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FEDERALISM The Federalism Debate I.A division of sovereignty: state & national.

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Presentation on theme: "FEDERALISM The Federalism Debate I.A division of sovereignty: state & national."— Presentation transcript:

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2 FEDERALISM

3 The Federalism Debate

4 I.A division of sovereignty: state & national

5 The Federalism Debate I.A division of sovereignty II.Federalism in Context

6 The Federalism Debate I.A division of sovereignty II.Federalism in Context A. Why not a unitary system?

7 Ultimate authority (sovereignty) rests in central government.

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10 The Federalism Debate I.A division of sovereignty II.Federalism in Context A. Why not a unitary system? B. Why not a confederate system?

11 Ultimate authority (sovereignty) rests in state governments.

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14 The Federalism Debate I.A division of sovereignty II.Federalism in Context A. Why not a unitary system? B. Why not a confederate system? C. US chose a Federal system

15 Ultimate authority (sovereignty) is divided between central governments and states.

16 Federalism Decentralized Authority Centralized Authority Confederate Government Unitary Government US Federal Government

17 United States of Germany - Federal

18 United States of Mexico - Federal

19 Federalism Decentralized Authority Centralized Authority Confederate Government Unitary Government US Federal Government Federal Republic of Germany Federal Republic of Mexico

20 The Federalism Debate I.A division of sovereignty II.Federalism in Context A. Why not a unitary system? B. Why not a confederate system? C. US chose a Federal system D. Essential to foundation

21 The Federalism Debate I.A division of sovereignty II.Federalism in Context A. Why not a unitary system? B. Why not a confederate system? C. US chose a Federal system D. Essential to foundation 1) Needed for ratification

22 The Federalism Debate I.A division of sovereignty II.Federalism in Context A. Why not a unitary system? B. Why not a confederate system? C. US chose a Federal system D. Essential to foundation 1) Needed for ratification 2) Orderly entry of new territories

23 The Federalism Debate I.A division of sovereignty II.Federalism in Context A. Why not a unitary system? B. Why not a confederate system? C. US chose a Federal system D. Essential to foundation 1) Needed for ratification 2) Orderly entry of new territories 3) Preserves local culture/economy

24 The Federalism Debate I.A division of sovereignty II.Federalism in Context III.Federalism & Ratification: The 10 th Amend

25 The Federalism Debate I.A division of sovereignty II.Federalism in Context III.Federalism & Ratification: The 10 th Amend A. Federalist concerns? Anti-Federalist concerns?

26 The Federalism Debate I.A division of sovereignty II.Federalism in Context III.Federalism & Ratification: The 10 th Amend A. Federalist concerns? Anti-Federalist concerns? B. Constitution was a compromise:

27 The Federalism Debate I.A division of sovereignty II.Federalism in Context III.Federalism & Ratification: The 10 th Amend A. Federalist concerns? Anti-Federalist concerns? B. Constitution was a compromise: 1) Addressed some Ant-Federalist (DRs) concerns

28 The Federalism Debate I.A division of sovereignty II.Federalism in Context III.Federalism & Ratification: The 10 th Amend A. Federalist concerns? Anti-Federalist concerns? B. Constitution was a compromise: 1) Addressed some Ant-Federalist (DRs) concerns 2) Addressed some Federalist concerns

29 2.Evolution of the Debate

30 I.Fluid meaning of “federalism”

31 Federalism Decentralized Authority Centralized Authority Confederate Government Unitary Government US Federal Government Federal Republic of Germany Federal Republic of Mexico

32 2.Evolution of the Debate I.Fluid meaning of “federalism” A. Which level has authority on which issues?

33 2.Evolution of the Debate I.Fluid meaning of “federalism” A. Which level has authority on which issues? B. What’s the driving force of this inability to permanently define federalism (meaning the exact roles of states and central government)

34 2.Evolution of the Debate I.Fluid meaning of “federalism” II.Turning to Supreme Court for meaning – Judicial Review

35 2.Evolution of the Debate I.Fluid meaning of “federalism” II.Turning to the SC for meaning III.“Dual” sovereignty I ( )

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37 2.Evolution of the Debate I.Fluid meaning of “federalism” II.Turning to the SC for meaning III.“Dual” sovereignty I ( ) A. “nullification”

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39 2.Evolution of the Debate I.Fluid meaning of “federalism” II.Turning to the SC for meaning III.“Dual” sovereignty I ( ) A. “nullification” 1) McCulloch v Maryland, 1819

40 2.Evolution of the Debate I.Fluid meaning of “federalism” II.Turning to the SC for meaning III.“Dual” sovereignty I ( ) A. “nullification” 1) McCulloch v Maryland, ) 1832, tariffs - nullification issue resurfaces

41 2.Evolution of the Debate I.Fluid meaning of “federalism” II.Turning to the SC for meaning III.“Dual” sovereignty I ( ) A. “nullification” 1) McCulloch v Maryland, ) 1832, tariffs - nullification issue resurfaces 3) 1860, slavery – nullification issue resurfaces

42 The people of the State of South Carolina declared that the frequent violations of the Constitution by the Federal Government, fully justified this State in then withdrawing from the Federal Union; but in deference to the opinions and wishes of the other States, she declined at that time [1832] to exercise this right. Since that time, these violations of the reserved rights of States have continued to increase. Therefore, we, the People of South Carolina, declare that the Union between this State and the other States of North America, is dissolved, and that the State of South Carolina has resumed her position among the nations of the world, as a separate and independent State; with full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent States may of right do. Adopted December 24, 1860

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44 2.Evolution of the Debate I.Fluid meaning of “federalism” II.Turning to the SC for meaning III.“Dual” sovereignty I ( ) A. “nullification” 1) McCulloch v Maryland, ) 1832, tariffs - nullification issue resurfaces 3) 1860, slavery – nullification issue resurfaces 4) Civil War – “nullification” is dead; dual sovereignty lives

45 3.The Supreme Court & Dual Sovereignty

46 I.“Dual” Sovereignty II ( )

47 3.The Supreme Court & Dual Sovereignty I.“Dual” Sovereignty II ( ) SC would defend states powers on issues

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49 3.The Supreme Court & Dual Sovereignty I.“Dual” Sovereignty II ( ) SC would defend states powers (Table 3.1) on issues 1930s things change

50 3.The Supreme Court & Dual Sovereignty I.“Dual” Sovereignty II ( ) SC would defend states powers (Table 3.1) on issues 1930s things change 1) Supreme Court expands national power through

51 3.The Supreme Court & Dual Sovereignty I.“Dual” Sovereignty II ( ) SC would defend states powers (Table 3.1) on issues 1930s things change 1) Supreme Court expands national power through a) Commerce Clause b) Necessary & Proper Clause

52 3.The Supreme Court & Dual Sovereignty I.“Dual” Sovereignty II ( ) SC would defend states powers (Table 3.1) on issues 1930s things change 1990s – SC begins to reconsider

53 3.The Supreme Court & Dual Sovereignty I.“Dual” Sovereignty II ( ) A. Commerce Clause & Court Packing

54 3.The Supreme Court & Dual Sovereignty I.“Dual” Sovereignty II ( ) A. Commerce Clause & Court Packing 1) 1932, the “New Deal” and growing Fed gov

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56 3.The Supreme Court & Dual Sovereignty I.“Dual” Sovereignty II ( ) A. Commerce Clause & Court Packing 1) 1932, the “New Deal” and growing Fed gov 2) SC rules against FDR & New Deal

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58 3.The Supreme Court & Dual Sovereignty I.“Dual” Sovereignty II ( ) A. Commerce Clause & Court Packing 1) 1932, the “New Deal” and growing Fed gov 2) SC rules against FDR & New Deal 3) FDR retaliates, SC submits

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63 3.The Supreme Court & Dual Sovereignty I.“Dual” Sovereignty II ( ) A. Commerce Clause & Court Packing 1) 1932, the “New Deal” and growing Fed gov 2) SC rules against FDR & New Deal 3) FDR retaliates, SC submits 4) 1995, SC begins to defend federalism again

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65 3.The Supreme Court & Dual Sovereignty I.“Dual” Sovereignty II ( ) II.Commerce Clause & Court Packing III.“Necessary & Proper”

66 3.The Supreme Court & Dual Sovereignty I.“Dual” Sovereignty II ( ) II.Commerce Clause & Court Packing III.“Necessary & Proper” A. Expands Federal scope at state expense

67 3.The Supreme Court & Dual Sovereignty I.“Dual” Sovereignty II ( ) II.Commerce Clause & Court Packing III.“Necessary & Proper” A. Expands Federal scope at state expense B. 1990s, SC pushes back

68 3.The Supreme Court & Dual Sovereignty I.“Dual” Sovereignty II ( ) II.Commerce Clause & Court Packing III.“Necessary & Proper” IV.State sovereign immunity – 11 th amendment

69 3.The Supreme Court & Dual Sovereignty I.“Dual” Sovereignty II ( ) II.Commerce Clause & Court Packing III.“Necessary & Proper” IV.State sovereign immunity – 11 th amendment A. Restricts feds, protects states

70 4.Cooperative Federalism

71 I.“Cooperative” Federalism: 1930s-1960s

72 4.Cooperative Federalism I.“Cooperative” Federalism: 1930s-1960s A. vs. dual federalism

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74 4.Cooperative Federalism I.“Cooperative” Federalism: 1930s-1960s A. vs. dual federalism B. Spending clause

75 4.Cooperative Federalism I.“Cooperative” Federalism: 1930s-1960s A. vs. dual federalism B. Spending clause 1) General vs specific welfare

76 4.Cooperative Federalism I.“Cooperative” Federalism: 1930s-1960s A. vs. dual federalism B. Spending clause 1) General vs specific welfare 2) New Deal Supreme Court expands fed power

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78 4.Cooperative Federalism I.“Cooperative” Federalism: 1930s-1960s A. vs. dual federalism B. Spending clause 1) General vs specific welfare 2) New Deal Supreme Court expands fed power a) “Congress decides what’s ‘general welfare’”

79 4.Cooperative Federalism I.“Cooperative” Federalism: 1930s-1960s A. vs. dual federalism B. Spending clause 1) General vs specific welfare 2) New Deal Supreme Court expands fed power a) “Congress decides what’s ‘general welfare’” b) Congress could attach any “reasonable” regulation

80 4.Cooperative Federalism I.“Cooperative” Federalism: 1930s-1960s A. vs. dual federalism B. Spending clause C. A Government of Shared Functions

81 4.Cooperative Federalism I.“Cooperative” Federalism: 1930s-1960s A. vs. dual federalism B. Spending clause C. A Government of Shared Functions 1) All levels government DO work together

82 4.Cooperative Federalism I.“Cooperative” Federalism: 1930s-1960s A. vs. dual federalism B. Spending clause C. A Government of Shared Functions 1) All levels government DO work together 2) All levels SHOULD work together because…

83 4.Cooperative Federalism I.“Cooperative” Federalism: 1930s-1960s A. vs. dual federalism B. Spending clause C. A Government of Shared Functions 1) All levels government DO work together 2) All levels SHOULD work together because… It’s democratic!

84 4.Cooperative Federalism I.“Cooperative” Federalism: 1930s-1960s A. vs. dual federalism B. Spending clause C. A Government of Shared Functions D – LBJ’s “Great Society” (like FDRs “New Deal”)

85 4.Cooperative Federalism I.“Cooperative” Federalism: 1930s-1960s A. vs. dual federalism B. Spending clause C. A Government of Shared Functions D – LBJ’s “Great Society” (like FDRs “New Deal”) 1) Intergovernmental grants

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88 4.Cooperative Federalism I.“Cooperative” Federalism: 1930s-1960s A. vs. dual federalism B. Spending clause C. A Government of Shared Functions D – LBJ’s “Great Society” (like FDRs “New Deal”) 1) Intergovernmental grants 2) “pork-barrel” or “earmarks”

89 5.Local Government

90 I.Local Government

91 5.Local Government I.Local Government A. Services more related to citizens

92 5.Local Government I.Local Government A. Services more related to citizens B. More stable expenditure (fig 3.4)

93 5.Local Government I.Local Government A. Services more related to citizens B. More stable expenditure (fig 3.4) C. History

94 5.Local Government I.Local Government II.Number/Type (figure 3.5) – why?

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96 5.Local Government I.Local Government II.Number/Type (figure 3.5) – why? III.Popularity of local government

97 5.Local Government I.Local Government II.Number/Type (figure 3.5) – why? III.Popularity of local government A. Citizens can exit local government (“vote with feet”) – drives down tax base until local changes its ways

98 5.Local Government I.Local Government II.Number/Type (figure 3.5) – why? III.Popularity of local government A. Citizens can exit local government (“vote with feet”) – drives down tax base until local changes its ways B. Super tax bases can allow some cities to establish programs than others can’t afford economically or politically

99 5.Local Government I.Local Government II.Number/Type (figure 3.5) – why? III.Popularity of local government IV.Limits on local government

100 5.Local Government I.Local Government II.Number/Type (figure 3.5) – why? III.Popularity of local government IV.Limits on local government A. Too much assistance overwhelms assistance; creates “need” (moral hazard)

101 5.Local Government I.Local Government II.Number/Type (figure 3.5) – why? III.Popularity of local government IV.Limits on local government A. Too much assistance overwhelms assistance B. Competition among localities

102 So where is federalism today? States or National government?

103 So where is federalism today? States or National government? Republicans and Democrats flip-flop according to issue

104 So where is federalism today? States or National government? Republicans and Democrats flip-flop according to issue On gay marriage, assisted suicide, medical drug use:

105 So where is federalism today? States or National government? Republicans and Democrats flip-flop according to issue On gay marriage, assisted suicide, medical drug use: Republicans look to federal; democrats look to states

106 So where is federalism today? States or National government? Republicans and Democrats flip-flop according to issue On gay marriage, assisted suicide, medical drug use: Republicans look to federal; democrats look to states On health care, gun control, and welfare:

107 So where is federalism today? States or National government? Republicans and Democrats flip-flop according to issue On gay marriage, assisted suicide, medical drug use: Republicans look to federal; democrats look to states On health care, gun control, and welfare: Republicans look to state, democrats look at federal

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