Presentation on theme: "Unit 4: political space and organization"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 4: political space and organization Ms. Roti’s AP HG Class
2 Introduction Video Questions for elbow partners: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EkwA5GJiQx4Questions for elbow partners:What is his main argument?Do you agree or disagree? Why?
3 Key Issues for Unit 4 Where are states distributed? Why are nation-states difficult to create?Why do boundaries cause problems?Why do states cooperate and compete with each other?
4 Where are states distributed? Key Issue #1:Where are states distributed?
5 State & SovereigntyState: an independent political unit occupying a defined, permanently populated territory and having full sovereign control over its internal and foreign affairsCurrently, approximately 200 independent states existSovereignty: the authority to govern oneselfCountry is often used as a synonym for state.Largest state is Russia which encompasses 17.1 million square kilometers (6.6 million square miles)Smallest state in the United Nations is Monaco with 1.5 square kilometers (0.6 square miles)Example of microstate, which are states with very small land areas.
6 Markers of a NationNation: a group of people with a common culture occupying a particular territory, bound together by a strong sense of unity arising from shared beliefs and customs (ex. the Kurds)1. Shared Cultural heritage or shared belief system2. Loyalty3. Permanent territory4. Self-determination
7 Stateless nation: a people without a state Nation-state: an ideal form consisting of a homogenous group governed by their own state. Very few states are true nation- states, because most states contain minority peoples who belong to another nationex. Denmark and JapanStateless nation: a people without a state
8 Challenges in Defining States Disagreement exists about actual number of sovereign states as a result of historical disputes involving more than one claim to a territoryChinaMost other countries consider China (People’s Republic of China) and Taiwan (Republic of China) as separate and sovereign statesChina’s government considers Taiwan part of ChinaWestern SaharaMost Africans countries consider Western Sahara a sovereign stateMorocco claims the territoryBuilt a 2,700 kilometer wall around it to keep rebels out
11 Challenges of Defining States Polar Regions: Many ClaimsSeveral states claim portion of the South Pole regionSome claims in the South Pole region are overlapping and conflictingUS, Russia, and many other states do not recognize claims to Antarctica1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea permitted countries to submit claims inside the Arctic Circle (North Pole) by 2009
14 Development of the State Concept Evolution of StatesFirst states were known as city-states, which are sovereign states that are comprised of towns and their surrounding countrysideWalls delineated boundariesArea immediately outside walls controlled by city to produce food for urban residentsMedieval StatesGained military dominance of individual city-states led to the formation of empires (e.g. Roman Empire)Roman Empire collapse in 5th century led to its land being broken up and controlled by various monarchies
15 Development of the State Concept After WWII, leaders of the victorious countries met at the Versailles Peace Conference to redraw the map of EuropeLanguage most important criteria to create new European states and to adjust existing boundariesNation-states created by Versailles conference lasted through most of 20th century with little adjustment
16 NATION-STATES IN EUROPE, 1800 and 1924 (Top) In 1800, much of Europe was organized into empires. (bottom) After World War I, much of Europe was organized into nation-states
17 Key Issue #2Why are nation-states difficult to create?
18 Nation-States and Multinational States Multi-ethnic state: a state that contains more than one ethnicityMultitude of ethnicities in some cases all contribute cultural features to the formation of a single nationality (e.g. United States)Multinational state: a state that contains more than one nation, most countries are multinational (e.g. Canada)
19 ColoniesColonialismColony: a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independentSovereign state may run only its military and foreign policySovereign state may also control its internal affairsEuropean states came to control much of the world through colonialism, an effort by one country to establish settlement in a territory and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles on that territoryEuropean colonialism motivated by three reasons.Promote ChristianityExtract useful resources and to acquire large markets for goodsEstablish relative power though the number of their colonies.
20 After ColonialismNew countries are formed and conflict arises from superimposed boundariesSuperimposed boundaries: a political boundary placed by powerful outsiders on a developed human landscapeOccurred in Africa, Asia, Middle East. Leads to conflict among different ethnicities that are now part of the same country
21 COLONIAL POSSESSIONS, 1914 At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, European states held colonies in much of the world, especially in Africa and Asia. Most of the countries in the Western Hemisphere were at one time colonized by Europeans but gained their independence in the eighteenth or nineteenth centuries.
22 Colonies Today The remaining colonies US Department of State lists 68 places in the world that it calls dependencies and areas of special sovereignty43 indigenous populations25 with no permanent populationMost current colonies are islands in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean SeaEx. Puerto Rico, a commonwealth of the US, is home to 4 million residents who are US citizens, but they do not participate in US election or have a voting member of Congress
23 COLONIAL POSSESSIONS, 2012 Most remaining colonies are tiny specks in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, too small to appear on the map.
24 Why do boundaries between states cause problems? Key Issue #3Why do boundaries between states cause problems?
25 BoundariesBoundary: an invisible line marking the extent of a state’s territoryPhysical & CulturalBoundaries can generate conflicts
26 Types of Boundaries Types of boundaries Physical – difficult to cross and sparsely inhabitedDesert boundariesMountain boundariesWater boundaries (i.e. rivers, lakes, oceans)CulturalEthnic boundariesGeometricFrontiers: a zone where no state exercises complete political authorityMountains and deserts are more permanent than water because of changing water levelsWater boundary movement exampleRio Grande River that separates U.S. and Mexico has moved over time. As a result, land that had once been on the U.S. side of the boundary came to be on the Mexican side and vice versa.
27 Boundaries Geometric boundaries Cultural boundaries: Ethnic boundaries Straight lines drawn on a mapE.G. 2,100 kilometer straight line along 49º north latitude that separates US and CanadaEstablished in 1846 by treaty between US and Great BritainCultural boundaries: Ethnic boundariesBoundary coincides with differences in ethnicity, especially language and religion
28 Boundaries and Water Boundaries of coastal states extend offshore Water enclosed by these boundaries are called territorial seasTerritorial seas rarely exceed 12 milesExclusive Economic Zones (EEZs): areas where coastal and island states have the right to manage ocean resources
29 Shapes of StatesLarge states have a greater chance for natural resources, but may have vast areas that are remote, sparsely populated, and hard to include in mainstream economy and societySmall states are more likely to have a culturally homogenous populationMicrostate (or mini-state): a sovereign state having a very small population or very little land areaSize alone is not critical in determining a country’s stability and strength, but it is a contributing factor
30 Shapes of StatesControls the length of its boundaries with other statesAffects the potential for communication and conflict with neighborsShape is part of a country’s unique identityShape also influences the ease or difficulty of internal administration and can affect social unityCountries have five basic shapes
31 Five Basic Shapes of Countries 1. Compact States: Efficient Distance from center of state to any boundary does not vary significantlyIdeal theoretical example would be circle-shaped with the capital in the centerBeneficial characteristic within small states because good communication can be more easily established to all regions
32 Five Basic Shapes of Countries 2. Elongated States: Potential Isolation Long and narrow shapeMay suffer from poor internal communicationExample: Chile4,000 km long north and southRarely exceeds 150 km wide east and west
33 Five Basic Shapes of Countries 3 Five Basic Shapes of Countries 3. Prorupted States: Access or DisruptionCompact state with a large projecting extensionProruptions created for two principle reasonsProvide state access to a resource, such as waterSeparate two states that would otherwise share a boundary
34 Five Basic Shapes of Countries 4. Fragmented States: Problematic State that includes several discontinuous pieces of territoryTwo kinds of fragmented statesFragmented states separated by waterFragmented states separated by an intervening stateMakes communication difficult
35 Five Basic Shapes of Countries 5. Perforated States: South Africa A state that completely surrounds another oneEncompassed stated is dependent on the surrounding state for interactions beyond its boundaryE.G. Lesotho is completely surrounded by South Africa
36 Landlocked StatesLandlocked states: completely surrounded by one or more states, lack access to the seaDirect access to an ocean is critical to states because it facilitates international tradeTo send and receive goods by sea, a landlocked state must arrange to use another country’s seaportPrevalence of landlocked states in Africa is a consequence of the colonial era
37 Boundaries Inside States: Unitary and Federal States Governments of states are organized according to one of two approaches: the unitary system OR the federal systemUnitary: countries with highlighted centralized governments, few internal cultural contrasts, strong sense of national identity and borders that are clearly cultural as well as political (Sweden)Federal: a state with a two-tiered system of government and a clear distinction between the powers vested in the central government and those residing in the governments of the component regional subdivisions (US)Global trend towards federations
38 Electoral GeographyElectoral Geography: examines how people’s political preferences are manifested in representationBoundaries separating legislative districts within the US and other countries are redrawn periodically to ensure each has about the same population435 districts of the US House of Representatives are redrawn every 10 years, following the Census Bureau’s release of the official population figuresJob of redrawing boundaries is entrusted to the state legislatureGerrymandering: process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power
39 Electoral Geography Gerrymandering takes three forms: “Wasted vote” spreads opposition supporters across many districts but in the minority“Excess vote” concentrates opposition supporters into a few districts“Stacked vote” links distant areas of like-minded voters through oddly shaped boundariesUS Supreme Court ruled gerrymandering illegal in but did not require dismantling of existing oddly shaped districts
40 Electoral GeographyRecent gerrymandering in the US has been primarily “stacked vote”Through gerrymandering, only about one-tenth of Congressional seats are competitive, making a shift of more than a few seats increasingly improbably from one election to another in the US
43 Why do states cooperate and compete with each other? Key Issue #4Why do states cooperate and compete with each other?
44 Cold War Competition & Alliances Division of world into military alliances resulted from the emergence of two superpowers: US and Soviet UnionMilitary cooperation in EuropeNATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)16 democratic states, including the US, Canada, and 14 other European statesWarsaw PactMilitary agreement among Communist eastern European countries to defend each other in case of attack
45 Cold War Competition & Alliances NATO and Warsaw Pact were designed to maintain a bipolar balance of power in EuropeNATO’s Objective: prevent the spread of communism by the Soviet UnionWarsaw Pact Objective: provide the Soviet Union a buffer of allied states between it and Germany to discourage a third German invasion of the Soviet Union in the 20th centuryDisbanded once Europe was no longer dominated by military confrontation between two blocs
46 Political and Military Cooperation The United Nations (established 1945)Represents a forum where virtually all states can meet and vote on issues without resorting to war
47 SupranationalismSupranationalism: 3 or more countries form a union for economic, political, or cultural cooperationEconomic CooperationMost important elements of state power are increasingly economic rather than militaryEuropean Union (includes 27 countries)Main task of the EU is to promote development within the member states through economic cooperation
48 Economic Alliances in Europe European Union (EU)Formed: 1958Original Members: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West GermanyPurpose: Heal Western Europe’s scars from WWIICouncil for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON)Formed: 1949Original Members: 7 Eastern European Communist states from the Warsaw Pact plus Cuba, Mongolia, and VietnamPurpose: Promote trade and sharing of natural resources
49 EUROPE MILITARY AND ECONOMIC ALLIANCES (left) During the Cold War EUROPE MILITARY AND ECONOMIC ALLIANCES (left) During the Cold War. Western European countries joined the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), whereas Eastern European countries joined COMECON and the Warsaw Pact. (right) Post–Cold War. COMECON and the Warsaw Pact have been disbanded, whereas the European Union and NATO have accepted and plan to accept new members.
50 Economic Alliances in Europe The EU in the 21st centuryExpanded to 12 countries during the 1980s; expanded to 27 in the 2000sMain task of the EU is to promote the development within member states through economic and political cooperationEurozoneMost dramatic step toward integrating Europe’s nation- states into a regional organizationEuropean Central Bank given responsibility of setting interest rates and minimizing inflation throughout the EurozoneCommon currency established – euro
51 Advantages of the EU Membership No tariffs/import taxes on EU produced products going to EU countriesNo tariffs = lower prices more sales = higher profitsResult: higher standard of living for all EU membersGreater international influenceMore power to compete with economies of other countriesWar is less likelyCommon passportCommon currencyUniversal votingEURO Euro paper money shows a map of Europe and a bridge on one side and architecture on the other side. Rather than actual structures, the bridges and architecture features are designed to represent a period in history; for example, they represent ancient times on the €5 note.
52 Concerns & Disadvantages of EU Membership Devolution issuesLoss of control over individual policyNo protection for local industries (Eastern Europe was used to this under communism)Possible unemployment in certain industriesLoss of “national” identity or culture
53 DevolutionA kind of decentralization whereby a state transfers some power to a self-defined community, such as one of its national groupsProcess whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central governmentBreakup of a state (Balkanization)
54 Examples of Devolution Break up of a stateYugoslavia / BalkansFormer USSRCzechoslovakiaAustria-HungaryDemand for AutonomyUK: Scotland, Wales, Ireland, N. IrelandSpain: Basques, Catalonians
55 Effects of Devolution Formation of new states More power to regions Formation of new legislaturesLocal control over policyLocal ethno-nationalismLinguisticReligious revivalRegional separatism
56 Effects of Devolution Political instability Economic instability Civil warFightingHostilityEthnic cleansingEconomic instabilityMass migrationRefugeesEmigration
57 FRQ #2 PracticeThe modern state system is engaged in a struggle between the forces of supranationalism and devolution.A. Define both terms and give a geographic example of eachB. With reference to the political and economic geography of Europe, briefly discuss 2 changes resulting from supranationalism.C. With reference to the political and economic geography of Europe, briefly discuss 2 changes resulting from devolution.
58 Terrorism Terrorism by individuals and organizations State support for terrorismLibyaAfghanistanIraqIran
59 Terrorism by Individuals & Organizations Terrorism: systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or coerce a government into granting its demandsDiffers from other acts of political violence because attacks are aimed at ordinary people rather than military or political leadersTerrorists consider all citizens responsible for the actions being opposed, so therefore equally justified as victims
60 Terrorism by Individuals & Organizations The US suffered several terrorist attacks during the late 20th centuryWith the exception of the Oklahoma City bombing, which killed 168 people in 1995, Americans generally paid little attention to the attacks and had only a vague notion of who had committed themAmericans’ view on terrorism changed after 9/11
61 American TerroristsSome of the terrorists during the 1990s were American citizens operating alone or with a handful of othersTheodore J. Kaczynski (the Unabomber) was convicted of killing 3 people and injuring 23 others by sending bombs through the mail during a 17 year periodHis targets were mainly academics in technological disciplines and executives in businesses whose actions he considered to be adversely affecting the environmentTimothy J. McVeigh (Oklahoma City Bombing) claimed his terrorist act was provoked by the Waco, Texas incident
62 American Terrorists No one much noticed these attacks until 9/11 Dec. 21, 1988 – Pan Am Flight 103 Lockerbie Scotland 259 killedFeb. 26, 1993 – Car bomb in World Trade center, 6 killedApril 19, 1995 – Oklahoma City bombing, 168 killedJune 25, 1996 – Apartment Building in Saudi, 19 US soldiersAug. 7, 1998 – Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, 190 killedOct. 12, 2000 – USS Cole, Yemen, 17 killedNo one much noticed these attacks until 9/11Except Oklahoma
63 These attacks resulted in 3,000 deaths TERRORIST ATTACK ON THE WORLD TRADE CENTER On September 11, 2001, at 9:03 a.m., United Flight 175 approaches World Trade Center Tower 2 (left) and crashes into it (right). Tower 1 is already burning from the crash of American Flight 11 at 8:45 a.m.These attacks resulted in 3,000 deaths
64 Terrorism by Individuals & Organizations State support for terrorismSeveral Middle Eastern states have supported for terrorism in recent years, at three increasing levels of involvement:Providing sanctuary for terrorists wanted by other countriesAfghanistan and possibly Pakistan have provided sanctuary for al-Qaeda terroristsSupplying weapons, money, and intelligence to terroristsPlanning attacks using terrorists