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Fundamental English Morphology For EFL Learners At the Intermediate Level Mr. Badi Chen SMVHS

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Presentation on theme: "Fundamental English Morphology For EFL Learners At the Intermediate Level Mr. Badi Chen SMVHS"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fundamental English Morphology For EFL Learners At the Intermediate Level Mr. Badi Chen SMVHS

2 Table of Contents Importance Basic Word Formation Rules Suffixes Prefixes Roots Further Reading

3 Importance of Learning English Word Formation Words are the Building Blocks of a Language

4 How many words will you need to meet the intermediate level? 4. Sally’s mother became very distressed when Sally said she was quitting school, and would work full-time in a restaurant. (A) silent (B) unhappy (C) obvious (D) guilty 5. Andrew is now working at a factory, but his dream is to possess a business run by himself. (A) allow (B) hit (C) depend (D) own 99 年統測英文

5 How many new words do you find in each of the following passages? Cacao beans ( from which chocolate is made ) were brought to Spain from Central America in the 16th century. The Indians of Central America had been making hot chocolate drinks for many years. They made their hot chocolate with water, not milk, and it was dark brown, spicy and bitter. At first, the Spanish people were not impressed with this strange drink. However, someone came up with the idea of adding sugar. As a result, drinking hot chocolate became popular in Spain, and quickly spread to England, France, Italy and beyond.

6 How many new words do you find in each of the following passages? Because cacao beans had to be shipped such a long distance, chocolate was an expensive drink and only the rich could afford it. The ordinary people generally drank beer, cheap wine or water. They probably wondered how this special chocolate drink tasted. As drinking chocolate became popular, chocolate houses grew up in England. Rich men spent hours in them, drinking chocolate while they played cards for money, read the newspapers and shared the latest gossip. Rich ladies did not generally go to the chocolate houses, but enjoyed their hot chocolate at home, usually for breakfast. 99 年統測英文閱讀測驗

7 How many words will you need to meet the intermediate level? 1. Chinese is a language with many _______ differences. People living in different areas often speak different dialects. (A) sociable (B) legendary (C) regional (D) superior 7. The water company inspects the pipelines and _____ the water supply regularly to ensure the safety of our drinking water. (A) exhibits (B) monitors (C) interprets (D) converts 99 年指考英文

8 How many new words do you find in each of the following passages? Coffee experts are willing to pay large sums of money for high-quality coffee beans. The high-end beans, such as Kona or Blue Mountain, are known to cost extraordinary sums of money. Then there is Kopi Lowak (translated as “Civet Coffee”), the world’s most expensive coffee, which sells for as much as US $50 per quarter-pound. This isn’t particularly surprising, given that approximately 500 pounds a year of Kopi Lowak constitute the entire world supply. What is surprising is why this particular coffee is so rare. In fact, it’s not the plants that are rare. It’s the civet droppings. That’s right, the civet droppings—the body waste of the palm civet. Coffee beans aren’t Kopi Lowak until they’ve been digested and come out in the body waste of the palm civet.

9 How many new words do you find in the following passages? Palm civets are tree-dwelling, raccoon-like little animals, native to Southeast Asia and the Indonesian islands. They also have a love for coffee cherries. According to Kopi Lowak suppliers, palm civets eat the fruit whole, but only digest the outer fruit, leaving the beans intact. While the beans are not destroyed, they undergo a transformation in the animal’s body. A chemical substance in the digestive system of the palm civet causes some changes to the beans to give them a unique flavor. However, this is not the only explanation why coffee beans retrieved from civet droppings have a special flavor all their own. Another possible reason is that palm civets have an unfailing instinct for picking the coffee cherries at the peak of their ripeness.

10 How many new words do you find in the following passages? Kopi Lowak is reported to have a character in taste unlike any other coffee, complex with caramel undertones and an earthy or gamey flavor. Currently, most of the world’s supply of Kopi Lowak is sold in Japan, though a few US markets are also starting to stock up on Kopi Lowak. 99 年指考英文閱讀測驗

11 How do you increase your English vocabulary? (A) Recite all the words from the senior high English textbooks (B) Recite all the words from A to Z in an English-to-Chinese dictionary (C) Read more English articles and learn the English words thematically (D) Study the English word formation rules

12 常見英語構詞法 (1) 詞綴 (affixation): disobey, kindness, friendly, befriend, exclude, include, 合併 (compounding) greenhouse, blackboard, background, airmail, aftershock, black tea 剪短 (clipping): laboratory—lab, mathematics—math, dormitory—dorm, vegetable—vege 混合 (blending): breakfast and lunch—brunch, motorist hotel—motel, vegeburger--?

13 常見英語構詞法 (2) 首字縮寫 (acronym): VIP—very important person, ICRT—International Community Radio Taipei, ASAP (as soon as possible) 重疊 (reduplication): ping pong, walkie talkie 外來語 (loan words): fiancée, tea, vuvuzela

14 Affixation conversationalist discover/uncover/ recover

15 Suffixes 詞尾 / Prefixes 詞首

16 Suffixes 表 ” 動作者 ” –(i)an: American, historian, musician, librarian, vegetarian, civilian, Italian, Asian, –er/or/ar (V-er): beggar, liar, inventor, competitor, employer teacher, trainer, examiner, driver, opener, waiter, server, dancer, –ist ( 科學 / 藝術專家 ): scientist, violinist, artist, dentist, pianist, novelist, chemist –ess ( 女性 ) waitress, hostess, lioness, actress, –ee ( 接收動作者 ): employee, interviewee, trainee, examinee, –ant/-ent: student, assistant, servant, accountant, participant, contestant

17 Suffixes 表名詞 (1) –ence/-ance( 特質 / 狀況 ): importance, ignorance, confidence, dependence, absence, –hood ( 身分 / 時期 / 集團 ): boyhood, childhood, manhood, neighborhood, fatherhood –(i)ty( 性質 / 狀態 ): activity, purity, reality, ability, stability, honesty, safety –tion/-sion( 行為結果 ): action, relation, permission, decision -ation( 行為結果 ): invitation, imagination, preparation, examination, –ment(V-ment 產物 / 結果 ): agreement, treatment, punishment, development, payment

18 Suffixes 表名詞 (2) –ness (adj-ness): kindness, goodness, carelessness, deafness, sadness, happiness –ship ( 身份 / 群體 ): friendship, sportsmanship, membership, ownership –ism ( 學說 / 主義 ) socialism, Buddhism, racism, heroism, terrorist, materialism -ory/-ery/-ary ( 場所 ) library, factory, dormitory, observatory, laboratory, bakery, nursery -ery/-ry ( 集合物 / 人 ) dictionary, scenery, vocabulary, jewelry, –logy ( 學科 / 理論 )biology, astrology, zoology, geology –ic/-ics (~ 學 / 術 ) music, logic, economics, mathematics, phonetics,

19 Suffixes 形容詞字尾 (1) –able/-ible ( 可以 ~ 的 ): movable, comfortable, eatable, washable, lovable, visible, horrible -al ( 相關的 ) medical, natural, personal, additional -en (~ 材質的 ): wooden, golden, woolen, silken –ful ( 滿 ~ 的 ): careful,, thoughtful, cheerful, hopeful, painful, -ful (~ 的量 ): handful, cupful, roomful, spoonful, mouthful, houseful –(i)ous( 有 ~ 特質的 ): dangerous, famous, jealous, courageous, anxious, glorious,

20 Suffixes 形容詞字尾 (2) -less ( 少 / 缺 ~ 的 ): hopeless, homeless, worthless, childless, tireless, priceless, lifeless -ish ( 帶有 ~ 的 / 呈 ~ 的 ) boyish, childish, womanish, greenish, youngish, tallish –ive: active, attractive, passive, relative, productive, creative -y (N-y 有 ~ 的 ) rainy, windy, dirty, hairy, smelly, bloody, sleepy, tasty, angry -ly (N-ly) friendly, heavenly, manly, timely, monthly, yearly -ing ( 令人 ~ 的 ) shocking, energy-saving, time- consuming, developing -ed ( 已 / 被 / 感到 ~ 的 ) developed, gifted, aged, exhausted, confused, fixed

21 Suffixes 動詞 / 副詞字尾 動詞字尾 –en( 變 ~ N-en): darken, sweeten, shorten, soften, lengthen,, strengthen, heighten –(i)fy( 使 ~ 化 ): simplify, classify, magnify, beautify, purify, satisfy, -ize ( 使成為 ~/ 化 ) realize, apologize, modernize, urbanize, socialize, computerize, memorize 副詞字尾 : –ly (adj-ly): badly, warmly, happily, largely, hardly -wise/-ward ( 方式 / 方向 ): likewise, otherwise, clockwise, backward, forward, upward, -wide ( 遍及 ~ 的 ) citywide, islandwide, worldwide, nationwide, –holic (~ 狂 / 成癮者 ) bookholic, alcoholic, cyberholic, foodholic, tellyholic, workholic

22 Prefix 數目 / 大小相關字首 semi-( 一半 ) semicircle, semiconductor, semiofficial, semicolon uni-( 單一 ) unity, union, unicorn, universe, uniform, unicycle, bi-( 雙 / 兩倍 ) bilingual, biweekly, bicycle, bicolored, tri- ( 三 / 三倍 ) triple, triangle, tricycle, deca- ( 十 ) decade multi-( 許多 ) multiple, multicolored, multicultural, multinational, multimedia, re- (again) review, rewrite, reassure, reborn, rebuild, recover, restore, repay, recycle

23 Prefix 強調 extra- ( 額外的, 超越的 ) extra-cheap, extra-large, extra-special super- ( 超過 ) superhero, supercool, supersonic, supervise, superhighway, supernatural, sur- (over, beyond) surreal, survive, surround, tele-( 遠距 ) television, telephone, telescope, telepathy, teleshopping, telecourse mega- ( 超大 ) mega-structure, micro-( 細小的 ) microphone, microscope, microwave, micromini mini- (short, small) minibike, minibus, minicam, miniskirt,

24 Prefix 方位相關字首 (1) pre-(before) predict, prepare, prearrange, preview, prehistory, preheat, preschool, prewar, post-(after) postmodern, postwar prisoner, postindustrial, fore-( 之前, 前面 ) forerunner, forefather, foretell, foreword, ex- ( 向外 out) export, express, exclude, explore ex- (former) ex-wife, ex-teacher, ex-president, ex- boyfriend in-/im- ( 增加 / 向內 ) increase, input, insert, inject, insight, import, immigrate, implant, out- ( 向外 / 更多 outside/more than) output, outsider, outdoor, outlive, outsell, inter- ( 之間 between, among) interaction, international, interstate, interchange

25 Prefix 方位相關字首 (2) trans- ( 跨越 across) transport, transplant, transform, per- ( 穿越 through) perspective, permit up-( 向上 ) upgrade, update, upside, upstream, uptown, upward, over-( 之上 / 超過 ) overhead, overpass, overnight, overestimate, overwork, oversleep, overhear under- ( 之下 ) underground, underline, underwear, undergraduate, underweight, sub- ( 之下 below, lower) subway, submarine, subzero, subtitle, suburban, subtropical

26 Prefix 否定相關字首 (1) il-/ir-(not 表否定 ) illegal, illogical, irregular, irreligious, irrational, im- (not) impossible, immature, immortal, imperfect, impatient, improper in- (not) incorrect, independent, inaccurate, inappropriate, incomplete, indirect un-( 表否定 ) unable, unhealthy, unknown, unclean, unhappy, unemployment, uncover, unpack

27 Prefix 否定相關字首 (2) dis-( 不 ) dislike, disagree, disorder, discount, dishonest, discover, disclose, counter- ( 相對 ) counterclockwise, counterpart mis- ( 錯誤 / 壞 ) misunderstand, mistake, misfortune, mischief, miscopy, misuse, mistreat non-( 無 / 非 ) non-smoker, non-drinker, nonalcoholic, nonfat, nonstick, nonstop anti-( 反抗 ) antibody, anti-nuclear, anti-war, anti- smoking

28 Prefix 共同 / 一起相關字首 con-/com-/col-/cor- ( 共同 / 一起 ) computable, commemorate, compress, concord, concourse, contest, collide, collapse, correspond co- coauthor, cooperate, coworker, coeducation

29 Prefix 動詞及其他字首 de-( 去除 / 減少 ) decrease, destruct, dehydrate, degrade, defrost, devalue, decode, en- ( 使 ~/ 放入 ) enable, enrich, enlarge, encourage, endanger, entrust, enroll, encase bio-( 生命 ) biology, biotechnology, biosphere, biography e- ( 電子化的 ) e-book, e-business, e-mail, e- zine, e-ticket

30 Roots 字根

31 Roots 字根 (1) act (to act) activity, interact, react, transact aud (to hear) audience, audio ceive, cept (to take) receive, perceive clud (to shut) conclude, exclude, include dic, dict (to say) dictionary, contradict form (to form) format, perform, transform gram, graph (to write) biography, geography, grammar, jac, ject (to throw) inject, object, project, reject, subject log (to speak) dialogue, logic

32 Roots 字根 (2) mar, mari (sea) marine, maritime, submarine phon (sound) earphone, headphone, symphony, microphone, port (carry) import, export, transport, support, report press (to press) depress, express, impress, suppress rect (right, straight) rectangle, correct, direct, erect scend (to climb) ascend, descend, transcend spec, spect (to see) aspect, inspect, perspective, prospect, struc, struct (to put together, to build) construct, destruction, instruct vid, vis (to see) video, visit, visual, supervise, revise

33 Further Reading 小川芳男, 前田健三. 1992. 增進英語單字力 400 個字 首、字根、字尾. 台北縣 : 迪藤出版. 李文玲編. 2010. 字首字尾解碼. 台北市 : 三民書局.

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