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Dokdo: Get a Piece of the R.O.K.. National Geography Standards (Geography for Life, Second Edition): ”Geography Standard 13: How the forces of cooperation.

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Presentation on theme: "Dokdo: Get a Piece of the R.O.K.. National Geography Standards (Geography for Life, Second Edition): ”Geography Standard 13: How the forces of cooperation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dokdo: Get a Piece of the R.O.K.

2 National Geography Standards (Geography for Life, Second Edition): ”Geography Standard 13: How the forces of cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of Earth’s surface. ”Geography Standard 16: The changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources. ”Geography Standard 17: How to apply geography to interpret the past.

3 Common Core English Language Arts Standards:  CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.  CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.8: Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author's claims.  CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.6 : Evaluate authors' differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing the authors' claims, reasoning, and evidence.  CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.7: Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.  CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.8: Evaluate an author's premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information.

4 Objectives:  Students will be able to use historical evidence to evaluate the competing territorial claims of South Korea and Japan over Dokdo/Takashima.  Students will be able to explain how sovereignty over Dokdo/Takashima Islands and the Law of the Sea affect the use and development of resources in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) by South Korea and Japan.

5 A millionaire lookin’ for another million dollars A poor man lookin’ for one A chainstore owner lookin’ for another store A hungry man lookin’ for a bun (Chorus) Get it get it get it yeah Get get get get get ooh get it get it get it Get a piece of the rock


7 Essential Questions: Who owns Dokdo? Why are there competing claims to small islets in the East Sea? Who cares? Why care?

8 Activity 1: Territorial Ownership Scorecard Pedagogy adapted from Classroom Instruction that Works (Robert Marzano) Generating and Testing Hypotheses Decision Making: “Using a structured decision-making framework can help students examine hypothetical situations... Further, using a decision-making process to test their prediction requires the to reflect on and use a broad range of knowledge related to the topic” (pg. 109).

9 1.Describe the decision you are making and the alternatives you are considering. 2.Identify the criteria that will influence the selection and indicate the relative importance of the criteria by assigning an importance score from the designated scale, for example, 1-4. 3.Rate each alternative on a designated scale (e.g., 1-4) to indicate the extent to which each alternative meets each criterion. 4.For each alternative, multiply the importance score and the rating and then add the products to assign a score for the alternative. 5.Examine the scores to determine the alternative with the highest score. 6.Based on your reaction to the selected alternative, determine if you need to change any importance scores or add or drop criteria.

10 1 1 1.25 2.52 Territorial Ownership Scorecard

11 Lines of Evidence for Territorial Claims to Liancourt Rocks

12 Toponym Dokdo (Korean) 독도 – Rock Island, Lonely (solitary) Island Takeshima (Japanese) 竹島 – Bamboo Island

13 Which toponym seems to best describe the island?

14 Visibility Image taken from Korean Island of Ulleungdo

15 Visibility D = 87.4 + H×(92-87.4)/984 H: observer's eye height(m), h: object's elevation(m), D: distance(km)

16 Distance

17 Occupancy South Korea has continuously occupied the island since 1953. In 1954, Korean forces built a lighthouse. Jong Duk Choi was the first registered resident of Dokdo. As a resident of Ulleungdo Island, he moved to Dokdo in March 1965 to gather seafood in the common fishing ground of Dodong. He began modernizing facilities in May 1968. When Japan began to claim their ownership of Dokdo in 1980, he moved his permanent address to Dokdo on October 14, 1981, saying, "I will show them that a Korean is living in Dokdo.“ (

18 Occupancy Four decades ago, fisherman Kim Seong-do came to this tiny outcropping known as the lonely island in search of solitude and a good catch. He moved into a cave here in 1971, scratching out a desolate existence on what South Korea calls Dokdo, whose two treeless islets rise from the water like shark's teeth, battered by fierce winter storms. Scaling its seaside cliffs, Kim found a freshwater spring reachable only by a rope strung up a 250-foot-high rock face. (Glionna, John M., “South Korea's Fierce Island Guard,” Los Angeles Times, August 04, 2011)



21 Occupancy: Japanese on Takeshima Takeshima Fishery Company around 1909. (Photo: From “A Historical-Geographical Study of Takeshima” by Kenzo Kawakami; Kokon Shoin) Japanese fishermen actively involved in fishing on and around Takeshima. (1930s) (Photo: Private collection, provided by the “Takeshima Archives Room” of the Shimane Prefectural Government)

22 History Numerous maps and documents clearly demonstrate that Japan has recognized the existence of Takeshima for centuries. In the early 17th century, Japanese merchants were given permission for passage to Utsuryo Island by the Japanese government, and they used Takeshima as a navigational port for ships on their way to Utsuryo Island as well as a ground to catch sea lions and other marine resources. Japan established sovereignty over Takeshima by the mid 17th century. In the early 1900s, residents of the islands of Shimane Prefecture called for a stable situation to conduct their sea lion hunting business. The Japanese government incorporated Takeshima into Shimane Prefecture in January 1905, following by a Cabinet decision. By doing so, the Japanese government reaffirmed its sovereignty over Takeshima. ( paci/takeshima/index.html)

23 History In the year 1877 Shimane Prefecture (of Japan)inquired to the Home Ministry if Ulleungdo and another island (Dokdo) should be placed under their administrative control. The purpose of this inquiry was to determine which territories were included before mapping Japan. The Japanese Meiji Government Inquiry Documents and Translation The document reads as follows: “…Inquiry regarding the compilation of the cadastre for Takeshima and “another island” in the Sea of Japan…” “…Shimane Prefecture sent us an inquiry for a judgement on the jurisdiction of Takeshima as per attachments and this ministry has examined the matter. Regarding the islands in question, they are known to have nothing to do with our country as per documents prepared in the first month of the 9th year of the Genruko (1696) after the entry of the Koreans into the island. 1. the purport of the deliberation by the former government 2. notification of the official interpretor translator 3. the official letter from the country involved 4. our country’s reply and report. In other words by the 12th year of the Genroku, the exchange of instruments had been completed. However, the acquisition or derelection of a territory being of great importance, we request your instruction on this question with the papers attached hereto. March 17th 10th year of Meiji. Acting for the Minister of Home Affairs Okubo Toshimichi, Vice Minister of Home Affairs Meijima Hisoka…” The Dajokan’s (Japan’s Highest Authority’s) Response The answer to the inquiry read as follows: “…Regarding Takeshima and “other island” it is to be understood that our country has nothing to do with them…” (


25 Historical Maps 17 th Century Map of Japan shows Oki Islands, but not Takeshima

26 Historical Maps 1894 Japanese produced map of Korea shows Dokdo as part of Korea

27 Treaty The Treaty of San Francisco or San Francisco Peace Treaty between the Allied Powers and Japan, was officially signed by 49 nations on September 8, 1951 in San Francisco, California. It came into force on April 28, 1952. It is a popularly known name, but its formal English name is “Treaty of Peace with Japan.”

28 Treaty The first provision of Article Two (Territory) was that Japan renounces all right, title and claim to Korea. Note: This is an interesting provision ending World War II because Korea was not acquired by Japan during World War II, but was annexed by Japan in by treaty in 1910 after a Russo-Japanese war ending in 1905.

29 Treaty Early Draft of the San Francisco Peace Treaty between Korea and Japan

30 Treaty Letter from the then United States Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, Dean Rusk, of August 1951

31 Treaty The final San Francisco treaty does not mention Dokdo/Takeshima : CHAPTER II TERRITORY “..Article 2 (a) Japan recognizing the independence of Korea, renounces all right, title and claim to Korea, including the islands of Quelpart, Port Hamilton and Dagelet. (b) Japan renounces all right, title and claim to Formosa and the Pescadores. (c) Japan renounces all right, title and claim to the Kurile Islands, and to that portion of Sakhalin and the islands adjacent to it over which Japan acquired sovereignty as a consequence of the Treaty of Portsmouth of 5 September 1905. (d) Japan renounces all right, title and claim in connection with the League of Nations Mandate System, and accepts the action of the United Nations Security Council of 2 April 1947, extending the trusteeship system to the Pacific Islands formerly under mandate to Japan. (e) Japan renounces all claim to any right or title to or interest in connection with any part of the Antarctic area, whether deriving from the activities of Japanese nationals or otherwise. (f) Japan renounces all right, title and claim to the Spratly Islands and to the Paracel Islands…”


33 Activity 2: Territorial Waters and the Law of the Sea Students will use a map prepared using ArcGIS Online to measure distances between known Korean and Japanese territory. They will apply the Law of the Sea distances to see the change in territorial waters if Japan has legitimate claims to Takeshima.

34 Law of the Sea In 1973, the United Nations convened the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea to write a comprehensive treaty for the oceans. After nine years, the UN produced the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). The key provisions of the Convention included: 12-mile territorial waters in which states are free to enforce any law, regulate any use and exploit any resource. 200-mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ) gives a state the right to right to exploit, develop, manage and conserve all resources in the waters, on the ocean floor and in the subsoil of an area extending 200 miles from its shore. When countries are closer than 24 nautical miles, a median line is drawn (Part II, Section 2, Article 16). When countries are closer than 400 nautical miles a boundary is drawn (Part V, Article 74) Islands must remain above the water during high tide and must be habitable by humans to count as territory in the Law of the Sea. (Part VIII, Article 121) South Korea ratified the Convention 29 Jan 1996 and Japan ratified the Convention on 20 Jun 1996.



37 Free Response Question Some consider the sea to be Earth’s final frontier A.Define a frontier boundary. Explain how the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea modified frontier boundaries of modern states. B.Summarize both Japan and South Korea’s claim to Takeshima/Dokdo. Include 3 lines of evidence for each country. C.Using the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, explain why ownership to Dokdo/Takeshima is in the national interest of both South Korea and Japan.

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