland ecosystem were made during two study years with different precipitation. The growing season (April–September) precipitation during 2001 was less than onehalf of the 30-year mean (1971–2000), while 2002 received almost double the normal growing season precipitation. As a consequence soil moisture remained higher in 2002 than 2001 during most of the growing season and peak aboveground biomass production (253.9 g m2) in 2002 was 60% higher than in Maximum respiration rates were approximately 9 mmol m2 s1 in 2002 while only approximately 5 mmol m2 s1 in Large diurnal variation in TER, which occurred during times of peak biomass and adequate soil moisture, was primarily controlled by changes in temperature. The temperature sensitivity coefficient (Q10) for ecosystem respiration was on average , and it declined in association with reductions in soil moisture. Approximately 94% of the seasonal and interannual variation in R10 (standardized rate of respiration at 10 8C) data was explained by the interaction of changes in soil moisture and aboveground biomass, which suggested that plant aboveground biomass was good proxy for accounting for variations in both autotrophic and heterotrophic capacity for respiration. Soil moisture was the dominant environmental factor that controlled seasonal and interannual variation in TER in this grassland, when variation in temperature was held constant.We compared respiration rates measured with chambers and that determined from nighttime eddy covariance (EC) measurements. Respiration rates measured by both techniques showed very similar seasonal patterns of variation in both years. When TER was integrated over the entire growing season period, the chamber method produced slightly higher values than the EC method by approximately 4.5% and 13.6% during 2001 and 2002, respectively, much less than the estimated uncertainty for both measurement techniques. The two methods for calculating respiration had only minor effects on the seasonal- integrated estimates of net ecosystem CO2 exchange and ecosystem gross photosynthesis..

69 Seasonal variation in the temperature response of ecosystem respiration rate during (a) 2001 and (b) Individual points represent the mean of measurements made at six different collars.. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 130 (2005) 237–253 Interacting effects of temperature, soil moisture and plant biomass production on ecosystem respiration in a northern temperate grassland Lawrence B. Flanagan *, Bruce G. Johnson

70 Diurnal variation in: (a) net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), (b) chamber measurements of ecosystem respiration rate, and (c) soil temperature near the time of peak aboveground biomass production in 2001 (June 7) and 2002 (July 11). NEE measurements are the mean S.E. for a 14-day period centered on the day chamber respiration measurements were made. Chamber respiration rate values represent the mean (S.E.), n = 6.. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 130 (2005) 237–253 Interacting effects of temperature, soil moisture and plant biomass production on ecosystem respiration in a northern temperate grassland Lawrence B. Flanagan *, Bruce G. Johnson

71 The effect of changes in available soil moisture (Aw) on the temperature sensitivity coefficient (Q10) of ecosystem respiration. The line represents a fitted regression for data from both years combined (Q10 = Aw , r2 = 0.439). Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 130 (2005) 237–253 Interacting effects of temperature, soil moisture and plant biomass production on ecosystem respiration in a northern temperate grassland Lawrence B. Flanagan *, Bruce G. Johnson

72 Effect of soil temperature on nitrate formation. Adapted from Frederick, L. R. and F. E. Broadbent Biological interactions, p. 198–212. In M. H. McVicker et al. (ed.). Agricultural anhydrous ammonia technology and use. ASA, Madison, WI.. …… diunduh 7/2/2012

73 Effects of environmental factors on N 2 O emission from and CH 4 uptake by the typical grasslands in the Inner Mongolia Yuesi Wang, Min Xue, Xunhua Zheng, Baoming Ji, Rui Du, Yanfen Wang. Chemosphere. Volume 58, Issue 2, January 2005, Pages 205–215 …… diunduh 7/2/2012 Effects of soil temperature on N 2 O emissions, CH 4 uptake fluxes in the ungrazed, moderately grazed LC steppe and ungrazed SG steppe in the growing and the non-growing seasons. (a,b) Effects of soil temperature on N 2 O emission flux in the ungrazed and moderately grazed LC steppes, (c,d) effects of soil temperature on CH 4 uptake flux in the ungrazed and moderately grazed LC steppes..

74 …… diunduh 7/2/2012 The fluxes of N 2 O emission from and CH 4 uptake by the typical semi-arid grasslands in the Inner Mongolia, China were measured in 1998–1999. Three steppes, i.e. the ungrazed Leymus chinensis (LC), the moderately grazed Leymus chinensis (LC) and the ungrazed Stipa grandis (SG), were investigated, at a measurement frequency of once per week in the growing seasons and once per month in the non-growing seasons of the LC steppes. In addition, four diurnal-cycles of the growing seasons of the LC steppes, each in an individual stage of grass growth, were measured. The investigated steppes play a role of source for the atmospheric N 2 O and sink for the atmospheric CH 4, with a N 2 O emission flux of 0.06–0.21 kg N ha −1 yr −1 and a CH 4 uptake flux of 1.8–2.3 kg C ha −1 yr −1. Soil moisture primarily and positively regulates the spatial and seasonal variability of N 2 O emission. The usual difference in soil moisture among various semi-arid steppes does not lead to significantly different CH 4 uptake intensities. Soil moisture, however, negatively regulates the seasonal variability in CH 4 uptake. Soil temperature of the most top layer might be the primary driving factor for CH 4 uptake when soil moisture is relatively low. The annual net emission of N 2 O and CH 4 from the ungrazed LC steppe, the moderately grazed LC steppe and the ungrazed SG steppe is at a CO 2 equivalent rate of 7.7, 0.8 and −7.5 kg CO 2 -C ha −1 yr −1, respectively, which is at an ignorable level. This implies that the role of the semi-arid grasslands in the atmospheric greenhouse effect in terms of net emission of greenhouse gases (CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O) may exclusively depend upon the net exchange of net ecosystem CO 2 exchange.. Effects of environmental factors on N 2 O emission from and CH 4 uptake by the typical grasslands in the Inner Mongolia Yuesi Wang, Min Xue, Xunhua Zheng, Baoming Ji, Rui Du, Yanfen Wang. Chemosphere. Volume 58, Issue 2, January 2005, Pages 205–215

75 Biomass crops can be used for biological disinfestation and remediation of soils and water. California Agriculture 63(1): January-March James J. Stapleton, and Gary S. Bañuelos. ucanr.org …… diunduh 7/2/2012 Effects of soil temperature and time on relative concentration dynamics of three volatile chemicals in soil during a laboratory study. The chemicals are nonglucosinolate-derived decomposition products of cabbage plant residues, which were incorporated in soil microcosms 3, 7 and 14 days prior to headspace sampling and analysis by gas chromatography (adapted from Gamliel and Stapleton 1993)..Gamliel and Stapleton 1993

76 …… diunduh 7/2/2012 Many plants that are candidates for refining into biofuels also possess qualities that make them potentially useful for managing soilborne pests, reclaiming polluted soils, supplementing animal feed and other purposes. Phytoremediation with these plants may provide a practical and economical method for managing the movement of trace elements into water tables, surface- and tail-water runoff, and drainage effluent. Mustards (Brassicaceae) are of particular interest for biodiesel, and grasses (Gramineae) for bioethanol production. These plants, as well as others such as certain members of the onion family (Alliaceae), also possess properties that could make them effective natural biofumigants for soil. Some of these crops have high allelopathic activity and must be employed carefully in rotations to avoid damaging subsequent crops.. BIOMASS CROPS CAN BE USED FOR BIOLOGICAL DISINFESTATION AND REMEDIATION OF SOILS AND WATER. California Agriculture 63(1): January-March James J. Stapleton, and Gary S. Bañuelos.

77 …… diunduh 7/2/2012 Effect of soil temperature on emergence of corn and soybeans. Emergence is slow at temperatures near 50 F (10 C). Emergence is rapid near 90 F (32.2 C). Graphic assumes that soil moisture is near ideal for plant establishment. Graphic from Elwynn Taylor Elwynn Taylor is Iowa State University Extension Climatologist and can be reached at or by calling (515)

78 D. Brian Fowler Crop Development Centre University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. Copyright © D.Brian Fowler URL:http://www.usask.ca/agriculture/cropsci/winter_cereals/. hpt11.php …… diunduh 7/2/2012 The effect of soil temperature on speed of germination and emergence of Norstar winter wheat (from Lafond and Fowler, 1989)..

79 THE VETIVER GRASS SYSTEM: POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS FOR SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA. (Invited paper presented at the STIFF GRASS TECHNOLOGY Seminar, sponsored by the Yolo County Flood Control & Water Conservation District and Family Water Alliance at Woodland on 9 May 2 000) Dr Paul Truong …… diunduh 7/2/2012 The effect of soil temperature on the root growth of vetiver.

80 The Effect of Mulching and Row Covers on Vegetable Production Toshio Hanada. Chugoku Agr. Exp. Stn. Ueno 200, Ayabe city, Kyoto Pref. 623, Japan, id=4 …… diunduh 7/2/2012 Growth of Pak-Choi under Different Soil Temperatures

81 Soil Temperatures at a Depth of 0 CM, 10 CM and 30 CM under Various Mulching Materials during Summer in Okinawa id=4 …… diunduh 7/2/2012

82 . Fluctuations in Soil Temperature (5CM below Surface) in Carrot Fields with and without Mulch. …… diunduh 7/2/2012

83 Mulching with appropriate materials has a number of effects: it increases the soil temperature, conserves soil moisture, texture and fertility; and controls weeds, pests and diseases. Various kinds of mulching material are available for vegetable production in temperate regions, depending on their purpose. However, mulching with plastic film caused an extreme increase in soil temperature during summer in the subtropics. Organic matter such as fresh leaves, fresh grass or straw are better mulching materials than plastic in a hot climate. The effect of row covers, another way of stabilizing vegetable production, was also investigated in the tropics and the subtropics. Covering crops with plastic net or non-woven fabrics, especially when these were supported by a framework, increased the yield of vegetables, especially of leafy vegetables, in both subtropical and tropical areas. These yield increases were found to be the combined results of shading, suppression of increases in soil temperature, conservation of soil moisture, and protection from wind and pests. The use of plastic nets as row covers and mulching with freshly cut grass seem to be highly promising techniques of vegetable production in the tropics.. …… diunduh 7/2/2012 The Effect of Mulching and Row Covers on Vegetable Production Toshio Hanada. Chugoku Agr. Exp. Stn. Ueno 200, Ayabe city, Kyoto Pref. 623, Japan,

84 Bekal, S. and Becker, J.O Population dynamics of the sting nematode in California turf grass. Plant Disease 84: ges/StingNematode.aspx…… diunduh 7/2/2012 Nematode population trend plotted along with soil temperature..

85 Interactive effects of soil temperature and moisture on Concord grape root respiration Xuming Huang, Alan N. Lakso and David M. Eissenstat. J. Exp. Bot. (October 2005) 56 (420): diunduh 7/2/2012 Root respiration has important implications for understanding plant growth as well as terrestrial carbon flux with a changing climate. Although soil temperature and soil moisture often interact, rarely have these interactions on root respiration been studied. This report is on the individual and combined effects of soil moisture and temperature on respiratory responses of single branch roots of 1-year-old Concord grape (Vitis labruscana Bailey) vines grown in a greenhouse. Under moist soil conditions, root respiration increased exponentially to short-term (1 h) increases in temperature between 10 °C and 33 °C. Negligible increases in root respiration occurred between 33 °C and 38 °C. By contrast to a slowly decreasing Q 10 from short-term temperature increases, when roots were exposed to constant temperatures for 3 d, the respiratory Q 10 between 10 °C and 30 °C diminished steeply with an increase in temperature. Above 30 °C, respiration declined with an increase in temperature. Membrane leakage was 89–98% higher and nitrogen concentration was about 18% lower for roots exposed to 35 °C for 3 d than for those exposed to 25 °C and 15 °C. There was a strong interaction of respiration with a combination of elevated temperature and soil drying. At low soil temperatures (10 °C), respiration was little influenced by soil drying, while at moderate to high temperatures (20 °C and 30 °C), respiration exhibited rapid declines with decreases in soil moisture. Roots exposed to drying soil also exhibited increased membrane leakage and reduced N. These findings of acclimation of root respiration are important to modelling respiration under different moisture and temperature regimes..

86 Bryla DR, Bouma TJ, Hartmond U, Eissenstat DM Influence of temperature and soil drying on respiration of individual roots in citrus: integrating greenhouse observations into a predictive model for the field. Plant, Cell and Environment24,781–790.. Palta JA, Nobel PS Influence of water status, temperature and root age on daily patterns of root respiration for two cactus species. Annals of Botany63,651–662. Huang B, Fu J Photosynthesis, respiration and carbon allocation of two cool-season perennial grasses in response to surface soil drying. Plant and Soil227,17–26. …… diunduh 7/2/2012 RESPIRASI AKAR Fluctuations in soil temperature and soil moisture are closely linked, but rarely studied together (but see Bryla et al., 2001). Soil moisture not only directly affects root physiology, but also indirectly by affecting soil thermal properties. Thus, dry soils typically fluctuate much more widely in daily temperature than wet soils. At moderate temperatures, soil moisture exerts a substantial influence on root respiration. Root respiration decreases as soil moisture is depleted (Palta and Nobel, 1989; Huang and Fu, 2000; Bryla et al., 2001).

87 Eissenstat DM, Whaley E, Volder A, Wells C Recovery of citrus roots following prolonged exposure to dry soil. Journal of Experimental Botany50,1845–1854. Eissenstat DM, Wells CE, Yanai RD, Whitbeck JL Building roots in a changing environment: implications for root longevity. New Phytologist147,33–42.. Bouma TJ, Yanai RD, Elkin AD, Hartmond U, Flores-Alva DE, Eissenstat DM Estimating age-dependent costs and benefits of roots with contrasting life span: comparing apples and oranges. New Phytologist150,685–695. Comas LH, Eissenstat DM, Lakso AN Assessing root death and root system dynamics in a study of grape canopy pruning. New Phytologist147,171–178. …… diunduh 7/2/2012 SUHU TANAH – LENGAS – RESPIRASI AKAR In previous work on citrus (Bryla et al., 2001), strong interactions of soil moisture with temperature on root respiration were found that have important implications on how respiration should be modelled under different climate-change scenarios, where both elevated temperatures and increasing drought occur. Citrus may be unique in its temperature and moisture responses, not only because it is a subtropical evergreen, but also because of its tough, coarse roots with relatively slow respiration rates and long lifespan, even in very dry soils (Bryla et al., 1997; Eissenstat et al., 1999; Bouma et al., 2001). Concord grape is more typical of temperate fruit crops in that its finest lateral roots tend to be thin and succulent with high uptake capacity and metabolism in young roots and a fairly short lifespan (grape: Comas et al., 2000; apple: Eissenstat et al., 2000).

88 diunduh 7/2/2012 Effects of soil temperature and moisture on nitrogen concentration in Concord grape roots. Dashed line and open circles, roots experienced soil drying under different temperatures. Samples were analysed when the soil moisture was reduced to around 5%. Continuous line and closed circles, roots exposed to different temperatures in well-watered soil for 3 d. Different letters above each point indicate significant difference at P=0.05 based on LSD test, one- way ANOVA.. Interactive effects of soil temperature and moisture on Concord grape root respiration. Xuming Huang, Alan N. Lakso and David M. Eissenstat. J. Exp. Bot. (October 2005) 56 (420):

89 …… diunduh 7/2/2012 Respiratory responses of roots in moist soil to changes in temperature. (A) Respiration of roots exposed to each temperature for 1 h (n=6; filled circles and continuous line between 10 °C and 32 °C; y=6.04e x, R 2 =0.988) and for 3 d (n=5; open circles and dashed line between 10 °C and 28 °C; y=18.3ln(x)−32.3, R 2 =0.987). (B) Respiratory Q 10 of roots exposed to each temperature for 1 h (continuous line; y=−0.039x+2.63, R 2 =0.809) and 3 d (dashed line; y=−0.106x+3.98, R 2 =0.899). The temperature shown on the x- axes represents the middle value between each temperature increase.. Interactive effects of soil temperature and moisture on Concord grape root respiration Xuming Huang, Alan N. Lakso and David M. Eissenstat. J. Exp. Bot. (October 2005) 56 (420):

90 diunduh 7/2/2012 Relationships Between Soil Temperature and Plant Growth. Interactive effects of soil temperature and moisture on Concord grape root respiration Xuming Huang, Alan N. Lakso and David M. Eissenstat. J. Exp. Bot. (October 2005) 56 (420):

91 diunduh 7/2/2012 Effects of Mulch on Soil Temperature in Relationship to Time Interactive effects of soil temperature and moisture on Concord grape root respiration Xuming Huang, Alan N. Lakso and David M. Eissenstat. J. Exp. Bot. (October 2005) 56 (420):

92 PROFIL SUHU TANAH The interplay among these varying properties combines to affect the rate of heating, total heat exchanged, and temperature profile (gradient = dT/dz, where z is thickness or depth) within the layers in the top 30 cm (1.2 ft) or so, beneath the Earth's surface. This profile can change considerably during the diurnal cycle. Different temperature vs depth profiles characterize different times of the day and night, as summarized in this diagram (for a low density soil with very low thermal inertia). diunduh 7/2/2012

93 diunduh 7/2/2012 Variasi suhu tanah dengan kedalman lapisan tanah

94 Influence of different colour plastic mulches used for sol solarization on the effectiveness of soil heating A.W. Alkayssi and A.A. Alkaraghouli. Solar Energy Research Center, Baghdad, Iraq. diunduh 7/2/2012 Maximum (A) and minimum (B) soil temperature variations for different soil depths..

95 FAO PLANT PRODUCTION AND PROTECTION PAPER 109 FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS. Rome, 1991 Proceedings of the First International Conference on Soil Solarization. Amman, Jordan, February …… diunduh 7/2/2012 Day time soil temperature variation at different soil depths (Cavazza, 1981).

96 Soil Thermal Conductivity: Effects of Density, Moisture, Salt Concentration, and Organic Matter Nidal H Abu-Hamdeh, Randall C Reeder Soil Science Society of America Journal (2000) Vol. 64, Issue: 4, Soil Science Society of America, 677 South Segoe Road, Madison, WI, 53711, USA. p moisture-salt-concentration-and-organic-matter/…… diunduh 7/2/2012 The thermal conductivity of soil under a given set of conditions is most important as it relates to a soils microclimate. The early growth and development of a crop may be determined to a large extent by microclimate. The effect of bulk density, moisture content, salt concentration, and organic matter on the thermal conductivity of some sieved and repacked Jordanian soils was investigated through laboratory studies. These laboratory experiments used the single probe method to determine thermal conductivity. The soils used were classified as sand, sandy loam, loam, and clay loam. The two salts used were NaCl and CaCl2, while addition of peat moss was used to increase the organic matter content. For the soils studied, thermal conductivity increased with increasing soil density and moisture con- tent. Thermal conductivity ranged from 0.58 to 1.94 for sand, from 0.19 to 1.12 for sandy loam, from 0.29 to 0.76 for loam, and from 0.36 to 0.69 W/m K for clay loam at densities from 1.23 to 1.59 g cm3 and water contents from 1.4 to 21.2%. The results also show that an increase in the amount of added salts at given moisture content (volumetric solution contents ranged from m3 m3 sand and from m3 m3 for the for the clay loam) decreased thermal conductivity. Increasing the percentage of soil organic matter de- creased thermal conductivity. Finally, it was found that the sand had higher values of thermal conductivity than the clay loam for the same salt type and concentrations.

97 Thermal stability and composition of mineral-bound organic matter in density fractions of soil by H R Schulten, P Leinweber European Journal of Soil Science (1999) Volume: 50, Issue: 2, Pages: density-fractions-soil/…… diunduh 7/2/2012 Heavy density fractions of soil contain organic matter tightly bound to the surface of soil minerals. The chemical composition and ecological meaning of non-metabolic decomposition products and microbial metabolites in organic- mineral bonds is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the heavy fraction (density >2 g cm(-3)) from the topsoil of a Gleysol (Bainsville, Ottawa, Canada). It accounted for 952 g kg(-1) of soil and contained 19 g kg(-1) of organic C. Pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectra showed intensive signals of carbohydrates, and phenols and lignin monomers, alkylaromatics (mostly aromatic) N-containing compounds, and peptides. These classes of compound have been proposed as structural building blocks of soil organic matter. In comparison, the light fraction (density > 2 g cm(-3)) was richer in lignin dimers, lipids, sterols, suberin and fatty acids which clearly indicate residues of plants and biota. To confirm the composition and stability of mineral-bound organic matter, we also investigated the heavy fraction (density > 2.2 g cm(- 3)) from clay-, silt- and sand-sized separates of the topsoil of a Chernozern (Bad Lauchstadt, Germany). These heavy size separates differed in their mass spectra but were generally characterized by volatilization maxima of alkylaromatics, lipids and sterols at about 500 degrees C. We think that the observed high-temperature volatilization of these structural building blocks of soil organic matter is indicative of the organic-mineral bonds. Some unexpected low temperature volatilization of carbohydrates, N- containing compounds, peptides, and phenols and lignin monomers was assigned to hot-water-extractable organic matter which accounted for 7-27% of the carbon and nitrogen in the heavy fractions. As this material is known to be mineralizable, our study indicates that these constituents of the heavy density fractions are degradable by micro-organisms and involved in the turnover of soil organic matter.

98 FLUKTUASI SUHU TANAH diunduh 7/2/2012 At Narabri, a mulch consisting of straw was applied to the soil surface and the effects were monitored. Figure below shows that the temperature at 1 cm depth was decreased due the mulch absorbing the heat and not conducting it through the profile. The effects of the mulch include: Initially the mulch had an instaneous affect on the 1cm level of soil, the mulch had an instantaneous cooling effect. The mulch acts to remove reduce the amplitude (i.e. knocks out peaks and trouphs) The low thermal conductivity of the mulch reduces heat transferr over the surface of the soil, giving a damping effect. By the second day after the addittion of the mulch, the mulch reduced the amplitude of the 1cm by 17C and 10 cm by 7C.

99 FLUKTUASI SUHU TANAH The simplest mathematical representation of the fluctuating thermal regime in a soil profile, is to assume that at all depths in the soil the temperature oscillates as a pure harmonic (sinusoidal) function of time around an average value (Hillel, 1980). At each succeeding depth, the peak temperature is dampened and shifted progressively in time. The degree of damping increases with depth and is related to the thermal properties of the soil and the frequency of the temperature fluctuation. Plots of temperature verses time were fitted with a sinusoidal function for depths of 1cm, 10cm and 25cm. …… diunduh 7/2/2012

100 The effect of soil water content, soil temperature, soil pH-value and the root mass on soil CO 2 efflux – A modified model Sascha Reth, Markus Reichstein and Eva Falge. Plant and Soil. Volume 268, Number 1, Plant and SoilVolume 268, Number 1 …… diunduh 7/2/2012 To quantify the effects of soil temperature (T soil ), and relative soil water content (RSWC) on soil respiration we measured CO 2 soil efflux with a closed dynamic chamber in situ in the field and from soil cores in a controlled climate chamber experiment. Additionally we analysed the effect of soil acidity and fine root mass in the field. The analysis was performed on three meadow, two bare fallow and one forest sites. The influence of soil temperature on CO 2 emissions was highly significant with all land-use types, except for one field campaign with continuous rain. Where soil temperature had a significant influence, the percentage of variance explained by soil temperature varied from site to site from 13–46% in the field and 35–66% in the climate chamber. Changes of soil moisture influenced only the CO 2 efflux on meadow soils in field and climate chamber (14–34% explained variance), whereas on the bare soil and the forest soil there was no visible effect. The spatial variation of soil CO 2 emission in the field correlated significantly with the soil pH and fine root mass, explaining up to 24% and 31% of the variability. A non-linear regression model was developed to describe soil CO 2 efflux as a function of soil temperature, soil moisture, pH-value and root mass. With the model we could explain 60% of the variability in soil CO 2 emission of all individual field chamber measurements. Through the model analysis we highlight the temporal influence of rain events. The model overestimated the observed fluxes during and within four hours of the last rain event. Conversely, after more than 72h without rain the model underestimated the fluxes. Between four and 72 h after rainfall, the regression model of soil CO 2 emission explained up to 91% of the variance..

101 Soil moisture effect on the temperature dependence of ecosystem respiration in a subtropical Pinus plantation of southeastern China Xue-Fa Wen a, Gui-Rui Yu, Xiao-Min Sun, Qing-Kang Li, Yun-Fen Liu, Lei-Ming Zhang, Chuan-You Ren, Yu-Ling Fu, Zheng-Quan Li. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 137 (2006) 166–175 …… diunduh 7/2/2012 Variation in temperature accounts for most of the seasonal fluctuation of terrestrial ecosystem respiration. However, other factors, such as soil moisture, also influence ecosystem respiration. In this study, continuous measurement of carbon dioxide exchange was made over a subtropical Pinus plantation of southeastern China using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. The effect of soil water content on ecosystem respiration and its sensitivity to temperature (Q10) were examined during the unusual dry summer of The results indicate that soil water content significantly affected the dynamics of respiration rate and its relationship with temperature in the drought-stressed ecosystem. The effect of soil water content on the Q10 value of ecosystem respiration is described best by a quadratic function, instead of the commonly used multiplicative model. The regression model analysis revealed that ecosystem respiration was more sensitive to soil water content than is estimated by the multiplicative model. The multiplicative model led to an overestimation of response of the respiration to warming under the dry soil condition. Sensitivity of the ecosystem respiration to temperature was found to vary with air temperature and soil water content. This, to a considerable extent, precludes accurate estimates of the seasonal dynamics of ecosystem respiration.

102 EFFECTS OF SOIL TEMPERATURE ON PHOSPHORUS EXTRACTABILITY. I. EXTRACTIONS AND PLANT UPTAKE OF SOIL AND FERTILIZER PHOSPHORUS S. C. SHEPPARD, G. J. RACZ Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 1984, 64:(2) …… diunduh 7/2/2012 The effect of 10, 15, 20 and 25 °C soil temperatures on the extractability of soil and fertilizer phosphorus (P) was examined in two soils, one containing free carbonate (pH 7.8) and the other non-carbonated (pH 6.9). The time course of fixation and desorption reactions were monitored. The extractability of P was also assessed using sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) extractions, desorption curves, and short-term uptake by wheat seedlings. Phosphorus-32 was used throughout. Opposing effects of temperature were found. An increase in incubation temperature from 10 to 25 °C decreased the amount of applied P extracted probably due to accelerated fixation reactions. This effect was established 1 day after the P was applied and persisted for 57 days. An increase in extraction temperature over the corresponding incubation temperature increased the extractability of P, indicating endothermic desorption reactions. This effect was established 1 h after the extraction began and persisted for 48 h. Hence, the net effect of temperature on the extractability of P will depend upon the balance of these opposing processes. The time course of these processes had two phases. The effects of temperature were established during the initial phase (< 1 day) of each process. The reactions continued more slowly after the initial phase but the later phases were not significantly affected by temperature. The P-desorption buffer capacity increased as temperature increased in the fertilized, carbonated soil. Isotopic exchange of applied 32 P with native soil 31 P increased as temperature increased. Isotopic exchange appeared to be more extensive when measured by plant uptake as opposed to NaHCO 3 extraction, suggesting that the plants had access to a larger pool of soil 31 P..

103 The interdependent effects of soil temperature and water content on soil respiration rate and plant root decomposition in arid grassland soils R.E. Wildung, T.R. Garland, R.L. Buschbom. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. Volume 7, Issue 6, November 1975, Pages 373–378.Volume 7, Issue 6 …… diunduh 7/2/2012 Soil respiration (CO 2 evolution), soil temperature (1 dm) and water content (0–1dm) were determined over a 2 yr period in a grassland soil of the arid shrub-steppe. Respiration was due primarily to decomposition of plant roots by soil organisms. Although respiration rate was generally limited by soil temperature in the fall, winter and early spring and by soil water content in the late spring and summer, temperature and water content were interdependent in their effects on soil respiration rate. Soil organisms responded to changes in soil temperatures at water contents as low as 1–2 per cent ( bar suction). Above approximately 6° C, increased soil water content resulted in increased soil respiration rate. but the extent of the increase was non-linear and dependent upon soil temperature. Respiration rate approached a maximum at soil water contents of 6–10 per cent (35-13 bar suction) depending upon soil temperature and was generally optimum at temperatures above 15° C. The mutual regulation of soil respiration rate by temperature and moisture during this study was best described by a soil temperature-water interaction or multiplicative term, and regression equations which included this term served to accurately predict seasonal changes in soil respiration rate. Using a simple regression equation which included only the interaction term, it was possible to account for 70 per cent of the total variation in soil respiration rate during the monitoring period..

104 Soil & Tillage Research, 8 (1986) Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam -Printed in The Netherlands CROP RESIDUE EFFECTS ON SOIL ENVIRONMENT AND DRYLAND MAIZE AND SOYA BEAN PRODUCTION* J.F. POWER, W.W. WILHELM and J.W. DORAN. redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.co.id%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3Def fects%2Bof%2Bsoil%2Btemperature%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D38%26ved%3D0CGcQFjAHOB 4%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fdigitalcommons.unl.edu%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%2 53Farticle%253D1124%2526context%253Dusdaarsfacpub%26ei%3DS- UyT5e2F6nNmQXc8NC5BQ%26usg%3DAFQjCNGSzhDFE_25dyX_yhQGEetmQ5y5xA#search=%22 effects%20soil%20temperature%22 …… diunduh 7/2/2012 The research reported here provides data on the effects of crop residues on the surface of no-till soil upon the soil environment and resulting biological activity, including crop growth. For maize (Zea mays L.) and soya bean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production in eastern Nebraska, U.S.A. (4 years of data), increasing crop residue rate decreased maximum soil temperatures at the soil surface by at least 5"C, and generally increased soil water storage by at least 50 mm. Availability and uptake of nitrogen from the soil organic matter and applied fertilizers (and for soya bean from decomposition of crop residues) were increased by increasing the crop residue rate from 0 to 150% of the quantity left after grain harvest of the previous crop. Hardly any of the nitrogen in maize residues was used by the next crop. These changes in the soil environment resulted in less stress on crops produced on residuecovered soil than for those on bare soil. Consequently, each Mg ha-' of crop residues on the soil surface increased grain and stover production by approximately 120 and 270 kg ha-' for maize, and 90 and 300 kg ha-' for soya bean, respectively. Results show that there are major direct crop growth benefits from leaving crop residues on the soil surface, in addition to cumulative benefits that may result from reduced erosion losses and enhanced soil organic-matter contents..

105 Effects of environmental factors on N 2 O emission from and CH 4 uptake by the typical grasslands in the Inner Mongolia Yuesi Wang, Min Xue, Xunhua Zheng, Baoming Ji, Rui Du, Yanfen Wang Chemosphere, Volume 58, Issue 2, January 2005, Pages 205–215.Volume 58, Issue 2 …… diunduh 7/2/2012 Effects of soil temperature on N 2 O emissions, CH 4 uptake fluxes in the ungrazed, moderately grazed LC steppe and ungrazed SG steppe in the growing and the non-growing seasons. (a,b) Effects of soil temperature on N 2 O emission flux in the ungrazed and moderately grazed LC steppes, (c,d) effects of soil temperature on CH 4 uptake flux in the ungrazed and moderately grazed LC steppes..


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