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Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 23 Reproduction in Plants Section 1: Introduction to Plant Reproduction Section 2: Flowers Section 3: Flowering.

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Presentation on theme: "Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 23 Reproduction in Plants Section 1: Introduction to Plant Reproduction Section 2: Flowers Section 3: Flowering."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 23 Reproduction in Plants Section 1: Introduction to Plant Reproduction Section 2: Flowers Section 3: Flowering Plants

4 Vegetative Reproduction  The plants that result from vegetative reproduction are clones of the original plant because their genetic makeups are identical to the original plant. 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Strawberry plant

5 Advantages of Vegetative Reproduction Reproduction in Plants  It is faster to grow new plants than from a spore or a seed.  The resultant plants are more uniform in their characteristics.  The only way to produce some fruits that do not produce seeds 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction Chapter 23

6 Natural Vegetative Reproduction Reproduction in Plants  When conditions are dry, some mosses dry out, break apart, and are scattered by the wind.  When conditions improve, some of these pieces are able to resume growth in a new location. Moss 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction Chapter 23

7 Humans Use Vegetative Reproduction Reproduction in Plants  Farmers, horticulturists, and scientists can use buds, leaves, stems, or root pieces from certain plants to grow new plants.  A few cells of plant tissue can be placed on nutrient agar in sterile conditions to produce hundreds of identical plants. 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction Chapter 23

8 Alternation of Generations Reproduction in Plants  The life cycle of most plants includes a diploid (2n) sporophyte stage and a haploid (n) gametophyte stage. 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction Chapter 23

9  The gametophyte stage produces gametes— egg and sperm. Reproduction in Plants  In nonvascular plants, the sperm must have a small amount of water to get to the egg. 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction Chapter 23

10  In vascular plants, the sperm may be carried by the wind, or another vector such as an insect. Reproduction in Plants  Fertilization of the egg by the sperm forms a cell that is the first cell of the sporophyte stage. 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction Chapter 23

11 Moss Reproduction and Life Cycle Reproduction in Plants  The life cycle of the mosses begins with the dominant stage, the gametophyte. 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction Chapter 23

12  There are both male and female forms of the gametophyte. Reproduction in Plants  Eggs are produced in the female structure, called the archegonium. 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction  Sperm are produced in the male structure, called the antheridium. Chapter 23

13 Reproduction in Plants  The chemical that allows sperm to find the egg is chemotaxis. 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction  Sperm require water to swim to the egg. Chapter 23

14 Reproduction in Plants 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction  The mature sporophyte consists of a stalk that grows in the gametophyte stage. Chapter 23

15  At the tip of the stalk is a capsule where up to 50 million spores may form by meiosis. Reproduction in Plants  The spores produce a protonema that can develop into the gametophyte plant and start a new cycle. 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction Chapter 23

16 Fern Reproduction and Life Cycle Reproduction in Plants  Another life cycle that has alternation of generations and produces spores is that of the fern. 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction Chapter 23

17  Spores are produced from the sori, on the underside of a frond. Reproduction in Plants  If a fern spore lands on damp, rich soil, it can grow and form a tiny, heart- shaped gametophyte called a prothallus. 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction Chapter 23

18 Reproduction in Plants  The young sporophyte develops into a frond to start the cycle over again. 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction  Fertilization produces a sporophyte that grows from the prothallus. Chapter 23

19 Conifer Reproduction and Life Cycle Reproduction in Plants 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction  Conifers are heterosporus—they produce two types of spores that develop into male and female groups. Chapter 23

20 Female Cones Reproduction in Plants  At the base of each scale on a female cone are two ovules.  Each ovule has a megasporangium that produces megaspores.  One of the megaspores develops into the female gametophyte. 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction Chapter 23

21 Male Cones Reproduction in Plants  Each scale on the male cone contains hundreds of sporangia.  The sporangia produce microspores, which produce the male gametophyte, or pollen grain. 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction Chapter 23

22 Pollination Reproduction in Plants  Pollination occurs when the pollen grain from one species of a plant lands on the female reproductive structure of a plant of the same species.  The pollen grain is trapped in a sticky substance called the pollen drop which is located near the micropyle. 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction Chapter 23

23 Seed Development Reproduction in Plants  Seed development within the cone may take as long as three years.  The seed embryo will use the cotyledons for photosynthesis upon sprouting. 23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction Chapter 23

24 Flower Organs  Flowers are the reproductive structures of anthophytes. 23.2 Flowers Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23

25  There are basically four structures—sepals, petals, stamen, and pistils. Reproduction in Plants 23.2 Flowers Chapter 23  Flowers have several organs that provide protection or support, or are involved in the reproductive process.

26 Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23

27  Petals attract animal pollinators and provide a landing pad. Reproduction in Plants  Sepals and petals open and close to protect the reproductive parts of the flower. 23.2 Flowers  Sepals may be green and look like leaves and petals. Chapter 23

28 Reproduction in Plants  The filament stalk supports the anther, which contains the pollen grains. 23.2 Flowers  Most flowers have several stamen—the male reproductive organ—surrounding the central part of the flower. Chapter 23

29 Flower Adaptations Reproduction in Plants  Structural differences  Flowers that have sepals, petals, stamens, and one or more pistils are called complete flowers.  If a flower is missing one or more of these organs, it is an incomplete flower. 23.2 Flowers Chapter 23

30 Reproduction in Plants  Flowers that have both stamens and pistils are called perfect flowers.  An imperfect flower has either functional stamens or pistils. 23.2 Flowers Chapter 23

31 Reproduction in Plants 23.2 Flowers  Monocots generally have multiples of three.  When the petal number is a multiple of four or five, the plant is either a dicot or a eudicot.  The number of other organs often is the same multiple of three, four, or five.  The number of flower organs distinguishes dicots and eudicots from monocots. Chapter 23

32 Pollination Mechanisms Reproduction in Plants  Flower adaptations that relate to pollination include flower size, shape, color, and petal arrangements.  Animal pollination  Wind pollination  Self pollination 23.2 Flowers Visualizing Pollination Chapter 23

33 Photoperiodism Reproduction in Plants  The flowering response to the number of hours of uninterrupted darkness is known as photoperiodism.  Flowering plants are divided into four different groups based on the critical period. 23.2 Flowers Chapter 23

34 Short-day Photoperiodism Reproduction in Plants  A short-day plant flowers when exposed daily to a number of hours of darkness that is greater than its critical period. 23.2 Flowers Chapter 23

35 Long-day Photoperiodism Reproduction in Plants  A long-day plant flowers when the number of hours of darkness is less than its critical period. 23.2 Flowers Chapter 23

36 Intermediate-day Photoperiodism Reproduction in Plants  An intermediate-day plant flowers as long as the number of hours of darkness is neither too great or too few. 23.2 Flowers Chapter 23

37 Day-neutral Photoperiodism Reproduction in Plants  A day-neutral plant flowers over a range in the number of hours of darkness. 23.2 Flowers Chapter 23

38 Life Cycle  The life cycle of a flowering plant includes gametophyte and sporophyte generations. 23.3 Flowering Plants Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23

39 Results of Reproduction  Fertilization is only the beginning of a long process that ends with the formation of a seed. Reproduction in Plants 23.3 Flowering Plants Chapter 23

40 Seed and Fruit Development  The sporophyte begins as a zygote, or a 2n cell. Reproduction in Plants  The zygote undergoes numerous cell divisions to form an embryo.  Nourishment for the embryo comes from a tissue called the endosperm. 23.3 Flowering Plants Chapter 23

41 Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23

42 Reproduction in Plants  As the ovule develops into a seed, changes occur in the ovary that lead to the formation of fruit. 23.3 Flowering Plants  As the endospore matures, the outside layers of the ovule harden and form a protective tissue called the seed coat. Chapter 23

43 Seed Germination Reproduction in Plants  When the embryo in a seed starts to grow, the process is called germination.  The first part of the embryo to appear outside the seed is the radicle. 23.3 Flowering Plants Chapter 23

44 Reproduction in Plants  The cotyledons will provide nourishment for the seedling until photosynthesis begins. 23.3 Flowering Plants  The hypocotyl is the first part of the seed to appear above ground. Chapter 23

45 Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23

46 Reproduction in Plants Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Formative Test Questions Chapter Assessment Questions Standardized Test Practice biologygmh.com Glencoe Biology Transparencies Image Bank Vocabulary Animation Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson. Chapter 23

47 What term is used to describe the process in which new plants grow from parts of an existing plant? A. budding B. regeneration C. vegetative reproduction D. sexual reproduction Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Chapter Diagnostic Questions

48 What is the threadlike structure of a spore which develops into a gametophyte? A. chemotaxis B. prothallus C. protonema D. microspore Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Chapter Diagnostic Questions

49 What structure of the plant embryo first appears outside the seed? A. cotyledon B. first leaf C. hypocotyls D. radicle Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Chapter Diagnostic Questions

50 Which scientist uses plant cells to grow new plant tissues on nutrient agar? A. botanical technologist B. horticulture specialist C. plant physiologist D. tissue-culture technician Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 23.1 Formative Questions

51 What is the term for the movement of cells in response to a chemical? A. chemitropism B. chemotaxis C. chemiosmosis D. hydrochemisis Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 23.1 Formative Questions

52 What is the tiny heart-shaped gametophyte produced from a fern spore called? A. frond B. sorus C. prothallus D. protonema Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 23.1 Formative Questions

53 What is the term for a plant that produces two types of spores that develop into male or female gametophytes? A. bisporous B. diasporous C. gametosporous D. heterosporous Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 23.1 Formative Questions

54 In conifers, how are pollen grains produced by a male cone transported to a female cone? A. animals B. fire C. water D. wind Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 23.1 Formative Questions

55 Which is the female reproductive structure of a flower? Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 23.2 Formative Questions

56 What type of flowers are either male reproductive organs or female reproductive organs, not both? A. complete flowers B. incomplete flowers C. perfect flowers D. imperfect flowers Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 23.2 Formative Questions

57 What is a characteristic of plants that are pollinated by animals? A. brightly-colored petals B. large pistils C. long stamens D. many sepals Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 23.2 Formative Questions

58 Which type of plant flowers when the number of hours of darkness is less than its critical period? A. short-day plant B. long-day plant Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 23.2 Formative Questions

59 Which type of plants generally has flower organs in multiples of three? A. monocots B. dicots C. tricots D. eudicots Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 23.2 Formative Questions

60 What is the dominant generation in flowering plants? A. anthophyte B. gametophyte C. saprophyte D. sporophyte Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 23.3 Formative Questions

61 From what plant organ does a fruit develop? A. anther B. ovary C. stigma D. style Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 23.3 Formative Questions

62 How does the dispersal of seeds increase the survival rate of offspring? A. It increases genetic diversity. B. It limits the spread of disease. C. It reduces competition. D. It results in new adaptations. Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 23.3 Formative Questions

63 What begins the process of seed germination? Reproduction in Plants A. absorption of water B. appearance of the radicle C. breakdown of the endosperm D. growth of cotyledons Chapter 23 23.3 Formative Questions

64 What is an adaptation that increases the survival rate of seeds exposed to harsh conditions? Reproduction in Plants A. dormancy B. photoperiodism C. alternation of generations D. internal germination Chapter 23 23.3 Formative Questions

65 Which flower organ is indicated? A. pistil B. spore C. stamen D. sepal Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Chapter Assessment Questions

66 Photoperiodism is associated with what plant necessity? A. hours of daylight B. hours of darkness C. ability to perform photosynthesis D. ability to reproduce Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Chapter Assessment Questions

67 What is the food source for the embryo in a eudicot seed? A. seed coat B. endosperm C. cotyledon D. radicle Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Chapter Assessment Questions

68 What occurs when a new plant grows at the end of a parent plant’s runner or stolon? A. artificial duplication B. botanic replication C. organic cloning D. vegetative reproduction Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Standardized Test Practice

69 What are the first cells of the gametophyte stage? A. gametes B. spores C. zygotes D. gametophyte cells Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Standardized Test Practice

70 How are flowering plants heterosporous? Reproduction in Plants A. Antheridia produce sperm; archegonia produce eggs. B. Females produce pollen grains; males develop ovules. C. Pistils produce megaspores; stamens produce microspores. D. Gametophytes produce female spores; sporophytes produce male spores. Chapter 23 Standardized Test Practice

71 What is this multinucleated cell called? A. ovule B. pollen grain C. female gametophyte D. male megaspore Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Standardized Test Practice

72 A pollen grain from one species of plant lands on the stigma of a plant that is a different species. How is fertilization prevented? A. The pollen grain cannot undergo mitosis. B. The sperm nucleus cannot fuse with the egg. C. The pollen grain cannot produce a pollen tube. D. The pollen tube cannot produce sperm nuclei. Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Standardized Test Practice

73 Which fertilization results in the endosperm? Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Standardized Test Practice A B

74 Which seed is a monocot? Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Standardized Test Practice A. B.

75 Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Glencoe Biology Transparencies

76 Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Image Bank

77 Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Image Bank

78 vegetative reproduction chemotaxis protonema prothallus heterosporus megaspore microspore micropyle Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Vocabulary Section 1

79 sepal petal stamen pistil photoperiodism short-day plant long-day plant intermediate-day plant day-neutral plant Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Vocabulary Section 2

80 polar nuclei endosperm seed coat germination radicle hypocotyl dormancy Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23 Vocabulary Section 3

81 Reproduction in Plants Chapter 23  Organs of a Flower Organs of a Flower  Visualizing Pollination Visualizing Pollination  Germination of a Bean Seed Germination of a Bean Seed Animation


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