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Symbolism. Allegory Allusion The nature of evil.

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Presentation on theme: "Symbolism. Allegory Allusion The nature of evil."— Presentation transcript:

1 Symbolism

2 Allegory

3 Allusion

4 The nature of evil

5 The role of society

6 Dystopia

7 in Lord of the Flies By William Golding

8 Symbolism

9 Today you will... Comprehend the difference between literal and figurative and apply these concepts to symbolism and allegory Explain what a symbol is; comprehend the difference between universal and personal symbols; create a personal symbol

10 Literal vs. Figurative 1.literal The literal meaning of a story is the actual meaning. It is the most obvious meaning 2.figurative The symbolic, suggested meaning

11 Symbolism something used for or regarded as representing something else a material object representing something, often something immaterial; emblem, token, or sign. A symbol in literature is a sign which has further layers of meaning. In other words, a symbol means more than it literally says.

12 What does this symbolize?

13 What does this symbolize

14 What does this symbolize?




18 Interpretation of Symbols Universal and CulturalPersonal

19 A Symbol Can Be... Universal – most people anywhere in the world would recognize it. Cultural—the people in a particular culture would recognize it, but those outside the culture may not. Personal—developed by an author, artist, etc. to specifically represent something.

20 Homework Write down another universal symbol and another cultural symbol. Explain what it means. Create your own personal symbol with an explanation.

21 Today you will... Comprehend what an allegory is Analyze “Little Red Riding Hood as an allegory Analyze a quote as an allegory Comprehend what an allusion is Create an allusion

22 Allegory

23 Allegory a work in which the characters and events... represent other people or events in history represent concepts, such as virtues, war, communism symbolically express a deeper, often spiritual, moral, or political meaning

24 An allegory can be understood on two levels: LITERAL FIGURATIVE

25 “Little Red Riding Hood” Level One: Literal Little Red Riding Hood: a little girl The wolf a dangerous, wild creature The woodsman a strong, brave working man

26 “Little Red Riding Hood” Level 2: Figurative Little Red Riding Hood: Innocence The wolf: Evil The woodsman: Society’s sense of moral justice

27 “It is better to be a living dog than a dead lion.” -- Ecclesiastes (9.4) Ecclesiastes uses the literal significance of "dog" and "lion," coupled with their cultural associations, to refer to conditions of human life.

28 Allegory lion Literal meaning: a four- legged mammal with sharp teeth Cultural association: the lion is noble, strong, courageous Symbolic meaning: dog Literal meaning: a four- legged mammal with sharp teeth Cultural association: the dog is ordinary, weak, cowardly Symbolic meaning:

29 Breaking it Down the literal meaning of "lion" and "dog"--two different species of mammal the cultural associations of both animals--the lion is noble, strong, courageous; the dog is ordinary, weak, cowardly. the application to human character: The cultural associations are transferred from dogs and lions to human beings; the application makes a point about life.

30 “It is better to be a living dog than a dead lion.” It is better to be a coward and stay alive than be brave and die because of your bravery.

31 Examples of Other Allegories Edmund Spenser's “The Faerie Queene” -- – several knights stand for virtues like friendship, truth and justice Animal Farm by George Orwell— – the animals stand for real people and the events real events in the Russian Revolution – the animals and events represent all people during all tyrannies

32 Allusion

33 Allusion (NOT “illusion”) A brief, usually indirect reference to a person, place, or event--real or fictional. According to their content, allusions may be historical, cultural, mythological, literary, political, or private. Allusions add a depth of meaning.

34 Examples of Allusions Direct He’s as strong as Hercules. Hey, Einstein! She is as loyal as Lady Macbeth. Indirect The title of Robert Frost’s poem “Out, Out--,” is an allusion to Macbeth’s speech about life's shortness after Lady Macbeth dies: “Out, out, brief candle!"

35 Allusion Create an allusion and then explain it.

36 When during a conversation you allude to something, you are making a reference to that something without directly stating it.

37 Respond to this question... How are an allegory and symbolism similar?

38 Themes for Lord of the Flies What is the nature of evil? Does a lack or disintegration of society cause injustice?

39 What’s the difference between a Utopia and a Dystopia? Utopia Dystopia

40 For Homework... 1.Answer both of the thematic questions and explain your responses: A.) What is the nature of evil? B.) Does a lack or disintegration of society lead to injustice? 2.Describe your utopia. What would it look like? Would there be laws, and if so, what kind? How would you get your food and clothing and other goods? Would everyone be treated equally? Would there be schools?

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