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©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group 1
Using the Framework for Teaching to Enhance Professional Practice: Look in, look for, look out & connect the dots Wilmington Area School District Leadership Team Session Tuesday, November 16, :00 am – 1:00 pm 2
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Look in… 3
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Reflection on Your Experiences Think about the teacher supervision, observation, evaluation processes that you experienced. What was done? How was it done? When was it done? What worked? What didn’t work? What obstacles hindered you? Pare down your thoughts. Share your experiences. 4
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Do you, as a Leadership Team, share a common definition of “good, effective teaching?” 5
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Do you, as a Leadership Team, share a common listing, catalog of “look fors?” 6
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Do you, as a Leadership Team, require teachers to document their own evidence of effective teaching? 7
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Changing the Paradigm from Teaching FROM TEACHING (inputs/actions of teacher) LEARNING THEORY Teacher-centered; fill the vessel; students are “blank slates”; competitive environment; assessment is separate from teaching PRODUCTIVITYDefined hours of instruction; teaching within classroom NATURE OF ROLES Teacher & students isolated; students classified, sorted, labeled; any expert can teach content MISSION & PURPOSE Deliver knowledge & skills to students CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS Teacher inputs, behaviors, processes, activities STRUCTURESTime-constrained; time is constant-learning varies; time in equals success; cover material; finish course 8
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group to Learning… TO LEARNING (outcomes/achievement for student) LEARNING THEORY Student-centered, constructivist; active, interactive learning; collaboration; assessment is interwoven with teaching PRODUCTIVITYLearning outcomes; results can be achieved anywhere NATURE OF ROLES Students empowered to learn; treated as thinkers; group work; team atmosphere; collaboration & cooperation MISSION & PURPOSE Produce student learning through discovery & construction of knowledge; authentic experiences CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS Student outcomes & achievement; data-based rubric for successful learning; results STRUCTURESIntegrated learning; cross disciplines; relevant; learning is constant-time varies 9
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Look for… 10
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group 11
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group 12 Special Education Response to Instruction & Intervention (RtII) Resiliency Student Assistance Program Summative Formative Diagnostic Benchmark
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Formative supervision & summative evaluation of teachers are integral to SAS. All aspects of SAS can be incorporated into classroom observations & teacher supervision. 13
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Which element has the greatest influence on student learning? Quality curriculum…the content Quality teaching…the teacher Adequate resources…the materials 14
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Years of research have made it clear that good teaching, effective instruction, matters… a lot. It Matters! 15
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group 16
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Math 17
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Impact of Teacher Effectiveness “The difference between a good (effective) teacher & a bad (ineffective) teacher can be a full level of achievement in a single school year.” Source: Eric A. Hanushek. “The Trade-Off Between Child Quantity & Quality,” Journal of Political Economy,
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group 19 Achieving Teachers
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Teacher Effectiveness & Student Learning Math score differences: 4 th to 6 th grade + 3 Effective teachers in sequence result in 59% to 76% rise in student achievement - 3 Ineffective teachers in sequence result in 60% to 27% decline in student achievement. - J. Archer, Education Week, February 18,
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Good Teachers Matter Now, More than Ever States, districts & schools are looking for new strategies to drive improvement & close gaps. Research confirms that effective teachers are hugely important; the single biggest factor in student learning. If we can get effective teachers to students who need them, we can make a difference. 21
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group “…having a high quality teacher throughout elementary school can substantially offset or even eliminate the disadvantage of low socio-economic background.” Source: Steven G. Rivkin, Eric A. Hanushek, & John F. Kain, Teachers, Schools & Academic Achievement, University of Texas-Dallas Schools Project, Good Teachers Matter Now, More than Ever 22
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Low-achievers are more likely to be assigned ineffective teachers student class assignments by effectiveness of teachers MATHEMATICS number of students Source: Babu & Mendro, Teacher Accountability: HLM-Based Teacher Effectiveness Indices in the Investigation of Teacher Effects on Student Achievement in a State Assessment Program, Dallas TX public schools, AERA,
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Low-achievers become high achievers with effective teachers Pass rates of previous low-achieving students according to the effectiveness of their teachers MATHEMATICS percent passing Source: Babu & Mendro, Teacher Accountability: HLM-Based Teacher Effectiveness Indices in the Investigation of Teacher Effects on Student Achievement in a State Assessment Program, Dallas TX public schools, AERA,
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Quality Teaching = Student Learning “Research tells us what educators have long known: teaching quality is the essential component to raising student achievement.” “Ultimately, the success of NCLB’s efforts to place a highly qualified teacher in every classroom falls squarely on local districts…” Emerick, Hirsch, & Berry. “Does highly qualified mean high-quality?” ASCD InfoBrief, November, 2004,
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Today’s Objectives EXPLAIN WHY supervision & evaluation are critical responsibilities of principals a.k.a. instructional leaders/master teachers DISCUSS WHAT principals need to know & be able to do to accomplish these responsibilities DESCRIBE HOW principals can improve present practice 26
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Today’s Objectives RECOGNIZE the 4 Domains, 22 Components & 76 Elements of the Framework EXPLAIN the correlation between Danielson’s Framework & PDE 428 DESCRIBE characteristics of effective instruction COMPARE & CONTRAST evidence & opinion 27
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Charlotte Danielson says “Teachers make hundreds of nontrivial decisions daily often based on little or incomplete information.” “Teaching is physically, emotionally & intellectually demanding.” “Teaching is complex. It is useful to organize the tasks of teaching into a meaningful framework.” 28
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group “By providing an agreed-upon framework for excellence, a framework for professional practice serves to structure conversations among educators about exemplary practice. A uniform framework allows those conversations to guide novices as well as to enhance the performance of veterans.” Charlotte Danielson says 29
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group 4 Domains (PDE Categories) of Teaching Responsibility 22 Components (PDE Aspects) & 76 Elements (PDE Descriptors/Indicators) Domain 1: Planning, Preparation & Assessment –6 Components (PDE Aspects) 23 Elements (PDE Descriptors/Indicators) Domain 2: The Classroom Environment –5 Components (PDE Aspects) 15 Elements (PDE Descriptors/Indicators) Domain 3: Instruction –5 Components (PDE Aspects) 18 Elements (PDE Descriptors/Indicators) Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities –6 Components (PDE Aspects) 20 Elements (PDE Descriptors/Indicators) 30
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group The Framework for Teaching… 4 Domains and Components Domain 3: Instruction 3a.Communicating with Students 3b.Using Questioning & Discussion Techniques 3c.Engaging Students in Learning 3d.Using Assessments in Instruction 3e.Demonstrating Flexibility & Responsiveness Domain 1: Planning & Preparation 1a.Demonstrating Knowledge of Content & Pedagogy 1b.Demonstrating Knowledge of Students 1c.Selecting Instructional Goals 1d.Demonstrating Knowledge of Resources 1e.Designing Coherent Instruction 1f. Designing Student Assessments Domain 2: The Classroom Environment 2a.Creating an Environment of Respect & Rapport 2b.Establishing a Culture for Learning 2c.Managing Classroom Procedures 2d.Managing Student Behavior 2e.Organizing Physical Space Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities 4a.Reflecting on Teaching 4b.Maintaining Accurate Records 4c.Communicating with Families 4d.Participating in a Professional Community 4e.Growing & Developing Professionally 4f. Showing Professionalism 31
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Common Themes of Framework Equity Cultural sensitivity High expectations Developmental appropriateness Accommodating students with special needs Appropriate use of technology 32
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Important Assumptions Underlying the Framework Grounded in research Reflects a new paradigm for teaching & learning; constructivist approach Focuses on purposeful, deliberate nature of teaching; not intuition alone Creates a community of learners’ Recognizes role of appropriateness in decision making Asserts that teaching is a profession 33
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Purposes of the Framework Defines levels of expertise Identifies procedures Guarantees highest standards Conveys professionalism Promotes accountability Organizes the complexities of teaching Guides professional conversation 34
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Tradition of Frameworks Based on Madeline Hunter’s research State performance assessment systems Classroom performance assessments PRAXIS Interstate New Teacher Assessment & Support Consortium (INTASC) National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) Parallel developments in state student assessments 35
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Challenges of the Framework Requires validity; solid research base Demands reliability; consistency in comparable inter-rater judgments Costs money, time, energy, training 36
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Features of the Framework Comprehensive Public Generic Not a checklist of specific teaching behaviors Not an endorsement of a particular teaching style Dependent on context Can be demonstrated in diverse ways 37
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Benefits of Any Framework for Teaching Provides common vocabulary, definitions, language Develops shared understandings of concepts Encourages self-assessment & meaningful introspection Enables reflection & insight on practice Structures professional conversation among colleagues 38
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Uses for the Framework Provides road map for novices Guides experienced professionals Structures & focuses improvement efforts Communicates with the larger community 39
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group 40 Training, Supervision of Student Teachers Mentoring, Induction of New Teachers Recruitment, Interviewing, Hiring teachers Structuring Professional Development Plan Reflective Practice & Self- Assessment Practical Ways to Use the Framework Formative Supervision & Summative Evaluation Personal Reflection and Self-assessment
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group The Framework for Teaching… Domains and Components Domain 3: Instruction 3a.Communicating with Students 3b.Using Questioning & Discussion Techniques 3c.Engaging Students in Learning 3d.Using Assessments in Instruction 3e.Demonstrating Flexibility & Responsiveness Domain 1: Planning & Preparation 1a.Demonstrating Knowledge of Content & Pedagogy 1b.Demonstrating Knowledge of Students 1c.Selecting Instructional Goals 1d.Demonstrating Knowledge of Resources 1e.Designing Coherent Instruction 1f. Designing Student Assessments Domain 2: The Classroom Environment 2a.Creating an Environment of Respect & Rapport 2b.Establishing a Culture for Learning 2c.Managing Classroom Procedures 2d.Managing Student Behavior 2e.Organizing Physical Space Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities 4a.Reflecting on Teaching 4b.Maintaining Accurate Records 4c.Communicating with Families 4d.Participating in a Professional Community 4e.Growing & Developing Professionally 4f. Showing Professionalism 41
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group “Teachers who excel in Domain 1 design instruction that reflects an understanding of content & important concepts & principles within that content. Their design is coherent in its approach to topics, includes sound assessment methods & is appropriate to a range of students in the class.” Charlotte Danielson says 42
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Domain 1: Planning & Preparation Components Demonstrating Knowledge of Content & Pedagogy Demonstrating Knowledge of Students Selecting Instructional Goals Demonstrating Knowledge of Resources Designing Coherent Instruction Designing Student Assessments 43
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Domain 1: 44
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group “Teachers who excel in Domain 2 consider their students as real people, with interests, concerns & intellectual potential. In return, the students regard them as concerned & caring adults & entrust the teachers with their futures. When students remember their teachers years later, it is often for the teacher’s skills in Domain 2.” Charlotte Danielson says 45
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Domain 2: The Classroom Environment Components Creating an Environment of Respect & Rapport Establishing a Culture for Learning Managing Classroom Procedures Managing Student Behavior Organizing Physical Space 46
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Domain 2: 47
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group “Teachers who excel in Domain 3 create an atmosphere of excitement about the importance of learning & the significance of the content. They care deeply about their subject & invite students to share the journey of learning about it. Students are engaged in meaningful work… it is real & significant & it is important to students as well as teachers.” Charlotte Danielson says 48
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Domain 3: Instruction Components Communicating with Students Using Questioning & Discussion Techniques Engaging Students in Learning Using Assessment in Instruction Demonstrating Flexibility & Responsiveness 49
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Domain 3: 50
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group “Teachers who excel in Domain 4 Are highly regarded by colleagues & parents. They can be depended on to serve students’ interests & the larger community, & they are active in their professional organizations. They go beyond the technical requirements of their jobs & contribute to the general well-being of the institutions of which they are a part.” Charlotte Danielson says 51
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities Components Reflecting on Teaching Maintaining Accurate Records Communicating with Families Participating in a Professional Community Growing & Developing Professionally Showing Professionalism 52
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Domain 4: 53
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group What’s the bottom line? Quality curriculum Quality resources Quality teaching 54
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Quality Education Requires… Quality Teaching –Standards Aligned System (SAS) –Equitable opportunity for successful learning Quality Leadership –Leadership for results –Data-driven culture Artful Use of Infrastructure –Results-focused planning –Targeted assistance Continuous Learning Ethic –Professional Learning Communities –Professional Accountability 55 PA Inspired Leadership (PIL) National Institute for School Leadership (NISL) PDE Expectations for Professional Education for School and System Leaders
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Look out… 56
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Supervision vs. Evaluation DIMENSION SUPERVISION InFormative EVALUATION Summative Final, Autopsy Purpose Promote teacher growthJudge competency; quality assurance Rationale Learn knowledge & skillsProtect children from harm; legal responsibility Scope Focus on specificsInclude non-instructional areas Relationship Collegial partnersHierarchical, distant Expertise Share differing expertiseExpertise, certification Data Focus Differentiated, personalizedStandardized, due process Teacher Perspective Experiment with new strategies with support One shot performance for critic 57
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Purposes of Teacher Evaluation Professional Learning = inFormative - Reflection on practice - Self-assessment & self-directed ongoing inquiry - Collaboration & conversation - A community of learners - Improvement of teaching 58 Informative Data
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Purposes of Teacher Evaluation Performance Assessment = Summ(summary, final)ative - Screens out unqualified personnel - Provides evidence to withstand professional & legal scrutiny - Aids in terminating incompetent and/or unproductive personnel - Protects children from harm - Maintains certification integrity; quality assurance 59 Autopsy Data
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Past Practice: A Flawed System Outdated, limited, unclear evaluative criteria Few shared beliefs about good teaching Limited evaluator training/inconsistency Based only on classroom observation Hierarchical, one-way communication Same procedures for novices & experienced professionals & varied teaching contexts Negative culture surrounding evaluation 60
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Comparison of the Former & Current Forms DEBE 5501 Initiated in Categories Personality Preparation Technique Pupil Reaction PDE 426, 427,428 Initiated Categories Planning & Preparation Classroom Environment Instructional Delivery Professionalism years!
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Hallmarks of a Genuine Profession Knowledge base grounded in research Knowledge shared by a community of professionals Professional knowledge is implemented at the intersection of theory & practice Professionals exercise autonomy & judgment Practice is influenced by both technical & moral judgment. 62
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Blueprint for Teacher Evaluation Clear definition of the WHAT of teaching Instruments & procedures that provide evidence of the HOW of teaching Trained evaluators who can make consistent judgments based on OBJECTIVE EVIDENCE Process for teachers to understand the evaluative criteria for EFFECTIVE teaching Process for making final judgment 63
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group An Effective Teacher Evaluation Program Has evaluative criteria for effective teaching based on a validated framework that is linked to student learning/outcomes Includes formative & summative goals Includes professional growth activities Includes self-assessment & reflection on practice 64
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group An Effective Teacher Evaluation Program Differentiates among levels of experience & the context for instruction Includes teaching activities both inside & outside of the classroom Defines performance levels/standards How good is good enough? 65
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group An Effective Teacher Evaluation Program Requires performance levels to be justified by multiple sources of evidence gathered over time Primary reliance is on evidence that already exists Evidence includes what teachers do (inputs) & what learners achieve (outputs) Promotes shared responsibility for providing evidence by teachers & administrators 66
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group An Effective Teacher Evaluation Program Has validity & reliability through training of teachers & administrators Meets legal & due process requirements Has realistic timelines & workloads Has communication & feedback processes for collaborative development & refinement of the program 67
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Teacher Evaluation System 1. What? Evaluative Criteria Evidence Levels of Performance Standard Setting 2. How? Procedures Instruments Personnel Timelines Due Process 3. Why? Professional Growth & Development for Teachers & Administrators 68
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Collecting Data vs. Making Judgments 69 Making Judgments Opinions, Beliefs, Conclusions about Domains, Components, Elements Collecting & Receiving Evidence about Domains, Components, Elements Interpretation Qualitative Input & Output Data Quantitative Input & Output Data
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Collecting Data vs. Making Judgments 70 Making Judgments Opinions, Beliefs, Conclusions about Domains, Components, Elements Collecting & Receiving Evidence about Domains, Components, Elements Interpretation Qualitative Input & Output Data Quantitative Input & Output Data
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group New Role for Principal: LSI – Learning Scene Investigator –Accurate & unbiased –Relevant to the specific Domain, Component, Element –Representative of the total classroom experience, not just the negative or the positive; must be interpreted 71
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group What Constitutes Evidence? –Actions done by the teacher or the students –Statements or questions made by the teacher or students –Physical appearance of the classroom environment 72
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Evidence or Opinion: How do you know? Evidence: - facts (Desks were arranged in a circle.) - directly observable (Teacher said/did. Student said/did.) - documents, artifacts (Lesson plans, curriculum, tests) Opinion: - interpretations (Students were interested.) - judgments (Content was too challenging.) - conclusions (Teacher was not prepared.) 73
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group LSI: LEARNING SCENE INVESTIGATOR’S CODE No interpretation or conclusion should be made, stated or written unless it is accompanied by factual*, objective examples*, anecdotes*, illustrations*, documentation or descriptions.* * Preferably designed, developed, gathered, organized and presented by the teacher to the principal! 74
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Principal a.k.a. L.S.I. At Work… 75
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Potential Data Sources for Evidence-Based Evaluation Observations of practice (Formal/Informal) Conferences Teacher self-assessment Teacher-made artifacts Student artifacts and student completed work Student learning data, test scores Professional growth plans, goals & progress Student input Parent input 76
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group PDE Forms: Evidence Lesson/Unit Plans Resources/Materials/Technology Assessment Materials Info About Students Student/Teacher Interviews Classroom Observations/Informal Visits Resource Documents Visual Technology Student Assignment Sheets Student Work Written Documentation Other? 77
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Today’s Objectives EXPLAIN WHY supervision & evaluation are critical responsibilities of principals a.k.a. instructional leaders/master teachers DISCUSS WHAT principals need to know & be able to do to accomplish these responsibilities DESCRIBE HOW principals can fulfill these responsibilities effectively 78
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Today’s Objectives RECOGNIZE the 4 Domains, 22 Components & 76 Elements of the Framework EXPLAIN the correlation between Danielson’s Framework & PDE 428 DESCRIBE characteristics of effective instruction COMPARE & CONTRAST evidence & opinion 79
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Principals’ Dream…or Nightmare? 80
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group 81
©2005 Cardinal Consulting Group Paula A. Calabrese, Ph.D. Cardinal Consulting Group, Inc. Connecting People, Resources and Results 631 Fifth Street Oakmont PA Website: Wiki: Blog: Paula.A.Calabrese Paula A. Calabrese Consulting Group, Inc. paula calabrese 82
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The Principalship: Vision to Action Fred C. Lunenberg Beverly J. Irby.
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These slides are meant to provide information before the meeting occurs. This powerpoint presentation, as it exists here, will not be used at the meeting.
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