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Oracle Security Mary Ann Davidson Director, Security Product Management Server Technologies.

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Presentation on theme: "Oracle Security Mary Ann Davidson Director, Security Product Management Server Technologies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Oracle Security Mary Ann Davidson Director, Security Product Management Server Technologies

2 2 Agenda Internet Security Issues Oracle Database Security Oracle Advanced Security Oracle Military Security Audit and Assurance Summary

3 Internet Security Issues (1 of 2) Privacy of Communications Sensitive Data Storage Granular Access Control Know your Users Is an order read or modified in transit? Is your credit card # stored in clear? Can a customer see only her own order? Network encryption Encryption of stored data Virtual Private Database Who is accessing the data from the web? Strong authentication

4 4 Internet Security Issues (2 of 2) Scalability Ease of Use Flexibility Can you support 100,000s of users? Can you support different security needs for employees & customers? Directory integration Is it easy to use for users & administrators? Directory integration Flexible configurations

5 5 Agenda Internet Security Issues Oracle Database Security Oracle Advanced Security Oracle Military Security Audit and Assurance Summary

6 6 Database Security Basics Oracle8i Standard Edition and Enterprise Edition basic security features – password-based authentication (pre-Oracle7) – password management (Oracle8.0) – table and/or view-based security (Oracle7) l content- and context-based security – stored procedures (Oracle7) l business logic-based security – system and object privileges (Oracle 7) – roles (Oracle7) – granular audit options (Oracle7) – proxy authentication (Oracle8i) – selective data encryption (DES and triple DES) (Oracle8i)

7 7 Database Security Extras Oracle8i Enterprise Edition adds – row-based, fine-grained security (Virtual Private Database) Oracle Advanced Security option to Enterprise Edition adds – network encryption (all protocols into the database) – strong authentication (e.g. tokens, smart cards) – PKI-based authentication – centralized user management Oracle Military Security option to Enterprise Edition adds – label-based access control

8 8 e-business problem: Data-driven Security Needed E-commerce demands data-driven, user-based security – Customers must see their own orders only Cost of ownership – Build security in one place, not many – Web-hosting: Only invest in one deployment, not multiple expensive subnets Application-based security is insecure! – Ad hoc query problem: bypass the application and there is no security!

9 9 e-business problem: Security Policy Needs Merchants – Customers can see their own orders only Banks – Online banking customers can access their own accounts only Government – Benefits recipients can see their own Social Security information only

10 10 The solution : Virtual Private Database Users only see data that they have access to – Conditions can differ by users Data access is managed at the database level – Fine-Grained Access Control: Enforced at server – Application Context: Determines access control condition SELECT * FROM ORDERS; SELECT * FROM ORDERS; Sales Rep Customer Sales rep sees orders for his own customers only Customer sees only their own orders ORDERS

11 11 Virtual Private Database Associate security policies (implemented by functions) with tables or views Server automatically enforces security policies (no matter how data is accessed) Application context provides flexible access control definition Non-bypassable security eliminates the need of using many views to implement security SELECT * FROM ORDERS; SELECT * FROM ORDERS; ORDERS SELECT * FROM ORDERS; SELECT * FROM ORDERS;

12 12 Virtual Private Database Benefits to customers Works in 2-tier or 3-tier systems Highly scalable for Internet applications – Rewritten queries are fully optimized and can be shared – e.g. 1 SQL statement executes differently for 50,000 users Application context provides flexibility – Each application can have its own ‘security attributes’ (e.g. employee number, country code, position, etc.) – Built-in security attributes for IP address, username, DN from certificate, etc. to use for access control

13 13 Virtual Private Database Benefits to customers Lower cost of ownership – Build security once, in the data server – Certify core security code, not multiple applications Remove ‘application security problem’ – Enforce same security, no matter how user accesses data Hosting opportunities – Host multiple companies’ data in same database, instead of in different subnets – OracleSalesOnline.com (7,000 customers, 100,000 users)

14 14 e-business problem: Storing Sensitive Information Many businesses store sensitive financial and personal information in databases – credit card numbers – social security numbers Access control the first line of defense – does not protect against break-ins from operating system hacks

15 15 The solution : Stored Data Encryption Oracle8i has a simple encrypt/decrypt interface ( DBMS_OBFUSCATION_TOOLKIT) – DES (8.1.6) – Triple DES (2-key and 3-key) (8.1.7) – MD5 cryptographic checksum Application must provide key generation, key management, recovery – Encryption keys must be stored somewhere (e.g., in a database file, on the OS) Not difficult to provide secure encrypted data storage

16 16 e-business Problem: Security Challenges of Middle-Tiers Who is the real user? Does middle tier have too much privilege? Can I keep users from accessing data directly? How/who do I audit? Can I/should I re-authenticate the client? Application Server or TP Monitor Database Client A Client A, B, or C? Client B Client C

17 17 The solution: Proxy Authentication Who is the real user? – Pass through identity of real user to data server Does middle tier have too much privilege? – Limit privilege of middle tier to connect as certain users only, using certain roles only Can I keep the user from directly accessing data? – Yes, using VPD (“Did user connect through APPSERVER? If not, no data access!”) How to audit? – Audit actions “on behalf of” real user Can I/should I re-authenticate the client? – Not possible for SSL, optional password-based reauthentication

18 18 Proxy Authentication ( plus VPD ) Oracle8i 1. User authenticates to middle tier 2. Middle tier proxies user identity to database User A User B User C User F User D User E User A User B User C User D User E User F 3. VPD limits access to data (optionally) Application Server

19 19 Proxy Authentication Benefits to customers Limited trust model – No more super-privileged middle tiers Scalability – Supports “lightweight” user sessions – No network overhead from re-authenticating client Accountability – Preserves identity of real user – Audit actions taken “on behalf of” user

20 20 Agenda Internet Security Issues Oracle Database Security Oracle Advanced Security Oracle Military Security Audit and Assurance Summary

21 21 1. Data Theft I see my competitor ordering from XYZ corp. e-business Problem : Threats to Networks and the Internet x 2. Data Modification or Replay $500 deposit becomes $50,000, or it is sent 100 times x 3. Data Disruption Packets can be stolen -- Order never arrives

22 22 The Solution: Oracle Advanced Security Encrypts all communications with the database – From clients – From middle tiers Secures all protocols into the database – Net8 l Native encryption l Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) – IIOP l SSL – Thin JDBC Clients l 100% Java version of Oracle Advanced Security

23 23 Oracle Advanced Security Encryption ASO uses industry-standard algorithms to encrypt communications with Oracle8i – RSA RC4 (40-, 56-, and 128-bit keys) – DES (40-, 56-bit) and 3DES – Diffie-Hellman key exchange Strength of cryptosystem depends on key management – Automatic, eliminating administrative issues associated with encryption Now Available Worldwide

24 24 Oracle Advanced Security Data Integrity Oracle Advanced Security includes a sequenced, cryptographic checksum with every packet before it is sent – MD5 – SHA-1 Automatically detects –Modifications –Replays of packets –Missing packets Violations terminate the operation in progress and are logged in server log files

25 25 e-business Problem : Knowing Your Users Users have too many passwords – they write them down – they make them easy to guess – they use the same password in multiple locations Higher value applications require stronger authentication

26 26 The Solution : Strong Authentication, Single Sign- On Oracle Advanced Security offers strong authentication through – Token cards (SecurID) – Biometrics (Identix) – RADIUS (supports multiple smart cards, fingerprints, etc.) – PKI l X.509v3 certificates in Oracle Wallets l Entrust PKI (8.1.7) Oracle Advanced Security supports single sign-on through – Kerberos – DCE – PKI

27 27 e-business Problem : Too Many User Accounts Application Server or TP Monitor User A User B User C Name, Address, Mailstop HR Database Mail Database Name, Address, Mailstop Connect C/pwdc Connect B/pwdb Connect A/pwda Connect C/pwdc Connect B/pwdb Connect A/pwda

28 28 The Solution : Enterprise User Management Oracle Internet Directory User A User B User C HR Database Mail Database Name, Address, Mailstop... Connect /

29 29 Enterprise User Management User management in LDAP-based directory – User definition – User authorizations (database roles) – Multiple enterprise users can connect to/share the same database schema l No need to create users in each database user accesses! SSL client authentication and single sign-on Run-time use of Oracle Internet Directory – LDAPv3 compliant directory service – Leverages high scalability, reliability and security of Oracle8 i

30 30 Enterprise User Management Benefits to customers Stronger security – SSL-based authentication and encryption Lower cost of ownership – Centralized user administration – Single enterprise user definition – Single sign-on over SSL

31 31 Oracle Advanced Security The value-added Internet security bundle for Oracle8i Network Security – Encryption (Net8 Native, SSL, Java) – Strong Authentication (3rd Party Support) – Single Sign-On (3rd Party, Entrust, PKI) Enterprise User Security – Enterprise User Management – GUI Tools – Directory Integration

32 32 Agenda Internet Security Issues Oracle Database Security Oracle Advanced Security Oracle Military Security Audit and Assurance Summary

33 33 e-business Problem : Labeled Data Access Most organizations explicitly or implicitly label data – “Company Confidential,” “Releaseable under CDA” – How to enforce security by label? Privacy a huge consumer concern – How to “OPT OUT” easily? – How to “OPT IN” easily?

34 34 The Solution : Oracle Military Security Mediation of data access based on: – what labels user is able to access – label of the data – label authorizations (e.g. ability to change the label) Markets – Governments - for sensitive but unclassified data (e.g. Top Secret: Alpha Project) – Healthcare (Patient/Doctor) – Hosting (Company A only, Partner Releaseable) Built on VPD

35 Labels Row Label User Label Scott Confidential : Financial : Org 401 Unclassified Sensitive Confidential Top Secret : Financial : Nuclear : Financial : Personnel : Financial : Pipeline : Org 401 : Org 402 : HR : Org 401 : Denver Data Rows Levels Compartments Groups

36 Label Components Confidential Financial, Strategic US, UK, COALITION One indication of the labeled data’s ordered sensitivity ranking Zero or more optional categories associated with the labeled data Zero or more optional identifiers of organizations owning or accessing the data. Level Compartments Groups Component Description Examples Confidential : Financial : Chicago Levels Compartments Groups

37 37 Oracle Military Security Benefits to customers Provides VPD out-of-the-box – no programming required Extends VPD to include label-based access Runs on standard commercial operating systems Enables data privacy by default – labels stay with data – automatic security enforcement based on label (e.g. OPT OUT)

38 38 Agenda Internet Security Issues Oracle Database Security Oracle Advanced Security Oracle Military Security Audit and Assurance Summary

39 39 Auditing Basics Over 180 configurable audit options in the server Audit trail location options – Database, where it can be analyzed via SQL – Operating System, where it can be consolidated with OS audit records Audit records include – username (e.g. JSMITH) – session and terminal identifier (e.g ) – name of object accessed (e.g. EMPLOYEES) – operation performed/attempted (e.g. SELECT) – completion code – date and timestamp

40 40 Audit Details Audit option granularity (examples) – by user (e.g. JANE) – by privilege use (e.g. use of SELECT) – by object accessed (e.g. SALARY table) – by session/by access – WHEN SUCCESSFUL/WHEN NOT SUCCESSFUL SYSDBA and SYSOPER audit records – startup and shutdown of database – connection AS SYDBA or AS SYSOPER audited to the OS record – no audit of actions taken as SYS

41 41 Extensible Auditing Database triggers (INSERT, UPDATE) can provide additional granularity – e.g. capture old and new data values when records are updated and insert into custom history table Database event triggers can further extend audit – e.g. create security context ON LOGON

42 42 Oracle audit is very efficient – Audit records are parsed once for both audit and execution – Auditing is implemented in the database, not in an additional, add-on server – Performance may depend on how much data is being audited (e.g. auditing all access of all types will impact performance) Audit Performance

43 43 Product Assurance - Security Evaluations Only Oracle has multiple independent security evaluations of the data servers – 12 independent security evaluations completed (Orange Book, ITSEC, Common Criteria) & first Common Criteria EAL4 of any type – Standards-compliant (Common Criteria - ISO standard 15048) – FIPS-140 Level 2 Certification for Oracle Advanced Security Benefits to customers – Evaluations ensure that security claims of the Oracle server are independently verified – Evaluations improve product quality and security

44 44 Agenda Internet Security Issues Oracle Database Security Oracle Advanced Security Oracle Military Security Audit and Assurance Summary

45 45 Summary: Oracle Security Oracle has a multitude of security solutions and security features, unmatched by other vendors – Strong, standards-based security – Security value-add options for enhanced security – Backed up by independent security evaluations Security solutions establish Oracle8 i as the Database for Internet Computing – Makes Oracle8 i a core component of the infrastructure for leveraging the Internet


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