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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 4: POLITICAL SPACE AND ORGANIZATION Ms. Roti’s AP HG Class."— Presentation transcript:


2 Introduction Video Questions for elbow partners:  What is his main argument?  Do you agree or disagree? Why?

3 Key Issues for Unit 4  Where are states distributed?  Why are nation-states difficult to create?  Why do boundaries cause problems?  Why do states cooperate and compete with each other?

4 Where are states distributed? Key Issue #1:

5 State & Sovereignty  State: an independent political unit occupying a defined, permanently populated territory and having full sovereign control over its internal and foreign affairs  Currently, approximately 200 independent states exist  Sovereignty: the authority to govern oneself

6 Markers of a Nation  Nation: a group of people with a common culture occupying a particular territory, bound together by a strong sense of unity arising from shared beliefs and customs (ex. the Kurds) 1. Shared Cultural heritage or shared belief system 2. Loyalty 3. Permanent territory 4. Self-determination

7  Nation-state: an ideal form consisting of a homogenous group governed by their own state. Very few states are true nation- states, because most states contain minority peoples who belong to another nation  ex. Denmark and Japan  Stateless nation: a people without a state

8 Challenges in Defining States  Disagreement exists about actual number of sovereign states as a result of historical disputes involving more than one claim to a territory  China Most other countries consider China (People’s Republic of China) and Taiwan (Republic of China) as separate and sovereign states China’s government considers Taiwan part of China  Western Sahara Most Africans countries consider Western Sahara a sovereign state Morocco claims the territory Built a 2,700 kilometer wall around it to keep rebels out



11 Challenges of Defining States  Polar Regions: Many Claims  Several states claim portion of the South Pole region  Some claims in the South Pole region are overlapping and conflicting  US, Russia, and many other states do not recognize claims to Antarctica  1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea permitted countries to submit claims inside the Arctic Circle (North Pole) by 2009



14 Development of the State Concept  Evolution of States  First states were known as city-states, which are sovereign states that are comprised of towns and their surrounding countryside Walls delineated boundaries Area immediately outside walls controlled by city to produce food for urban residents  Medieval States Gained military dominance of individual city-states led to the formation of empires (e.g. Roman Empire) Roman Empire collapse in 5 th century led to its land being broken up and controlled by various monarchies

15 Development of the State Concept  After WWII, leaders of the victorious countries met at the Versailles Peace Conference to redraw the map of Europe Language most important criteria to create new European states and to adjust existing boundaries Nation-states created by Versailles conference lasted through most of 20th century with little adjustment


17 Why are nation-states difficult to create? Key Issue #2

18 Nation-States and Multinational States  Multi-ethnic state: a state that contains more than one ethnicity  Multitude of ethnicities in some cases all contribute cultural features to the formation of a single nationality (e.g. United States)  Multinational state: a state that contains more than one nation, most countries are multinational (e.g. Canada)

19 Colonies  Colonialism  Colony: a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent Sovereign state may run only its military and foreign policy Sovereign state may also control its internal affairs  European states came to control much of the world through colonialism, an effort by one country to establish settlement in a territory and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles on that territory

20 After Colonialism  New countries are formed and conflict arises from superimposed boundaries  Superimposed boundaries: a political boundary placed by powerful outsiders on a developed human landscape  Occurred in Africa, Asia, Middle East. Leads to conflict among different ethnicities that are now part of the same country


22 Colonies Today  The remaining colonies  US Department of State lists 68 places in the world that it calls dependencies and areas of special sovereignty 43 indigenous populations 25 with no permanent population Most current colonies are islands in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea Ex. Puerto Rico, a commonwealth of the US, is home to 4 million residents who are US citizens, but they do not participate in US election or have a voting member of Congress


24 Why do boundaries between states cause problems? Key Issue #3

25 Boundaries  Boundary: an invisible line marking the extent of a state’s territory  Physical & Cultural  Boundaries can generate conflicts

26 Types of Boundaries  Types of boundaries  Physical – difficult to cross and sparsely inhabited Desert boundaries Mountain boundaries Water boundaries (i.e. rivers, lakes, oceans)  Cultural Ethnic boundaries  Geometric  Frontiers: a zone where no state exercises complete political authority

27 Boundaries  Geometric boundaries  Straight lines drawn on a map  E.G. 2,100 kilometer straight line along 49º north latitude that separates US and Canada Established in 1846 by treaty between US and Great Britain  Cultural boundaries: Ethnic boundaries  Boundary coincides with differences in ethnicity, especially language and religion

28 Boundaries and Water  Boundaries of coastal states extend offshore  Water enclosed by these boundaries are called territorial seas  Territorial seas rarely exceed 12 miles  Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs): areas where coastal and island states have the right to manage ocean resources

29 Shapes of States  Large states have a greater chance for natural resources, but may have vast areas that are remote, sparsely populated, and hard to include in mainstream economy and society  Small states are more likely to have a culturally homogenous population  Microstate (or mini-state): a sovereign state having a very small population or very little land area  Size alone is not critical in determining a country’s stability and strength, but it is a contributing factor

30 Shapes of States  Controls the length of its boundaries with other states  Affects the potential for communication and conflict with neighbors  Shape is part of a country’s unique identity  Shape also influences the ease or difficulty of internal administration and can affect social unity  Countries have five basic shapes

31 Five Basic Shapes of Countries 1. Compact States: Efficient  Distance from center of state to any boundary does not vary significantly  Ideal theoretical example would be circle-shaped with the capital in the center  Beneficial characteristic within small states because good communication can be more easily established to all regions

32 Five Basic Shapes of Countries 2. Elongated States: Potential Isolation  Long and narrow shape  May suffer from poor internal communication  Example: Chile  4,000 km long north and south  Rarely exceeds 150 km wide east and west

33  Compact state with a large projecting extension  Proruptions created for two principle reasons  Provide state access to a resource, such as water  Separate two states that would otherwise share a boundary Five Basic Shapes of Countries 3. Prorupted States: Access or Disruption

34  State that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory  Two kinds of fragmented states  Fragmented states separated by water  Fragmented states separated by an intervening state  Makes communication difficult Five Basic Shapes of Countries 4. Fragmented States: Problematic

35  A state that completely surrounds another one  Encompassed stated is dependent on the surrounding state for interactions beyond its boundary  E.G. Lesotho is completely surrounded by South Africa Five Basic Shapes of Countries 5. Perforated States: South Africa

36 Landlocked States  Landlocked states: completely surrounded by one or more states, lack access to the sea  Direct access to an ocean is critical to states because it facilitates international trade  To send and receive goods by sea, a landlocked state must arrange to use another country’s seaport  Prevalence of landlocked states in Africa is a consequence of the colonial era

37 Boundaries Inside States: Unitary and Federal States  Governments of states are organized according to one of two approaches: the unitary system OR the federal system  Unitary: countries with highlighted centralized governments, few internal cultural contrasts, strong sense of national identity and borders that are clearly cultural as well as political (Sweden)  Federal: a state with a two-tiered system of government and a clear distinction between the powers vested in the central government and those residing in the governments of the component regional subdivisions (US) Global trend towards federations

38 Electoral Geography  Electoral Geography: examines how people’s political preferences are manifested in representation  Boundaries separating legislative districts within the US and other countries are redrawn periodically to ensure each has about the same population  435 districts of the US House of Representatives are redrawn every 10 years, following the Census Bureau’s release of the official population figures  Job of redrawing boundaries is entrusted to the state legislature  Gerrymandering: process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power

39 Electoral Geography  Gerrymandering takes three forms:  “Wasted vote” spreads opposition supporters across many districts but in the minority  “Excess vote” concentrates opposition supporters into a few districts  “Stacked vote” links distant areas of like-minded voters through oddly shaped boundaries  US Supreme Court ruled gerrymandering illegal in 1985 but did not require dismantling of existing oddly shaped districts

40 Electoral Geography  Recent gerrymandering in the US has been primarily “stacked vote”  Through gerrymandering, only about one-tenth of Congressional seats are competitive, making a shift of more than a few seats increasingly improbably from one election to another in the US


42 Electoral Geography  Gerrymandering Activity!

43 Why do states cooperate and compete with each other? Key Issue #4

44 Cold War Competition & Alliances  Division of world into military alliances resulted from the emergence of two superpowers: US and Soviet Union  Military cooperation in Europe  NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) 16 democratic states, including the US, Canada, and 14 other European states  Warsaw Pact Military agreement among Communist eastern European countries to defend each other in case of attack

45 Cold War Competition & Alliances  NATO and Warsaw Pact were designed to maintain a bipolar balance of power in Europe  NATO’s Objective: prevent the spread of communism by the Soviet Union  Warsaw Pact Objective: provide the Soviet Union a buffer of allied states between it and Germany to discourage a third German invasion of the Soviet Union in the 20 th century Disbanded once Europe was no longer dominated by military confrontation between two blocs

46 Political and Military Cooperation  The United Nations (established 1945)  Represents a forum where virtually all states can meet and vote on issues without resorting to war

47 Supranationalism  Supranationalism: 3 or more countries form a union for economic, political, or cultural cooperation  Economic Cooperation  Most important elements of state power are increasingly economic rather than military European Union (includes 27 countries) Main task of the EU is to promote development within the member states through economic cooperation

48 Economic Alliances in Europe  European Union (EU)  Formed: 1958  Original Members: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany  Purpose: Heal Western Europe’s scars from WWII  Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON)  Formed: 1949  Original Members: 7 Eastern European Communist states from the Warsaw Pact plus Cuba, Mongolia, and Vietnam  Purpose: Promote trade and sharing of natural resources


50 Economic Alliances in Europe  The EU in the 21 st century  Expanded to 12 countries during the 1980s; expanded to 27 in the 2000s  Main task of the EU is to promote the development within member states through economic and political cooperation Eurozone Most dramatic step toward integrating Europe’s nation- states into a regional organization European Central Bank given responsibility of setting interest rates and minimizing inflation throughout the Eurozone Common currency established – euro

51 Advantages of the EU Membership  No tariffs/import taxes on EU produced products going to EU countries  No tariffs = lower prices  more sales = higher profits  Result: higher standard of living for all EU members  Greater international influence  More power to compete with economies of other countries  War is less likely  Common passport  Common currency  Universal voting

52 Concerns & Disadvantages of EU Membership  Devolution issues  Loss of control over individual policy  No protection for local industries (Eastern Europe was used to this under communism)  Possible unemployment in certain industries  Loss of “national” identity or culture

53 Devolution  A kind of decentralization whereby a state transfers some power to a self-defined community, such as one of its national groups  Process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government  Breakup of a state (Balkanization)

54 Examples of Devolution Break up of a state  Yugoslavia / Balkans  Former USSR  Czechoslovakia  Austria-Hungary Demand for Autonomy  UK: Scotland, Wales, Ireland, N. Ireland  Spain: Basques, Catalonians

55 Effects of Devolution  Formation of new states  More power to regions  Formation of new legislatures  Local control over policy  Local ethno-nationalism  Linguistic  Religious revival  Regional separatism

56 Effects of Devolution  Political instability  Civil war  Fighting  Hostility  Ethnic cleansing  Economic instability  Mass migration  Refugees  Emigration

57 FRQ #2 Practice The modern state system is engaged in a struggle between the forces of supranationalism and devolution.  A. Define both terms and give a geographic example of each  B. With reference to the political and economic geography of Europe, briefly discuss 2 changes resulting from supranationalism.  C. With reference to the political and economic geography of Europe, briefly discuss 2 changes resulting from devolution.

58 Terrorism  Terrorism by individuals and organizations  State support for terrorism  Libya  Afghanistan  Iraq  Iran

59 Terrorism by Individuals & Organizations  Terrorism: systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or coerce a government into granting its demands  Differs from other acts of political violence because attacks are aimed at ordinary people rather than military or political leaders  Terrorists consider all citizens responsible for the actions being opposed, so therefore equally justified as victims

60 Terrorism by Individuals & Organizations  The US suffered several terrorist attacks during the late 20 th century  With the exception of the Oklahoma City bombing, which killed 168 people in 1995, Americans generally paid little attention to the attacks and had only a vague notion of who had committed them  Americans’ view on terrorism changed after 9/11

61 American Terrorists  Some of the terrorists during the 1990s were American citizens operating alone or with a handful of others  Theodore J. Kaczynski (the Unabomber) was convicted of killing 3 people and injuring 23 others by sending bombs through the mail during a 17 year period  His targets were mainly academics in technological disciplines and executives in businesses whose actions he considered to be adversely affecting the environment  Timothy J. McVeigh (Oklahoma City Bombing) claimed his terrorist act was provoked by the Waco, Texas incident

62 American Terrorists  Dec. 21, 1988 – Pan Am Flight 103 Lockerbie Scotland 259 killed  Feb. 26, 1993 – Car bomb in World Trade center, 6 killed  April 19, 1995 – Oklahoma City bombing, 168 killed  June 25, 1996 – Apartment Building in Saudi, 19 US soldiers  Aug. 7, 1998 – Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, 190 killed  Oct. 12, 2000 – USS Cole, Yemen, 17 killed  No one much noticed these attacks until 9/11  Except Oklahoma

63 These attacks resulted in 3,000 deaths

64 Terrorism by Individuals & Organizations  State support for terrorism  Several Middle Eastern states have supported for terrorism in recent years, at three increasing levels of involvement: Providing sanctuary for terrorists wanted by other countries Afghanistan and possibly Pakistan have provided sanctuary for al-Qaeda terrorists Supplying weapons, money, and intelligence to terrorists Planning attacks using terrorists


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