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EFEK PERTANIAN TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN Diabstraksikan oleh: smno.jurstnh.fpub.sept2012 Bahan kajian pada MK. Pertanian Berlanjut.

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Presentation on theme: "EFEK PERTANIAN TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN Diabstraksikan oleh: smno.jurstnh.fpub.sept2012 Bahan kajian pada MK. Pertanian Berlanjut."— Presentation transcript:

1 EFEK PERTANIAN TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN Diabstraksikan oleh: smno.jurstnh.fpub.sept2012 Bahan kajian pada MK. Pertanian Berlanjut

2 Bagaimana Pertanian mengubah Lingkungan Pertanian merupakan aktivitas yang snagat penting bagi kehidupan manusia, dan menjadi salah satu sumber kerusakan lingkungan Problematik lingkungan yang serius: –Soil erosion –Sediment transport and deposition downstream –On-site pollution from overuse and secondary effects of fertilizers and pesticides –Off-site pollution of other ecosystems, of soil, water and air

3 Problematik lingkungan yang serius: –Deforestation –Desertification –Degradation of aquifers –Salinization –Akumulasi senyawa organik toksik –Kehilangan biodiversitas Bagaimana Pertanian mengubah Lingkungan

4 BAHAYANYA PERTANIAN Industrial Key: AWL to Study, Low-frequency Vocabulary What are the hazards of industrial agriculture?

5 PERTANIAN ORGANIK: SEDANG BERKEMBANG Consumer demand for organic farming is rising at 20% per year. The highest growth is in Argentina, US, and China. People are growing conscious of adverse effects of industrial agriculture, where there is a focus on maximizing profits at the expense of health and the environment. Bagaimana pemikiran anda bahwa pertanian-industrial berkontribusi pada pemanasan global dan pencemaran air?

6 RISIKO KESEHATAN : METODE Industrial Pesticide residues on produce  remain after washing and peeling.  have links to cancer. Antibiotics we ingest  from plant and animal sources  lead to the development of untreatable superbugs Apakah anda khawatir tentang adanya residu pestisida atau antibiotik di dalam bahan pangan produk pertanian ?.

7 RISIKO KESEHATAN Plant and animal growth hormones  disrupt endocrine system.  lead to early puberty. Biological engineering  Unregulated items are virtually invisible in stores.  Manipulation of genetic code could impact health. How do you think genetically modified food might impact your health?

8 BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN Environmental hazards comprise air pollution, global warming, and other problems. Synthetic fertilizers  largest source of nitrous oxide emissions  300 times more toxic than carbon dioxide gases  will affect air pollution and intensify global warming if continued Are you concerned about air pollution in your country? Why or why not?

9 TANAH YANG TIDAK LESTARI Industrial mono-cropping: one crop is planted repeatedly on a single field.  The process relies on the use of synthetic fertilizers.  Mono-cropping kills microorganisms needed to produce soil nutrients.  Infertile soil leads to erosion, unsustainable farmlands, and reduced biodiversity. If mono-cropping is destroying farmlands and biodiversity, what is the alternative?

10 PERTANIAN ORGANIK Organic farming prohibits the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, hormones, antibiotics, and genetically modified organisms. It ensures soil sustainability and overall quality. What are the advantages of eating organic food?

11 ROTASI TANAMAN Holistic farming techniques  infuse soil with essential nutrients.  ensure different crops are planted every year.  vary the nutrient demand in soil.  create sustainable soil.

12 KESEJAHTERAAN TERNAK Small-scale organic farms are  less likely to confine livestock to small spaces.  against the use of antibiotics. Free-range farms  allow animals to roam freely.  reduce stress and susceptibility to disease. How do you feel about confining animals to small spaces in order to produce food?

13 The Plow Puzzle Nothing in nature like the plow –Big difference between soils of an unplowed forest and soils of previously forested land that has been plowed and used for ag Soil difference noted in Marsh’s book –Man and Nature in 1864 Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

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15 Semakin kritis kondisi tanah, semakin banyak input produksi yang diperlukan, seperti pupuk, pestisida, air irigasi dan lainnya. Diunduh dari sumbernya: 22/10/2012 The Plow Puzzle

16 When land cleared of its natural vegetation, the soil begins to lose its fertility –Physical erosion Became a global issue in the world –Intense plowing + drought –Loosened soil blow away Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 TANAH YANG TEREROSI = LAHAN KRITIS

17 Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

18 The land that became the Dust Bowl had been prairie –Deep rooted grasses that held soil in place –After plowing soil exposed to elements When original vegetation is cleared soil changes –Crops harvested and removed, less organic matter returning to soil –Soil exposed to sunlight which speeds rate of decomposition Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 TANAH YANG TEREROSI = LAHAN KRITIS

19 Traditionally decline in soil fertility combated using organic fertilizers –Animal manure In the 20 th century crop production increased –Chemical or artificial fertilizers –Add nitrogen and phosphorous to the soil Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 TANAH YANG TEREROSI = LAHAN KRITIS

20 Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012 Lahan kritis telah mengalami kerusakan baik secara fisika, kimia, maupun biologi. Jumlah lahan kritis di Indonesia semakin meningkat seiring adanya pembukaan dan penggundulan hutan, penambangan, serta eksploitasi yang berlebihan terhadap tanah. Diperkirakan saat ini luas lahan kritis mencapai 77,8 juta hektare, yang terdiri dari lahan agak kritis mencapai 47,6 juta hektar, lahan kritis seluas 23,3 juta hektar, dan lahan sangat kritis mencapai 6,8 juta hektar.

21 Kemana material tanah yang tererosi A lot of it travels down streams and rivers –Deposited at their mouths –Fill in water ways –Damage fisheries and coral reefs Sedimentation has chemical effects –Enrichment of waters, eutrophication –Transport of toxic chemical pesticides Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

22 Bagaimana melestarikan tanah Soil forms continuously –But very slowly –1mm of soil formation takes years To be truly sustainable soil lost should equal amount of new soil produced Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

23 Pengolahan tanah menurut kontur Land is plowed perpendicular to the slopes and as horizontally as possible. –One of the most effective ways to reduce soil erosion –Also uses less fuel and time Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

24 Pertanian Tanpa Olah Tanah (TOT) Involves not plowing the land, using herbicides and integrated pest management to keep down weeds, and allowing some weeds to grow. –The goal is to suppress and control weeds but not eliminate them at the expense of soil conservation –Additional benefit reduces the release of CO 2 Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

25 Pengendalian Hama Pests are undesirable –Competitors, parasites, and predators In agriculture pests are mainly –Insects, nematodes, bacterial and viral diseases, weeds and vertebrates. Loss can be large –Estimated at 1/3 of potential harvest and 1/10 of the harvested crop Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

26 Because a farm is maintained in a very early stage of ecological succession and enriched by fertilizers and water – It is a good place for crops –AND early-successional plants (weeds) Weeds compete for all resources –Light, water,nutrients, and space to grow. Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 Pengendalian Hama

27 Sejarah Pestisida Pre- Industrial Revolution methods –Slash and burn agriculture –Planting aromatic herbs that repel insects Modern science-based agriculture –Search for chemicals that would reduce abundance of pests –The first, like arsenic, toxic to all life Killed pest and beneficial organisms Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

28 Second stage began in the 1930 –Petroleum based sprays and natural plant chemicals (e.g., nicotine) Third stage was the development of artificial organic compounds –DDT, broad-spectrum –Aldrin and dieldrin used to control termites Toxic to humans, has been found in breast milk Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 Sejarah Pestisida

29 Forth stage is a return to biological and ecological knowledge. Biological control- the use of biological predators and parasites to control pests –The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) –Proved safe and effective Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 Sejarah Pestisida

30 Other biological control agents –Small wasps that parasitize caterpillars Both effective and narrow spectrum –Ladybugs –Sex pheromones (chemicals released to attract opposite sex) used as bait in traps Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 Sejarah Pestisida

31 Integrated Pest Management (Pengelolaan Hama Terpadu) Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

32 No-till or low-till agriculture another feature of IPM –Helps build levels of natural enemies of pests Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 Integrated Pest Management (Pengelolaan Hama Terpadu)

33 Monitoring Pesticida di Lingkungan World pesticide use exceeds 2.5 billion kg –US use exceeds 680 million kg –$32 billion worldwide, $11 billion in US Once applied may decompose in place or be carried by wind and water –Breakdown products can also be toxic –Eventually fully decompose but can take a very long time Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

34 To establish useful standards for pesticide levels in the environment and to understand the environmental effects, it is necessary to monitor the concentrations. –Standards have been set for some but not all compounds Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 Integrated Pest Management (Pengelolaan Hama Terpadu)

35 Genetically Modified Crops (Tanaman rekayasa genetik) Three methods –1. Faster and more efficient development of new hybrids –2. Introduction of the “terminator gene” –3. Transfer of genetic properties from widely divergent kinds of life Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

36 Hibrida Baru From an environmental perspective, genetic engineering to develop hybrids w/in a species is likely to be a benign as the development of agricultural hybrids has been w/ conventional methods. Concern that genetic modification may produce –“superhybrids” –Could become pest or transfer genes to closely related weeds Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

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38 The Terminator Gene Makes seeds from a crop sterile –Done for environmental and economic reasons –Prevents a gmo from spreading –Protects the market for the corporation that developed it Critics note –Farmer’s in poor nations must be able to grow next years crops from their own seeds Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

39 Genes transfer from one major life form to another –Most likely to have negative and undesirable impacts E.g. Bacillus thuringiensis –Produce toxin that kills caterpillars –Gene identified and transferred to corn –Engineered corn now produces its own pesticide Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 TRANSFER GEN

40 Bt plants thought to be a constructive step in pest control –No longer need to spray pesticide Bt plants produce toxin in all cells –Even in pollen that can spread –Monarch butterflies that eat pollen may die Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

41 Grazing on Rangelands Almost half of the Earth's land area is used as rangeland –30% of Earth’s land area is arid rangeland Arid rangeland easily damaged especially in time of drought Steams and rivers also damaged –Trampling banks and fecal matter Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

42 Traditional and Industrial Use of Grazing and Rangelands In modern industrialized agriculture –Cattle initially raised on open range –Then transport to feed lots –Major impact is local pollution from manure Traditional herding practices –Damage land through overgrazing –Impact varies depending on density relative to rainfall and soil fertility Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

43 Biogeografi Ternak-Pertanian Everyplace people have dispersed they have bought animals w/ them –Pre-industrial and throughout western civilization Environmental effects of introductions –Native vegetation may be greatly reduced and threatened w/ extinction –Introduced animals may compete w/ native herbivores, threatening them w/ extinction as well Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

44 DAYA DUKUNG LAHAN GEMBALAAN Carrying capacity- –the maximum number of species per unit area that can persist w/o decreasing the ability of that population or its ecosystem to maintain that density in the future. When the carrying capacity is exceeded, the land is overgrazed. Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

45 Overgrazing –Slows the growth of vegetation –Reduces the diversity of plant species –Leads to dominance by plant species that are relatively undesirable to the cattle –Hastens loss of soil by erosion –Subject the land to further damage from trampling Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 DAYA DUKUNG LAHAN GEMBALAAN

46 PERKEMBANGAN DESERT (GURUN) Deserts occur naturally where there is too little water for substantial plant growth. –The warmer the climate the greater the rainfall needed to convert an area from desert to non-desert –The crucial factor is available water in the soil for plant use –Factors that destroy the ability of a soil to store water can create a desert Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

47 Earth has five natural warm desert regions –Primarily between 15 o and 30 o north and south of the equator Based on climate 1/3 of Earth’s land area should be desert –43% of land is desert –Addition area due to human activities Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 PERKEMBANGAN DESERT (GURUN)

48 Desertification – the deterioration of land in arid, semiarid, and dry sub humid areas due to changes in climate and human activities. Serious problem that affects 1/6 of world population (1 billion people) Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 PERKEMBANGAN DESERT (GURUN)

49 The leading cause of desertification are bad farming practices. –Failure to use contour plowing –To much farming –Overgrazing –Conversion of rangelands to croplands in marginal areas –Poor forestry practices Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 APA YANG MENYEBABKAN DESERTS

50 Desert like areas can be created anywhere by poisoning of the soil –World wide chemicals account for 12% of soil degradation –Irrigation in arid lands can cause salts to build up to toxic levels Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

51 MENCEGAH PERKEMBANGAN DESERT Tahap pertama adalah mendeteksi gejala-gejala –Lowering of water table –Increase in the salt content of soil –Reduced surface water –Increased soil erosion –Hilangnya vegetasi alamiah Dapat dicapai dnegan sisitem pemantauan yang bagus

52 Next step –Proper methods of soil conservation, forest management and irrigation Good soil conservation includes –Use of wind breaks –Reforestation Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 MENCEGAH PERKEMBANGAN DESERT

53 APAKAH PERTANIAN MENGUBAH Biosphere? 1 st – Pertanian mengubah tutupan lahan –Resulting in changes in reflected light –The evaporation of water –The roughness of the surface –Rate of exchange of chemical compounds 2 nd – Pertanian modern meningkatkan emisi CO2 –Major user of fossil fuels –Clearing land speeds decomposition Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

54 3 rd Affect climate through fires –Associated w/ clearing land –Add small particulates to the atmosphere 4 th Artificial production of nitrogen –Alters biogeochemical cycle 5 th Affects species diversity –Reduces diversity and increases # of endangered species Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 APAKAH PERTANIAN MENGUBAH Biosphere?

55 RUNOFF DAN PENCEMARAN AIR

56 Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff Youngs Creek Watershed Project Gabe Robertson-Watershed Coordinator Information/Pictures Courtesy of: US EPA USDA-NRCS Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

57 PROBLEMATIK PERTANIAN Agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is the leading source of water quality impacts on rivers and lakes. Activities that cause NPS pollution include poorly located or managed animal feeding operations, overgrazing, plowing too often and improper use of fertilizers and pesticides. Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

58 POLUTAN PERTANIAN Sediment (Soil washed off fields) Nutrients (Fertilizers) Pathogens (Bacteria and viruses) Pesticides (Insecticides, Herbicides, Fungicides) Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

59 Sedimentation The main source of water pollution caused by farming activities is soil that is washed off fields. Rain carries soil particles (sediment) and dumps them into nearby streams or lakes. Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

60 Problem Sedimentasi Clouds the water reducing the amount of sunlight that reaches aquatic plants. Clogs the gills of fish and smothers fish larvae. Other pollutants such as fertilizers and pesticides are often attached to soil particles and can cause algal blooms. Decreases the depth of waterbodies. Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

61 Unsur Hara Pupuk Diunduh dari sumbernya:. ………… 22/10/2012 Manage nutrient application to avoid ammonium losses to surface water 1.Practice timely tillage to incorporate manure, balancing the risk of soil compaction with the losses of nitrogen to the atmosphere if the manure is not incorporated quickly. 2.Avoid applying manure near surface water or on steeply sloping land. 3.Keep application rates low enough to prevent runoff. 4.Mix manure into the soil as soon possible after applying it. 5.On tile-drained land, keep application rates of liquid manure below 40 m 3 /ha (3,600 gal/ac) or pre-till the field before applying it. This will help prevent the movement of manure directly to tile through cracks or earthworm channels. 6.Use buffer strips and erosion control structures to filter runoff before it enters surface water. Buffer strips in riparian zones have proven to reduce nutrient movement off the field into nearby surface water sources. Buffer strips consume excess nutrients before they flow into surface water and enhance opportunities for groundwater denitrification.

62 Problematik Unsur-Hara Pupuk Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012 Manage fields to avoid excess nitrate that could leach to groundwater 1.Identify fields and areas sensitive to nitrogen in areas where nutrient applications are planned. For instance, sandy or gravelly soils, and soils with shallow water tables are more susceptible to nitrogen leaching. 2.Match nitrogen applications with crop requirements. Use the spring or pre-sidedress soil nitrogen test where available (e.g., for corn and barley). 3.In your Nutrient Management Plan, account for nitrogen contributions from green manure crops and any previous crop rotations. 4.In your Nutrient Management Plan, account for nitrogen from any manure or biosolid application. 5.Apply most of the nitrogen just before the time of maximum crop uptake (e.g., sidedress corn). 6.Split applications of nitrogen through techniques such as fertigation. 7.Practise crop rotations to make efficient use of nitrogen and maintain healthy soils. 8.Establish cover crops as needed to "tie up" any excess nitrogen at the end of the season.

63 Pathogens (bacteria, viruses) Animal waste can be a major source of pathogens in lakes and streams. Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

64 Problematik Pathogen Waterborne pathogens may cause diseases, such as eye, ear and skin infections as well as a number of other health related problems. Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

65 Pestisida Insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides are used to kill agricultural pests. These chemicals can enter and contaminate water through direct application and runoff. Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

66 Problematik Pestisida Can poison fish and wildlife Contaminate food sources and destroy the habitat that animals use for protective cover. Can pose a health threat to humans that come in contact with or drink water polluted with pesticides. Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

67 Best Management Practices (BMPs) Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

68 Pengelolaan Hutan-Pertanian Adds income to your farm Adds beauty to your farm Ground cover provides wildlife habitat, reduces soil erosion, and improves water quality Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/

69 Planned Grazing Systems 1.Improves vegetative cover, reducing erosion and improving water quality 2.Increases harvest efficiency and helps ensure adequate forage throughout grazing season 3.Increases forage quality and production which helps increase feed efficiency and can improve profits 4.Rotating also evenly distributes manure nutrient resources Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

70 Pengelolaan Pupuk Kandang Manure storage structures protect water bodies from manure runoff by storing manure until conditions are appropriate for field application. Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

71 Farm Pond 1.Prevents soil erosion and protects water quality by collecting and storing runoff water 2.Provides water for livestock, fish, wildlife, and recreational activities 3.Adds value and beauty to a farm or farmstead 4.Provides a water supply for emergencies Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012 Kolam pemanen air hujan

72 Wildlife – Hutan Habitat 1.Ground cover reduces soil erosion, adds organic matter to the soil, filters runoff, and increases infiltration 2.It can add value to your farmstead 3.Planned wildlife habitat provides food and cover for wildlife. Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012 Habitat hutan jati di musim kemarau Foto:smno-saradan-htnjati-nop2012

73 Filter Strips – Pertanian Kontur 1.Grass, trees and shrubs provide cover for small birds and animals 2.Ground cover reduces soil erosion 3.The vegetative strip moves rowcrop operations farther from a stream. 4.Vegetation prevents contaminants from entering water bodies, protecting water quality Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012 Pengolahan tanah menurut garus kontur pada lahan miring Foto:smno-pujon-horti-nop2012

74 Penanaman Lahan-Kritis Critical area plantings consist of grass or other vegetation that protects badly eroding areas from soil erosion. Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012 Penanaman lahan di bawah tegakan hutan Foto:smno-pujon-wanatani-nop2012

75 Contour Strip-cropping 1.Contour stripcropping is crop rotation and contouring combined in equal-width strips of corn or soybeans planted on the contour and alternated with strips of oats, grass, or legumes. 2.Contour stripcropping reduces soil erosion and protects water quality 3.Contour stripcropping may help reduce fertilizer costs by providing nutrient inputs naturally Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012 Pengolahan tanah dan penanaman menurut garis kontur Foto:smno-pujon-horti-nop2012

76 Diversion 1.Reduces soil erosion on lowlands by catching runoff water and preventing it from reaching farmland below 2.Vegetation in the diversion channel filters runoff water, improving water quality 3.Vegetation provides cover for small birds and animals 4.Allows better crop growth on bottomland soils Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

77 Saluran Air Berumput 1.Grass cover protects the drainageway from gully erosion 2.Vegetation may act as a filter, absorbing some of the chemicals and nutrients in runoff water 3.Vegetation provides cover for small birds and animals Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

78 Contour Buffer Strips Vegetation provides cover and habitat for small birds and animals The strips reduce erosion by slowing water flow and increasing water infiltration into soil By reducing siltation and filtering nutrients and chemicals from runoff, grass strips improve water quality Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

79 Contour Farming Contouring can reduce soil erosion by as much as 50% from up and down hill farming By reducing sediment and runoff, and increasing water infiltration, contouring promotes better water quality Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

80 Field Borders Vegetative cover reduces sheet and rill erosion by slowing water flow Vegetation filters runoff, improving water quality Grass and legume strips may be harvested in some cases and are easier to turn on than end rows Vegetation provides cover and habitat for small birds and animals Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

81 Perlindungan Sumur Well protection is necessary when changing farming practices which occur on or near the farmstead in order to reduce the risk of contamination of water sources--mainly the well. Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

82 PEREDAM ANGIN = Windbreak 1.A windbreak reduces wind erosion, conserves energy, reduces heating bills and beautifies a farmstead 2.Trees serve as a sound barrier, muffling road noise 3.Trees and shrubs provide wildlife food and cover 4.Improved livestock weight gains can be expected when livestock are protected from winter winds and snow Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012 Pepohonan peneduh dan penangkal angin di kampus UB Foto:smno-pkampus ub-nop2012

83 Pasture Planting 1.Heavy grass cover slows water flow, reducing soil erosion 2.Good pastures protect water quality by filtering runoff water and increasing infiltration 3.Lush pastures offer wildlife cover and habitat 4.As plants recycle and roots die, organic matter in the soil is improved Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

84 Perlindungan Sungai 1.Streambanks are covered with rocks, grass, trees, or other cover to reduce erosion 2.Better water quality results from reducing amounts of nutrients, chemicals, animal waste, and sediment entering the stream 3.Buffer zones provide cover and habitat for birds and small animals Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

85 Pengujian Pupuk Kandang 1.Manure testing is used to sample and test manure to determine nutrient content. 2.This promotes proper nutrient application to fields. 3.Preventing over-application of manure to crop fields results in improved water quality Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

86 Penanaman Pohon 1.Improving stands of woodlands can increase profits 2.Ground cover created by trees and associated debris protects soil for rill and sheet erosion 3.Ground cover also protects water quality by filtering excess nutrients and chemicals from surface runoff and increasing infiltration rates 4.Healthy, well-managed woodlands provide long-term wildlife habitat Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

87 Olah-Tanah Konservasi Conservation tillage involves leaving last year’s crop residue on the soil surface by limiting tillage. Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012 Residu panen daun tebu digunakan sebagai mulsa permukaan Foto:smno-mulsa-dau-agst2012

88 Pengolahan-Tanah Konservasi Ground cover prevents soil erosion and protects water quality Residue improves soil tilth (health) and adds organic matter to the soil as it decomposes Fewer trips and less tillage reduces soil compaction Time, energy and labor savings are possible with fewer tillage trips Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

89 Pengolahan-Tanah Konservasi

90 Pengelolaan Hara 1.Sound nutrient management reduces input costs and protects water quality by preventing over application of commercial fertilizers and animal manure 2.Correct manure and sludge application on all fields can improve soil tilth and organic matter Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

91 Rotasi (Pergiliran) Tanaman Pesticide costs may be reduced by naturally breaking the cycles of weeds, insects, and diseases Grass and legumes in a rotation protect water quality by preventing excess nutrients or chemicals from entering water supplies Meadow or small grains cut soil erosion dramatically Crop rotations add diversity to an operation Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012 Sumber:

92 Wetlands Wetlands can provide natural pollution control. They remove nutrients, pesticides, and bacteria form surface waters and can act as efficient, lowcost sewage and animal waste treatment practices Wetlands filter and collect sediment from runoff water Because wetlands slow overland flow and store runoff water, they reduce both soil erosion and flooding downstream Many wetlands release water slowly into the ground which recharges groundwater supplies Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

93 PENGELOLAAN HAMA Scouting and spot treatment of only those pests that are threatening can save money Using fewer chemicals improves water quality Specific treatments for specific pests on specific areas of a field prevents over treatment of pests Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

94 LAHAN BER-TERAS A terrace is an earthen embankment around a hillside that stops water flow and stores it or guides it safely off a field. Diunduh dari sumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff, US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012

95 PENGGUNAAN LAHAN & EROSI TANAH

96 Land Use & Soil Erosion Agriculture = dominant land use Urban Sprawl = new land use threat Excessive soil erosion – soil components moved to new location due to water or wind Sumber:

97 Proses terjadinya erosi oleh angin

98 Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

99 TIPE EROSI TANAH Erosi geologis (alamiah) -continuous slow rate of erosion to 0.25 mm /yr for bare rock -2 mm /yr on stable soil surface Erosi dipercepat – human-caused -10 tons/A/yr (natural replacement = 0.5 tons/A/yr) -splash, sheet, rill, & gully erosion -Dust Bowl (1930s) Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

100 PENGELOLAAN EROSI-TANAH USDA – 3,000 Soil & Water Conservation Districts Are we controlling soil erosion? -rate today = rate during 1930s) -4 B tons /yr -mostly on farmland (50% water-based & 60% wind-based) -80% farmland > natural replace. rate Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

101 TOLERANSI KEHILANGAN TANAH = Tolerable Soil Loss USDA – erosion loss of 1 to 5 tons/A/yr without impacting crop production No scientific basis for this measure Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

102 BIAYA-BIAYA EROSI-TANAH Lower soil fertility / crop production Air (dust) & water (sediments) pollution Estimates of on-site costs = $27 B/yr Estimates of off-site costs = $17 B/yr Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

103 FAKTOR EROSI-TANAH oleh AIR 1)Rainfall Amount, Intensity, Seasonality 2)Surface Cover (erodibility) Soil structure (related to water-stable aggregates) water-stable aggregates: material that aids in soil particles clumping together in water (e.g., organic matter) Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

104 cover crops: vegetation grown before/after primary crop for protection of soil surface (e.g., clover, alfalfa, winter wheat) – related to green manure Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012 FAKTOR EROSI-TANAH oleh AIR Pupuk Hijau: plowing under of cover crop in order to increase soil fertility (N fixation), increase organic matter, reduce erosion

105 3)Topography Slope grade and length Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012 FAKTOR EROSI-TANAH oleh AIR

106 Mengendalikan Erosi Tanah Clean tillage: crop residues turned into soil soon after harvest; often fall plow 1)contour farming 2)Strip cropping 3)Terracing 4)Gully reclamation 5)Conservation tillage 6)Cropland Reduction Programs Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

107 Pertanian Garis Kontur Farming perpendicular to slope (across slope) -- Jefferson Reduces water runoff (65%), erosion, and siltation Diunduh dari sumbernya: %20lan.... ………… 22/10/2012 Pengolahan tanah / penanaman mengikuti garis kontur dilakukan pada lahan miring untuk mengurangi erosi dan aliran permukaan. Garis kontur adalah suatu garis khayal yang menghubungkan titik-titik yang tingginya sama dan berpotongan tegak lurus dengan arah kemiringan lahan. Bangunan dan tanaman dibuat sepanang garis kontur dan disesuaikan dengan keadaan permukaan lahan. Penanaman pada garis kontur dapat mencakup pula pembuatan perangkap tanah, teras bangku atau teras guludan, atau penanaman larikan. Pengolahan tanah dan penanaman mengikuti kontur banyak dipromosikan di berbagai daerah di Indonesia dalam mengembangkan pertanian yang berkelanjutan. Keuntungan 1.Mengurangi aliran permukaan dan erosi 2.Mengurangi kehilangan unsur hara 3.Mempercepat pengolahan tanah apabila menggunakan tenaga ternak atau traktor karena luku atau alat pengolah tanah yang lain. Diunduh dari sumbernya: pengendalian-banjir/pengolahan- tanahpenanaman-menurut-kontur/………… 22/10/2012

108 Corn Strip Cropping Alternate strips of crops across a slope Rotate crops (crop rotation), i.e., rotate strips Example: Corn-Oats-Alfalfa Oats Alfalfa Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

109 Terrasering Ancient practice from mountain cultures Create bench-like steps on steep slopes ridge terraces (broad-base or grass backslope) – broad flat steps in slope channel terraces – dig channel across slope; used in high runoff sites Diunduh dari sumbernya: %20lan.... ………… 22/10/2012 Terasering adalah penanaman dengan membuat teras- teras yang dilakukan untuk mengurangi panjang lereng dan menahan atau memperkecil aliran permukaan agar air dapat meresap ke dalam tanah. Jenis terasering antara lain teras datar, teras kredit, Teras Guludan, dan teras bangku Teras Datar (level terrace) Teras datar dibuat pada tanah dengan kemiringan kurang dari 3 % dengan tujuan memperbaiki pengaliran air dan pembasahan tanah. Teras datar dibuat dengan jalan menggali tanah menurut garis tinggi dan tanah galiannnya ditimbunkan ke tepi luar, sehingga air dapat tertahan dan terkumpul. Pematang yang terjadi ditanami dengan rumput Diunduh dari sumbernya: analyst.blogspot.com/2011/11/terasering-adalah.html

110 Pengolahan Tanah Konservasi Limit or restrict plowing (tilling) of soil in order to reduce soil erosion 1) Minimum Tillage – field cultivator & disc for working top few inches of soil (vs. moldboard plow turning 6+ inches) < 50% of US cropland 2) No Till – field machinery cuts narrow slit into soil & drops seed; maximal surface residue; maximal soil protection Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

111 Pertanian Tanpa-Olah-Tanah Keunggulan: - reduces labor, fuel consumption, soil erosion - increases crop yield Kendala-kendala: - need special equipment - not universal - disease & crop pest problems (herbicide & pesticide use) Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

112 TOT = Tanpa Olah Tanah Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012 Keuntungan Mulsa: 1.Melindungi permukaan tanah dari pukulan langsung butir-butir air hujan serta mengurangi aliran permukaan, erosi dan kehilangan tanah. 2.Menekan pertumbuhan tanaman pengganggu (gulma) sehingga mengurangi (biaya tenaga kerja untuk penyiangan. 3.Mulsa yang berupa sisa-sisa tanaman menjadi sumber bahan organik tanah 4.Meningkatkan aktivitas jasad renik (mikroorganisme tanah), sehingga memperbaiki sifat fisika dan kimia tanah 5.Membantu menjaga suhu tanah serta mengurangi penguapan sehingga mempertahankan kelembaban tanah sehingga pemanfaatan kelembaban tanah menjadi lebih efisien. 6.Tergolong teknik konservasi tanah yang memerlukan jumlah tenaga kerja / biaya rendah.

113 TOT dengan Mulsa seresah sisa panen Diunduh dari sumbernya: %20lan.... ………… 22/10/2012 Mulsa sisa tanaman Mulsa ini terdiri dari bahan organik sisa tanaman (jerami padi, batang jagung), pangkasan dari tanaman pagar, daun-daun dan ranting tanaman. Bahan tersebut disebarkan secara merata di atas permukaan tanah setebal 2-5 cm sehingga permukaan tanah tertutup sempurna. pengendalian-banjir/mulsa/

114 PESTICIDA pesticide: chemical that kills pests (animal & plant) herbicide – weeds insecticide – insects rodenticide – rodents Silent Spring – Rachel Carson (1960s) 1960s to present (6X > herbicide) Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

115 conventional farming: agrochemicals, new crop varieties, bigger equipment alternative agriculture: use organic, biodynamic, integrated, low-input or no- till concepts Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012 Pertanian Alternatif

116 organic farming: no agrochemicals; combats disease/insects via cultural treatments (e.g., crop rotation, green manures, compost) biodynamic farming: use soil preparations made from animal manure, silica, and plants low-input farming: minimize use of material from outside of farm Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

117 The Ecology of Farming Native communities = dynamic equilibrium Human-altered systems = monocultures, ecosystem simplification Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

118 “Cutting-Edge” Agriculture Integrated Pest Mgt (IPM): limit pesticide use by combating insect pests with broad- spectrum (integrated) approach (e.g., biological, chemical, cultural…) precision farming: use satellites (Global Positioning System = GPS) to map fields and spatial data (crop yield, fertilizer application); manage smaller units (i.e., field sub-units) Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

119 Precision Farming Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

120 SIFAT & CIRI TANAH comprised of: minerals organic matter water air Properties = texture, structure, organic matter, life, aeration, moisture content, pH, fertility Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

121 TEKSTUR TANAH Coarse fraction (rock, gravel) vs. fine- earth fraction (sand, silt, clay) Sand > Silt > Clay textural classes (soil texture pyramid, p.105, fig 6.2) adsorption: process of forming chemical bonds (ionic bonds) between nutrients (+) and soil (clay -) – relates to leaching/fertility Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

122 Adsorption Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

123 Soil Structure arrangement/grouping of soil into aggregates (or clumps) Influenced by “natural” physical factors (e.g., freezing/thawing, burrowing) and human alterations (e.g., tilling) Affects soil permeability (air & water) and plant growth (roots) Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

124 Soil Organic Matter (OM) & Life OM = living & dead organisms in soil humus: top layer of soil produced via decomposition; improves structure, permeability, stability, fertility, habitat microorganisms vs. macroorganisms mycorrhizae (pl.): “fungus root” symbiotic relationship between plant & fungus – nutrient uptake from soil (e.g., conifers and fungi) Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

125 Aeration & Moisture Content pore space: space between soil particles filled with air or water; relation to structure & texture (sand vs. clay) Pore space (aeration/moisture content) increased by OM At soil saturation, all pores filled with water – correlated with surface runoff intensity / erosion Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

126 pH (Kemasaman, reaksi) Tanah soil reaction: pH of soil (acid, neutral, basic) – depends on H+ or OH- ions wet & mesic soils – acidic to neutral dry soils -- basic pH & agriculture -lime (CaCO 3 ) – Ca+ ions reduce acidity -fertilizers (N, P) – with water… acidic Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

127 KESUBURAN TANAH soil fertility: capacity to provide all nutrients needed for maximum growth macronutrient vs. micronutrient - N vs Fe relation to pH some nutrient sources: fixation, decomposition, animal waste Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

128 PEMBENTUKAN TANAH Five Factors: 1)Climate (temp. & precipitation) physical & chemical changes in soil/rock (weathering) – clay, leaching 2) Parent material - weathering in place or transported - outwash plain, alluvial, lacustrine, dunes, tephra Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

129 Five Factors: 3) Organisms (macro and micro) 4) Topography – relation to water movement & soil condition/type 5) Time * billion yrs before present(ybp) * relation to other 4 factors Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012 PEMBENTUKAN TANAH

130 PROFIL TANAH soil profile: cross-section view of soil horizons horizon: layers of soil that share attributes of texture, structure, etc… Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

131 Major Horizons: O horizon (organic layer) A horizon (topsoil, humus, life) E horizon (leaching zone) B horizon (subsoil, accumulation zone) C horizon (parent material, field stone) R horizon (bedrock) Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012 PROFIL TANAH

132 Water Resources Water Shortage? 1) Human Population 2) Consumption - ag.,industry,resident 3) Efficiency 4) Distribution Problems 5) Pollution (air, soil, water) Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

133 Water Cycle? replacement period: time to complete cycle (9 days to 37,000 years) Unequal distribution of precipitation -US 102 cm -MI 81 cm -Death Valley 4 cm -Pacific NW 368 cm Evaporation & Transpiration Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

134 AIR PERMUKAAN & Groundwater Surface water (lakes, streams) -may be potable, municipal use Groundwater – water infiltrates into soil percolation into aquifer (porous soil stratum of sandstone or limestone) zone of aeration: plant roots, capillary water in pore spaces zone of saturation: pore filled from water table down to bedrock Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

135 DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI watershed: area drained stream/river U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Flood Control 1) Levees – raise river banks with earthen/stone dikes develop floodplains floods prevented, almost increase flood severity? Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

136 Flood Control (cont.) 2) Dredging – removal of sediments (Corps) – pollutants? 3) Channelization – straightening streams (NRCS) – floods & drainage, Everglades 4) Dams – water impoundment – public works projects potable water, irrigation, recreation, energy loss of habitat, evaporation, sedimentation, $$ Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

137 Protecting Watersheds & Floodplains watershed protection as proactive & sustainable flood control mgt. USDA, BLM, Army Corps, TVA floodplain zoning & Federal Flood Disaster Protective Act of 1973 nonstructural flood control Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

138 TIPE-TIPE PENCEMARAN 1)Sediment 2)Inorganic Nutrient 3)Thermal 4)Disease-Producing Microorganisms 5)Toxic Organic Chemicals 6)Heavy Metals 7)Organic Wastes Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

139 PENGELOLAAN PENCEMARAN pollution control: (output control) manage pollutant post hoc - pollutant dispersion pollution prevention: (input control) avoid pollution a priori Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

140 1)Sediment Pollution - linked to soil erosion /poor land use Sources: agriculture, logging, construction, strip mines Costs: $1 million per day in US clog irrigation canals, hydro-electric turbines, harbors, life of dams shortened - carries toxins - turbid water & sedimentation “kills” coldwater fish/bivalve habitat Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

141 Controlling Sediment Pollution - input control includes: conservation tillage contour-strip farming shelter belts terracing cover crops/increase OM -output control includes: $$$$$ sediment filtration systems (artificial & natural) dredging Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

142 2) Inorganic Nutrient Pollution - aquatic systems require certain chemical elements to exist & support life -includes C, O, N, H, P among others -N & P often are limiting factors because of their reduced abundance; -P > N in importance as limiting factor -> N & P = > productivity of aquatic system Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

143 Lake Productivity Gradient 1)oligotrophic: nutrient-poor lake - low productivity - low plant/animal biomass - e.g., Lake Superior = young lake 2) mesotrophic: moderate nutrient base - swimming, fishing 3) eutrophic: nutrient rich - dense algal blooms - reduced dissolved oxygen, diminished fishery Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

144 3) Polusi Thermal - increase temperature of aquatic system -Harmful effects: -reduced dissolved oxygen -reduced fish reproduction -spread of disease -Manfaat: -increase growth rate of some fish -heating homes -Use of coolant towers Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

145 4) Organisme yg menghasilkan penyakit - infectious organisms introduced to water; cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery, polio, Cryptosporidium -better sanitation & water treatment can reduce disease e.g., chlorination for bacteria and oxygenation for enteric disease (intestine-dwelling; anaerobic) -coliform bacteria count: index of microorganism-based water pollution coliform = usually harmless bacteria in human gut Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

146 5) Toxic Organic Chemicals - Carbon-based compounds; synthetic derivatives such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) = toluene -Synthetic Organics = resist decomposition & therefore persistent -Disrupt normal enzyme function in organisms; interfere with normal chemical reactions in cells Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

147 Water Pollutants 1) Review Table 11.4, p 268 2) Your choice, pick 1 of the pollutants and, a) be able to name it; b) provide an explanation of its use; c) indicate its source & its prevalence in the Great Lakes; and d) explain its effects on human health Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

148 6) Heavy Metals e.g., lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium (fundamental chemical elements) -Mines & contaminated groundwater -Mines & tailings (Clarks Fork of Yellowstone) -interfere with normal enzyme function -lead contamination (soil & water) from paint & plumbing pipe (solder) -mercury contamination (methyl Hg in air & water) from industry; in muscle tissue Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

149 7) Organic Waste: reduce available oxygen - decomposition of wastes by bacteria uses oxygen; release of nutrients -- cyclic -Oxygen-demanding organic wastes biological oxygen demand (BOD): index of amount of organic matter in water sample; indexed via rate of oxygen use by bacteria -aquatic indicator species (bio-sentinels or bio-indicators) – also application to other pollutants (may flies, trout, bullheads, carp, sludge worms, mink) Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

150 7) Organic Waste: reduce available oxygen - decomposition of wastes by bacteria uses oxygen; release of nutrients -- cyclic -Oxygen-demanding organic wastes biological oxygen demand (BOD): index of amount of organic matter in water sample; indexed via rate of oxygen use by bacteria -aquatic indicator species (bio-sentinels or bio-indicators) – also application to other pollutants (may flies, trout, bullheads, carp, sludge worms, mink) Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

151 Gulf of Mexico - Watershed hypoxic zone dissolved oxygen concentration less than 2 mg/L, or 2 ppm Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 22/10/2012

152 Gulf of Mexico - Watershed

153 DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN AKIBAT PESTISIDA

154 Diunduh dari sumbernya: Pesticide Action Network Europe 2010 ………… 20/10/2012 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August Soil contamination Pesticides enter the soil via spray drift during foliage treatment, wash-off from treated foliage, release from granulates or from treated seeds in soil. Some pesticides such as soil fumigants and nematocides are applied directly into soil to control pests and plant diseases presented in soil. The transport, persistence or degradation of pesticides in soil depend on their chemical properties as well as physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. All these factors affect sorption/ desorption, volatilisation, degradation, uptake by plants, run- off, and leaching of pesticides. Persistent organochlorine pesticides (OC) in soils Persistence of pesticides in soil can vary from few hours to many years in case of OC pesticides. Despite OC pesticides were banned or restricted in many countries, they are still detecting in soils (Shegunova et al., ; Toan et al., ; Li et al., ; Hildebrandt et al., ; Jiang et al., ; Ferencz and Balog ).

155 Diunduh dari sumbernya: Pesticide Action Network Europe 2010 ………… 20/10/2012 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August Sorption is the most important interaction between soil and pesticides and limits degradation as well as transport in soil. Pesticides bound to soil organic matter or clay particles are less mobile, bio available but also less accessible to microbial degradation and thus more persistent. Soil organic matter is the most important factor influencing sorption and leaching of pesticides in soil. Addition of organic matter to soil can enhance sorption and reduce risk to water pollution. It has been demonstrated that amount and composition of organic matter had large impact on pesticides sorption. For example soil rich on humus content are more chemically reactive with pesticides than nonhumified soil (Farenhorst 2006). Farenhorst, A. (2006): Importance of Soil Organic Matter Fractions in Soil- Landscape and Regional Assessments of Pesticide Sorption and Leaching in Soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70(3), pp Sumber: https://www.soils.org/publications/sssaj/articles/70/3/1005

156 Diunduh dari sumbernya: Pesticide Action Network Europe 2010 ………… 20/10/2012 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August High yield agriculture, as it is widely practised in Europa, depletes soil organic matter and will reduce sorption. Fast sorption usually occurs in short time after pesticide application. With time sorption is much slower. However, it has been observed for many pesticides that increasing time, repeated application could increase their sorption and formation of bound, non-extractable residues. Although bound residues are considered of low significance because they are inactive and nonavailable, it has been detected that they can release in some time. Change in soil pH or addition of nitrate fertilizers can induced a release of this residues. There exist also evidences that some organisms, e.g. plants and earthworms, can uptake and remobilise old tightly bound residues (Gevao et al., 2000). Gevao, B., Mordaunt, C., Semple, K.T., Piearce, T.G., Jones, K.C. (2000): Bioavailability of Nonextractable (Bound) Pesticide Residues to Earthworms. Environmental Science & Technology 35(3), pp Sumber:

157 Diunduh dari sumbernya: Pesticide Action Network Europe 2010 ………… 20/10/2012 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August Water contamination Pesticides can get into water via drift during pesticide spraying, by runoff from treated area, leaching through the soil. In some cases pesticides can be applied directly onto water surface e.g. for control of mosquitoes. Water contamination depends mainly on nature of pesticides (water solubility, hydrophobicity), soil properties, weather conditions, landscape and also on the distance from an application site to a water source. Rapid transport to groundwater may be caused by heavy rainfall shortly after application of the pesticide to wet soils.

158 Diunduh dari sumbernya: Pesticide Action Network Europe 2010 ………… 20/10/2012 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August During 90ies, herbicide Atrazine and Endosulphan were found most often in surface waters in the USA and Australia due to their widespread use. Other pesticides detected included Pronofos, Dimethoate, Chlordane, Diuron, Prometryn and Fluometuron (Cooper 1996). More recent studies also reported presence of pesticides in surface water and groundwater close to agriculture lands over the world (Cerejeira et al., ; Konstantinou et al., 20062; Añasco et al., ). In general, the compounds most frequently detected were currently used pesticides (herbicides Atrazine, Simazine, Alachlor, Metolachlor and Trifluralin, insecticides Diazinon, Parathion methyl, and organochlorine compounds due to their long persistance (lindane, endosulfan, aldrin, and other organochlorine pesticides). Cerejeira, M.J., Viana, P., Batista, S., Pereira, T., Silva, E., Valério, M.J., Silva, A., Ferreira, M., Silva- Fernandes, A.M. (2003): Pesticides in Portuguese surface and ground waters. Water Research 37(5), pp Cooper, B. (1996): Central and North West Regions Water Quality Program 1995/1996. Report on Pesticide Monitoring. TS96.048, NSW Department of Land & Water Conservation, Sydney, Australia Konstantinou, I.K., Hela, D.G., Albanis, T.A. (2006): The status of pesticide pollution in surface waters (rivers and lakes) of Greece. Part I. Review on occurrence and levels. Environmental Pollution 141(3), pp Añasco, N., Uno, S., Koyama, J., Matsuoka, T., Kuwahara, N. (2010): Assessment of pesticide residues in freshwater areas affected by rice paddy effluents in Southern Japan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 160(1), pp

159 Diunduh dari sumbernya: Pesticide Action Network Europe 2010 ………… 20/10/2012 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August The geographic and seasonal distribution of pesticide occurrence follows patterns in land use and pesticide use. Streams and rivers were frequently more polluted that groundwaters and more near the areas with substantial agricultural and/or urban land use. Pesticides usually occurred in mixture of multiple compounds, even if individual pesticide were detected bellow limits. This potentially can lead to underestimation of toxicity when assessments are based on individual compounds. High levels of pesticides chlordecone were detected in coastline, rivers, sediments and groundwater in the Caribbean island of Martinique due to its massive application on bananas plantations (Bocquené and Franco 2005). Bocquené, G., Franco, A. (2005): Pesticide contamination of the coastline of Martinique. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51(5-7), pp Sumber:

160 Diunduh dari sumbernya: Pesticide Action Network Europe 2010 ………… 20/10/2012 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August Effects on organisms Soil organisms and processes Soil microorganisms play a key role in soil. They are essential for maintenance of soil structure, transformation and mineralization of organic matter, making nutrients available for plants. Soil microorganisms are also able to metabolise and degrade a lot of pollutants and pesticides and thus are of great concern for using in biotechnology. On the other hand, microbial degradation can lead to formation of more toxic and persistent metabolites. Although soil microbial population are characterized by fast flexibility and adaptability to changed environmental condition, the application of pesticides (especially long-term) can cause significant irreversible changes in their population. Inhibition of species, which provide key process, can have a significant impact on function of whole terrestrial ecosystem. Fungicides were found to be toxic to soil fungi and actinomycetes and caused changes in microbial community structure (Liebich et al., ; Pal et al., ). Liebich, J., Schäffer, A., Burauel, P. (2003): Structural and functional approach to studying pesticide side-effects on specific soil functions. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22(4), pp Pal, R., Chakrabarti, K., Chakraborty, A., Chowdhury, A. (2005): Pencycuron application to soils: Degradation and effect on microbiological parameters. Chemosphere 60(11), pp

161 Diunduh dari sumbernya: Pesticide Action Network Europe 2010 ………… 20/10/2012 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August A ew studies show that some organochlorine pesticides suppress symbiotic nitrogen fixation resulting in lower crop yields. Authors found out that pesticides Pentachlorphenol, DDT and Methyl parathion at levels found in farm soils interfered signalling from leguminous plant such as alfalfa, peas, and soybeans to symbiotic soil bacteria. This effect, loosely comparable to endocrine disruption effects of pesticides in human and animals, significantly disrupt N 2 fixation. As consequence increased dependence on synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer, reduced soil fertility, and unsustainable long-term crop yields occur. The observations also may explain a trend in the past 40 years toward stagnant crop yields despite record high use of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers worldwide (Fox et al., ; Potera ). Fox, J.E., Gulledge, J., Engelhaupt, E., Burow, M.E., McLachlan, J.A. (2007): Pesticides reduce symbiotic efficiency of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and host plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(24), pp Potera, C. (2007): Agriculture: Pesticides Disrupt Nitrogen Fixation. Environ Health Perspect 115(12).

162 Diunduh dari sumbernya: Pesticide Action Network Europe 2010 ………… 20/10/2012 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August Soil invertebrates Nematodes, springtails, mites and further micro-arthropods, earthworms, spiders, insects and all these small organisms make up the soil food web and enable decomposition of organic compounds such as leaves, manure, plant residues and they also prey on crop pests. Soil organisms enhance soil aggregation and porosity and thus increasing infiltration and reducing runoff. Earthworms represent the greatest part of biomass of terrestrial invertebrates (>80 %) and play an important role in soil ecosystem. They are used as bioindicator of soil contamination providing an early warning of decline in soil quality. They serve as model organisms in toxicity testing. Earthworms are characterized by high ability to cumulate a lot of pollutants from soil in their tissues, thus they are used for studying of bioaccumulation potential of chemicals. A recent review of pesticides effects on earthworms showed on negative effects on growth and reproduction by many pesticides (Shahla and D'Souza 2010). Shahla, Y., D'Souza, D. (2010): Effects of Pesticides on the Growth and Reproduction of Earthworm: A Review. Applied and Environmental Soil Science 2010, pp Article ID , 9 pages. Sumber:

163 Diunduh dari sumbernya: Pesticide Action Network Europe 2010 ………… 20/10/2012 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August Glyphosate, nonselective herbicide, and chlorpyrifos, insecticide, belong to the most worldwide used pesticides, especially on transgenic resistant crops. An integrated study on a Roundoup resistant soya field in Argentina showed deleterious effect of these pesticides on earthworm population. Earthworms avoided soil with glyphosate, their feeding activity and viability were reduced. Glyphosate and chlorpyrifos caused also several adverse effects at cellular level (DNA damage) that indicated physiological stress. Author concluded that the effects observed on the reproduction and avoidance caused by glyphosate could contribute to earthworm decrease, with the subsequent loss of their beneficial functions (Casabé et al., 2007). Casabé, N., Piola, L., Fuchs, J., Oneto, M.L., Pamparato, L., Basack, S., Giménez, R., Massaro, R., Papa, J.C., Kesten, E. (2007): Ecotoxicological Assessment of the Effects of Glyphosate and Chlorpyrifos in an Argentine Soya Field. Journal of soil sediments 7(4), pp

164 Diunduh dari sumbernya: Pesticide Action Network Europe 2010 ………… 20/10/2012 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August Other non-target species Effect of pesticides on bees are closely watched because their crop pollination. However, little is known about the impacts of pesticides on wild pollinators in the field. In recent study conducted in Italian agricultural area, authors monitored species richness of wild bees, bumblebees and butterflies were sampled after pesticides application. They detected decline of wild bees after repeated application of insecticide fenitrothion. Lower bumblebee and butterfly species richness was found in the more intensively farmed basin with higher pesticide loads (Brittain et al., 2010). Brittain, C.A., Vighi, M., Bommarco, R., Settele, J., Potts, S.G. (2010): Impacts of a pesticide on pollinator species richness at different spatial scales. Basic and Applied Ecology 11(2), pp

165 Diunduh dari sumbernya: Pesticide Action Network Europe 2010 ………… 20/10/2012 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August Impact of pesticides on insect is determined by the timing of application because susceptibility to exposure differs between species and at different life stages. Therefore, unconsidered agricultural practises can harm butterfly populations. It has been shown that using herbicides to control of invasive plants can significantly reduce survival, wing and pupa weight of butterfly at treated areas. Author highlighted the importance of careful consideration in the use of herbicides in habitats harboring at-risk butterfly populations. Reduction of adverse effect may be reached by applications in late summer and early fall, post flight season and during larval diapause (Russell and Schultz 2009). Russell, C., Schultz, C.B. (2009): Effects of grass-specific herbicides on butterflies: an experimental investigation to advance conservation efforts. Journal of Insect Conservation 14(1), pp

166 Diunduh dari sumbernya: Pesticide Action Network Europe 2010 ………… 20/10/2012 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August Water organisms – invertebrates, amphibians, fishes Pesticides can enter fresh water streams directly via spray drift or indirectly via surface runoff or drain flow. Many pesticides are toxic to freshwater organisms. Acute and chronic effects are derived from standart toxicity tests. Within the ecological context, sublethal effects of toxic contaminants are very important. For example, downstream drift of stream macroinvertebrates in common reaction to various types of disturbance, including chemical contamination and may result in significant changes of structure of lotic communities. Downstream drift was shown for several pesticides such as pyrethroid, neonicotinoid, organochlorine, organophosphate insecticides or lampricides. Neurotoxic insecticides exhibited the strongest drift-initiating effects on stream-dwelling insects and crustaceans. Moreover, it was detected that macroinvertebrate drift can be induced even by short-term pulse exposures (within 2 hours) at field-relevant concentrations (already 7–22 times lower than the respective acute LC50 values) (Beketov and Liess 2008). Beketov, M., Liess, M. (2008): Potential of 11 Pesticides to Initiate Downstream Drift of Stream Macroinvertebrates. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 55(2), pp

167 Diunduh dari sumbernya: Pesticide Action Network Europe 2010 ………… 20/10/2012 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August In ecotoxicologial risk assessment of pesticides, attention is also focused on the ability of treated aquatic ecosystems to recover. After pesticide application structural and functional changes in ecosystem were monitored. Whereas some species can be reduced, other may profit from lower predation and food competition. The time needed for recovery depends on biotic factor such as presence of dormant forms, life cycle characteristics, landscape as well as on the season when exposure occur. It has been detected, isolated ecosystems were more susceptible to damage and community structure changed to lower biodiversity states. Recovery in these ecosystems depends on the availability of immigrating organisms (Caquet et al., 2007). Long-living species might not recover until very long time (7 months of experiment) (Beketov et al., 2008). Beketov, M.A., Schäfer, R.B., Marwitz, A., Paschke, A., Liess, M. (2008): Long-term stream invertebrate community alterations induced by the insecticide thiacloprid: Effect concentrations and recovery dynamics. Science of The Total Environment 405(1-3), pp Caquet, T., Hanson, M.L., Roucaute, M., Graham, D.W., Lagadic, L. (2007): Influence of isolation on the recovery of pond mesocosms from the application of an insecticide. II. Benthic macroinvertebrate responses. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26(6), pp

168 Diunduh dari sumbernya: Pesticide Action Network Europe 2010 ………… 20/10/2012 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August Birds Decline of farmland bird species has been reported over several past decades and often attributed to changes in farming practises, such as increase agrochemical inputs, loss of mixture farming or unfarmed structures. Besides lethal and sub lethal effects of pesticides on birds, concern has recently focused on the indirect effects. These effects act mainly via reduction of food supplies (weeds, invertebrates), especially during breeding or winter seasons. As consequence insecticide and herbicide application can lead to reduction of chick survival and bird population. Time of pesticides application plays also important role in availability of food. Several practises (generally Integrated crop management techniques) can be used to minimize unwanted effects of pesticides on farmland birds, such as use of selective pesticides, avoiding spraying in during breeding season and when crops and weeds are in flower, minimise spray drift or creation of headlands. Evidences of this important indirect effect of pesticides has been reported e.g. By Boatman et al., ; Taylor et al., Boatman, N.D., Brickle, N.W., Hart, J.D., Milsom, T.P., Morris, A.J., Murray, A.W.A., Murray, K.A., Robertson, P.A. (2004): Evidence for the indirect effects of pesticides on farmland birds. Ibis 146, pp Taylor, R.L., Maxwell, B.D., Boik, R.J. (2006): Indirect effects of herbicides on bird food resources and beneficial arthropods. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 116(3-4), pp

169 Diunduh dari sumbernya: Pesticide Action Network Europe 2010 ………… 20/10/2012 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August Effects of pesticides and farming practises on biodiversity Intensive pesticides and fertilizers usage, loss of natural and semi-natural habitats and decreased habitat heterogeneity and all other aspects of agricultural intensification have undoubted impact on biodiversity decline during last years. Intensive agriculture A current Europe-wide survey in eight West and East European countries brought alarming evidence of negative effects of agricultural intensification on wild plants, carabid and bird species diversity. Authors demonstrated that, despite decades of European policy to ban harmful pesticides, pesticides are still having disastrous consequences for biodiversity on European farmland. Insecticides also reduced the biological control potential. They conclude that if biodiversity is to be restored in Europe, there must be a Europe-wide shift towards farming with minimal use of pesticides over large areas (Geiger, F., Bengtsson, J., Berendse, F., Weisser, W.W., Emmerson, M., Morales, M.B., Ceryngier, P., Liira, J., Tscharntke, T., Winqvist, C., Eggers, S., Bommarco, R., Pärt, T., Bretagnolle, V., Plantegenest, M., Clement, L.W., Dennis, C., Palmer, C., Ońate, J.J., Guerrero, I., Hawro, V., Aavik, T., Thies, C., Flohre, A., Hänke, S., Fischer, C., Goedhart, P.W., Inchausti, P. (2010): Persistent negative effects of pesticides on biodiversity and biological control potential on European farmland. Basic and Applied Ecology 11(2), pp Sumber:

170 Diunduh dari sumbernya: Pesticide Action Network Europe 2010 ………… 20/10/2012 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August Taking a landscape in Great Britain as an example, it has been showed that impact of agriculture intensification on biodiversity differs among agricultural land use and depends on specific agricultural pressure like land use changes, land cover or crop management. Authors found out that, as result of eutrohication and N surplus, vegetation diversity surrounding cropped land shifted to a composition typical for more fertile conditions. However, species richness of plants and breeding birds were more affected by broad habitat diversity (Firbank, L.G., Petit, S., Smart, S., Blain, A., Fuller, R.J Assessing the impacts of agricultural intensification on biodiversity: a British perspective. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363(1492), pp ). The pressures of agricultural changes may be reduced by: - minimizing loss of large habitats, - minimizing permanent loss of agricultural land, - maintaining habitat diversity in agricultural landscapes in order to provide ecosystem services, - minimizing pollution from nutrients and pesticides from the crops themselves. Sumber:


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