9Comprehend the difference between literal and figurative and apply these concepts to symbolism and allegoryExplain what a symbol is; comprehend the difference between universal and personal symbols; create a personal symbolToday you will . . .
10Literal vs. Figurative literal figurative The literal meaning of a story is the actual meaning. It is the most obvious meaningfigurativeThe symbolic, suggested meaning
11something used for or regarded as representing something else a material object representing something, often something immaterial; emblem, token, or sign.A symbol in literature is a sign which has further layers of meaning. In other words, a symbol means more than it literally says.Symbolism
18Interpretation of Symbols Universal and CulturalPersonalInterpretation of Symbols
19Universal – most people anywhere in the world would recognize it. Cultural—the people in a particular culture would recognize it, but those outside the culture may not.Personal—developed by an author, artist, etc. to specifically represent something.A Symbol Can Be . . .
20Write down another universal symbol and another cultural symbol Write down another universal symbol and another cultural symbol. Explain what it means.Create your own personal symbol with an explanation.Homework
21Today you will . . . Comprehend what an allegory is Analyze “Little Red Riding Hood as an allegoryAnalyze a quote as an allegoryComprehend what an allusion isCreate an allusionToday you will . . .
23Allegory a work in which the characters and events . . . represent other people or events in historyrepresent concepts, such as virtues, war, communismsymbolically express a deeper, often spiritual, moral, or political meaning
24An allegory can be understood on two levels: LITERALFIGURATIVEAn allegory can be understood on two levels:
25“Little Red Riding Hood” Level One: Literal a little girlThe wolfa dangerous, wild creatureThe woodsmana strong, brave working man“Little Red Riding Hood” Level One: Literal
26“Little Red Riding Hood” Level 2: Figurative InnocenceThe wolf:EvilThe woodsman:Society’s sense ofmoral justice“Little Red Riding Hood” Level 2: Figurative
27“It is better to be a living dog than a dead lion.” -- Ecclesiastes (9.4)Ecclesiastes uses the literal significance of "dog" and "lion," coupled with their cultural associations, to refer to conditions of human life.
28liondogLiteral meaning: a four-legged mammal with sharp teethCultural association: the lion is noble, strong, courageousSymbolic meaning:Literal meaning: a four-legged mammal with sharp teethCultural association: the dog is ordinary, weak, cowardlySymbolic meaning:Allegory
29the literal meaning of "lion" and "dog"--two different species of mammal the cultural associations of both animals--the lion is noble, strong, courageous; the dog is ordinary, weak, cowardly.the application to human character: The cultural associations are transferred from dogs and lions to human beings; the application makes a point about life.Breaking it Down
30“It is better to be a living dog than a dead lion.” the application to human character: The cultural associations are transferred from dogs and lions to human beings; the application makes a point about life.“It is better to be a living dog than a dead lion.”It is better to be a coward and stay alive than be brave and die because of your bravery.
31Examples of Other Allegories Edmund Spenser's “The Faerie Queene” --several knights stand for virtues like friendship, truth and justiceAnimal Farm by George Orwell—the animals stand for real people and the events real events in the Russian Revolutionthe animals and events represent all people during all tyranniesExamples of Other Allegories
33Allusion (NOT “illusion”) A brief, usually indirect reference to a person, place, or event--real or fictional.According to their content, allusions may be historical, cultural, mythological, literary, political, or private.Allusions add a depth of meaning.Allusion (NOT “illusion”)
34Examples of Allusions Direct Indirect He’s as strong as Hercules. Hey, Einstein!She is as loyal as Lady Macbeth.The title of Robert Frost’s poem “Out, Out--,” is an allusion to Macbeth’s speech about life's shortness after Lady Macbeth dies: “Out, out, brief candle!"Examples of Allusions
36When during a conversation you allude to something, you are making a reference to that something without directly stating it.
37Respond to this question . . . How are an allegory and symbolism similar?Respond to this question . . .
38Themes for Lord of the Flies What is the nature of evil?Does a lack or disintegration of society cause injustice?Themes for Lord of the Flies
39What’s the difference between a Utopia and a Dystopia?
40Answer both of the thematic questions and explain your responses: A Answer both of the thematic questions and explain your responses: A.) What is the nature of evil? B.) Does a lack or disintegration of society lead to injustice?Describe your utopia. What would it look like? Would there be laws, and if so, what kind? How would you get your food and clothing and other goods? Would everyone be treated equally? Would there be schools?For Homework . . .