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Unit 4: political space and organization

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1 Unit 4: political space and organization
Ms. Roti’s AP HG Class

2 Introduction Video Questions for elbow partners:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EkwA5GJiQx4 Questions for elbow partners: What is his main argument? Do you agree or disagree? Why?

3 Key Issues for Unit 4 Where are states distributed?
Why are nation-states difficult to create? Why do boundaries cause problems? Why do states cooperate and compete with each other?

4 Where are states distributed?
Key Issue #1: Where are states distributed?

5 State & Sovereignty State: an independent political unit occupying a defined, permanently populated territory and having full sovereign control over its internal and foreign affairs Currently, approximately 200 independent states exist Sovereignty: the authority to govern oneself Country is often used as a synonym for state. Largest state is Russia which encompasses 17.1 million square kilometers (6.6 million square miles) Smallest state in the United Nations is Monaco with 1.5 square kilometers (0.6 square miles) Example of microstate, which are states with very small land areas.

6 Markers of a Nation Nation: a group of people with a common culture occupying a particular territory, bound together by a strong sense of unity arising from shared beliefs and customs (ex. the Kurds) 1. Shared Cultural heritage or shared belief system 2. Loyalty 3. Permanent territory 4. Self-determination

7 Stateless nation: a people without a state
Nation-state: an ideal form consisting of a homogenous group governed by their own state. Very few states are true nation- states, because most states contain minority peoples who belong to another nation ex. Denmark and Japan Stateless nation: a people without a state

8 Challenges in Defining States
Disagreement exists about actual number of sovereign states as a result of historical disputes involving more than one claim to a territory China Most other countries consider China (People’s Republic of China) and Taiwan (Republic of China) as separate and sovereign states China’s government considers Taiwan part of China Western Sahara Most Africans countries consider Western Sahara a sovereign state Morocco claims the territory Built a 2,700 kilometer wall around it to keep rebels out

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11 Challenges of Defining States
Polar Regions: Many Claims Several states claim portion of the South Pole region Some claims in the South Pole region are overlapping and conflicting US, Russia, and many other states do not recognize claims to Antarctica 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea permitted countries to submit claims inside the Arctic Circle (North Pole) by 2009

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14 Development of the State Concept
Evolution of States First states were known as city-states, which are sovereign states that are comprised of towns and their surrounding countryside Walls delineated boundaries Area immediately outside walls controlled by city to produce food for urban residents Medieval States Gained military dominance of individual city-states led to the formation of empires (e.g. Roman Empire) Roman Empire collapse in 5th century led to its land being broken up and controlled by various monarchies

15 Development of the State Concept
After WWII, leaders of the victorious countries met at the Versailles Peace Conference to redraw the map of Europe Language most important criteria to create new European states and to adjust existing boundaries Nation-states created by Versailles conference lasted through most of 20th century with little adjustment

16 NATION-STATES IN EUROPE, 1800 and 1924 (Top) In 1800, much of Europe was organized into empires. (bottom) After World War I, much of Europe was organized into nation-states

17 Key Issue #2 Why are nation-states difficult to create?

18 Nation-States and Multinational States
Multi-ethnic state: a state that contains more than one ethnicity Multitude of ethnicities in some cases all contribute cultural features to the formation of a single nationality (e.g. United States) Multinational state: a state that contains more than one nation, most countries are multinational (e.g. Canada)

19 Colonies Colonialism Colony: a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent Sovereign state may run only its military and foreign policy Sovereign state may also control its internal affairs European states came to control much of the world through colonialism, an effort by one country to establish settlement in a territory and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles on that territory European colonialism motivated by three reasons. Promote Christianity Extract useful resources and to acquire large markets for goods Establish relative power though the number of their colonies.

20 After Colonialism New countries are formed and conflict arises from superimposed boundaries Superimposed boundaries: a political boundary placed by powerful outsiders on a developed human landscape Occurred in Africa, Asia, Middle East. Leads to conflict among different ethnicities that are now part of the same country

21 COLONIAL POSSESSIONS, 1914 At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, European states held colonies in much of the world, especially in Africa and Asia. Most of the countries in the Western Hemisphere were at one time colonized by Europeans but gained their independence in the eighteenth or nineteenth centuries.

22 Colonies Today The remaining colonies
US Department of State lists 68 places in the world that it calls dependencies and areas of special sovereignty 43 indigenous populations 25 with no permanent population Most current colonies are islands in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea Ex. Puerto Rico, a commonwealth of the US, is home to 4 million residents who are US citizens, but they do not participate in US election or have a voting member of Congress

23 COLONIAL POSSESSIONS, 2012 Most remaining colonies are tiny specks in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, too small to appear on the map.

24 Why do boundaries between states cause problems?
Key Issue #3 Why do boundaries between states cause problems?

25 Boundaries Boundary: an invisible line marking the extent of a state’s territory Physical & Cultural Boundaries can generate conflicts

26 Types of Boundaries Types of boundaries
Physical – difficult to cross and sparsely inhabited Desert boundaries Mountain boundaries Water boundaries (i.e. rivers, lakes, oceans) Cultural Ethnic boundaries Geometric Frontiers: a zone where no state exercises complete political authority Mountains and deserts are more permanent than water because of changing water levels Water boundary movement example Rio Grande River that separates U.S. and Mexico has moved over time. As a result, land that had once been on the U.S. side of the boundary came to be on the Mexican side and vice versa.

27 Boundaries Geometric boundaries Cultural boundaries: Ethnic boundaries
Straight lines drawn on a map E.G. 2,100 kilometer straight line along 49º north latitude that separates US and Canada Established in 1846 by treaty between US and Great Britain Cultural boundaries: Ethnic boundaries Boundary coincides with differences in ethnicity, especially language and religion

28 Boundaries and Water Boundaries of coastal states extend offshore
Water enclosed by these boundaries are called territorial seas Territorial seas rarely exceed 12 miles Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs): areas where coastal and island states have the right to manage ocean resources

29 Shapes of States Large states have a greater chance for natural resources, but may have vast areas that are remote, sparsely populated, and hard to include in mainstream economy and society Small states are more likely to have a culturally homogenous population Microstate (or mini-state): a sovereign state having a very small population or very little land area Size alone is not critical in determining a country’s stability and strength, but it is a contributing factor

30 Shapes of States Controls the length of its boundaries with other states Affects the potential for communication and conflict with neighbors Shape is part of a country’s unique identity Shape also influences the ease or difficulty of internal administration and can affect social unity Countries have five basic shapes

31 Five Basic Shapes of Countries 1. Compact States: Efficient
Distance from center of state to any boundary does not vary significantly Ideal theoretical example would be circle-shaped with the capital in the center Beneficial characteristic within small states because good communication can be more easily established to all regions

32 Five Basic Shapes of Countries 2. Elongated States: Potential Isolation
Long and narrow shape May suffer from poor internal communication Example: Chile 4,000 km long north and south Rarely exceeds 150 km wide east and west

33 Five Basic Shapes of Countries 3
Five Basic Shapes of Countries 3. Prorupted States: Access or Disruption Compact state with a large projecting extension Proruptions created for two principle reasons Provide state access to a resource, such as water Separate two states that would otherwise share a boundary

34 Five Basic Shapes of Countries 4. Fragmented States: Problematic
State that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory Two kinds of fragmented states Fragmented states separated by water Fragmented states separated by an intervening state Makes communication difficult

35 Five Basic Shapes of Countries 5. Perforated States: South Africa
A state that completely surrounds another one Encompassed stated is dependent on the surrounding state for interactions beyond its boundary E.G. Lesotho is completely surrounded by South Africa

36 Landlocked States Landlocked states: completely surrounded by one or more states, lack access to the sea Direct access to an ocean is critical to states because it facilitates international trade To send and receive goods by sea, a landlocked state must arrange to use another country’s seaport Prevalence of landlocked states in Africa is a consequence of the colonial era

37 Boundaries Inside States: Unitary and Federal States
Governments of states are organized according to one of two approaches: the unitary system OR the federal system Unitary: countries with highlighted centralized governments, few internal cultural contrasts, strong sense of national identity and borders that are clearly cultural as well as political (Sweden) Federal: a state with a two-tiered system of government and a clear distinction between the powers vested in the central government and those residing in the governments of the component regional subdivisions (US) Global trend towards federations

38 Electoral Geography Electoral Geography: examines how people’s political preferences are manifested in representation Boundaries separating legislative districts within the US and other countries are redrawn periodically to ensure each has about the same population 435 districts of the US House of Representatives are redrawn every 10 years, following the Census Bureau’s release of the official population figures Job of redrawing boundaries is entrusted to the state legislature Gerrymandering: process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power

39 Electoral Geography Gerrymandering takes three forms:
“Wasted vote” spreads opposition supporters across many districts but in the minority “Excess vote” concentrates opposition supporters into a few districts “Stacked vote” links distant areas of like-minded voters through oddly shaped boundaries US Supreme Court ruled gerrymandering illegal in but did not require dismantling of existing oddly shaped districts

40 Electoral Geography Recent gerrymandering in the US has been primarily “stacked vote” Through gerrymandering, only about one-tenth of Congressional seats are competitive, making a shift of more than a few seats increasingly improbably from one election to another in the US

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42 Electoral Geography Gerrymandering Activity!

43 Why do states cooperate and compete with each other?
Key Issue #4 Why do states cooperate and compete with each other?

44 Cold War Competition & Alliances
Division of world into military alliances resulted from the emergence of two superpowers: US and Soviet Union Military cooperation in Europe NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) 16 democratic states, including the US, Canada, and 14 other European states Warsaw Pact Military agreement among Communist eastern European countries to defend each other in case of attack

45 Cold War Competition & Alliances
NATO and Warsaw Pact were designed to maintain a bipolar balance of power in Europe NATO’s Objective: prevent the spread of communism by the Soviet Union Warsaw Pact Objective: provide the Soviet Union a buffer of allied states between it and Germany to discourage a third German invasion of the Soviet Union in the 20th century Disbanded once Europe was no longer dominated by military confrontation between two blocs

46 Political and Military Cooperation
The United Nations (established 1945) Represents a forum where virtually all states can meet and vote on issues without resorting to war

47 Supranationalism Supranationalism: 3 or more countries form a union for economic, political, or cultural cooperation Economic Cooperation Most important elements of state power are increasingly economic rather than military European Union (includes 27 countries) Main task of the EU is to promote development within the member states through economic cooperation

48 Economic Alliances in Europe
European Union (EU) Formed: 1958 Original Members: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany Purpose: Heal Western Europe’s scars from WWII Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) Formed: 1949 Original Members: 7 Eastern European Communist states from the Warsaw Pact plus Cuba, Mongolia, and Vietnam Purpose: Promote trade and sharing of natural resources

49 EUROPE MILITARY AND ECONOMIC ALLIANCES (left) During the Cold War
EUROPE MILITARY AND ECONOMIC ALLIANCES (left) During the Cold War. Western European countries joined the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), whereas Eastern European countries joined COMECON and the Warsaw Pact. (right) Post–Cold War. COMECON and the Warsaw Pact have been disbanded, whereas the European Union and NATO have accepted and plan to accept new members.

50 Economic Alliances in Europe
The EU in the 21st century Expanded to 12 countries during the 1980s; expanded to 27 in the 2000s Main task of the EU is to promote the development within member states through economic and political cooperation Eurozone Most dramatic step toward integrating Europe’s nation- states into a regional organization European Central Bank given responsibility of setting interest rates and minimizing inflation throughout the Eurozone Common currency established – euro

51 Advantages of the EU Membership
No tariffs/import taxes on EU produced products going to EU countries No tariffs = lower prices  more sales = higher profits Result: higher standard of living for all EU members Greater international influence More power to compete with economies of other countries War is less likely Common passport Common currency Universal voting EURO Euro paper money shows a map of Europe and a bridge on one side and architecture on the other side. Rather than actual structures, the bridges and architecture features are designed to represent a period in history; for example, they represent ancient times on the €5 note.

52 Concerns & Disadvantages of EU Membership
Devolution issues Loss of control over individual policy No protection for local industries (Eastern Europe was used to this under communism) Possible unemployment in certain industries Loss of “national” identity or culture

53 Devolution A kind of decentralization whereby a state transfers some power to a self-defined community, such as one of its national groups Process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government Breakup of a state (Balkanization)

54 Examples of Devolution
Break up of a state Yugoslavia / Balkans Former USSR Czechoslovakia Austria-Hungary Demand for Autonomy UK: Scotland, Wales, Ireland, N. Ireland Spain: Basques, Catalonians

55 Effects of Devolution Formation of new states More power to regions
Formation of new legislatures Local control over policy Local ethno-nationalism Linguistic Religious revival Regional separatism

56 Effects of Devolution Political instability Economic instability
Civil war Fighting Hostility Ethnic cleansing Economic instability Mass migration Refugees Emigration

57 FRQ #2 Practice The modern state system is engaged in a struggle between the forces of supranationalism and devolution. A. Define both terms and give a geographic example of each B. With reference to the political and economic geography of Europe, briefly discuss 2 changes resulting from supranationalism. C. With reference to the political and economic geography of Europe, briefly discuss 2 changes resulting from devolution.

58 Terrorism Terrorism by individuals and organizations
State support for terrorism Libya Afghanistan Iraq Iran

59 Terrorism by Individuals & Organizations
Terrorism: systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or coerce a government into granting its demands Differs from other acts of political violence because attacks are aimed at ordinary people rather than military or political leaders Terrorists consider all citizens responsible for the actions being opposed, so therefore equally justified as victims

60 Terrorism by Individuals & Organizations
The US suffered several terrorist attacks during the late 20th century With the exception of the Oklahoma City bombing, which killed 168 people in 1995, Americans generally paid little attention to the attacks and had only a vague notion of who had committed them Americans’ view on terrorism changed after 9/11

61 American Terrorists Some of the terrorists during the 1990s were American citizens operating alone or with a handful of others Theodore J. Kaczynski (the Unabomber) was convicted of killing 3 people and injuring 23 others by sending bombs through the mail during a 17 year period His targets were mainly academics in technological disciplines and executives in businesses whose actions he considered to be adversely affecting the environment Timothy J. McVeigh (Oklahoma City Bombing) claimed his terrorist act was provoked by the Waco, Texas incident

62 American Terrorists No one much noticed these attacks until 9/11
Dec. 21, 1988 – Pan Am Flight 103 Lockerbie Scotland 259 killed Feb. 26, 1993 – Car bomb in World Trade center, 6 killed April 19, 1995 – Oklahoma City bombing, 168 killed June 25, 1996 – Apartment Building in Saudi, 19 US soldiers Aug. 7, 1998 – Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, 190 killed Oct. 12, 2000 – USS Cole, Yemen, 17 killed No one much noticed these attacks until 9/11 Except Oklahoma

63 These attacks resulted in 3,000 deaths
TERRORIST ATTACK ON THE WORLD TRADE CENTER On September 11, 2001, at 9:03 a.m., United Flight 175 approaches World Trade Center Tower 2 (left) and crashes into it (right). Tower 1 is already burning from the crash of American Flight 11 at 8:45 a.m. These attacks resulted in 3,000 deaths

64 Terrorism by Individuals & Organizations
State support for terrorism Several Middle Eastern states have supported for terrorism in recent years, at three increasing levels of involvement: Providing sanctuary for terrorists wanted by other countries Afghanistan and possibly Pakistan have provided sanctuary for al-Qaeda terrorists Supplying weapons, money, and intelligence to terrorists Planning attacks using terrorists


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