# Conceptual Graph Analysis Chapter 20 Lori Nuth | EDIT 730 | Fall 2005.

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Conceptual Graph Analysis Chapter 20 Lori Nuth | EDIT 730 | Fall 2005

Purpose Overview Procedure Example Evaluation Conceptual Graph Analysis (CGA): –Used to represent the structure of an expert’s thinking –Useful for analyzing problems solving and decision making outcomes –Represents complex skills as in a form of graph nodes (concepts) and the relation between them People who use CGA are: –Task Analysts –Knowledge engineers –Instructional designers –Internet-based instructional programmers –Developers of multimedia

Overview CGA was developed by Grasser and Murachver in 1985 –They wanted to get detailed knowledge from computer science experts, and found a way of representing it in a coherent fashion. Sallie Gordon and her colleagues refined the CGA methodology. –They expanded the nodes and questions of the original method and have extended its application from information system design to instructional design. CGA’s are similar to concept maps with more formalized and detailed set of nodes, relations and information-seeking questions. CGA is a two step process: –Stage 1: task analyst develops a rudimentary conceptual graph –Stage 2: Analyst uses the rudimentary graph and questions to get more information from the expert for the graph. Purpose Overview Procedure Example Evaluation

Procedure Assumptions that expert knowledge can be: –gained through unstructured and structured interview methods –graphed and labeled in a graph How to Conduct a Conceptual Graph Analysis 1.Clarify the uses for the graph information 2.Choose a set of situations for the expert to analyze 3.Construct a rough graph 4.Prepare a list of follow-up questions 5.Expand the graph 6.Review the final graph Purpose Overview Procedure Example Evaluation

Example How to install Hardwood Flooring Purpose Overview Procedure Example Evaluation

Purpose Overview Procedure Example Evaluation AdvantagesDisadvantages Applicable to a wide variety of domains Complex and takes time to learn Using a graph makes the designer clarify relationships clearer than other less structured techniques Learn different types of nodes and arcs and gain experience in choosing productive questions Systematic questioning methodology to gain complex knowledge Takes practice to conduct during an unstructured interview

Master Design Chart Chapter 21 Lori Nuth | EDIT 730 | Fall 2005

Purpose Overview Assumptions Procedure Example Evaluation Master Design Chart: –organizes curriculum and subject matter content –shows a representation of a whole course or curriculum in a well organized format –indicates the behaviors associated with the content –summarizes the decisions made when planning a curriculum or course of study –is a way to assist instructional designers with developing the curriculum

Overview Master Design Chart: –has two primary foundations –represents an analytical approach that breaks down complex content into smaller more simple chunks –is created prior to developing instructional materials or teaching Description of Master Design Chart –one axis contains items of content –other axis contains a taxonomy of behavior –cells contain a number that represent the degree of emphasis placed on the specific behavior for a specific item of content Purpose Overview Assumptions Procedure Example Evaluation

Assumptions objectives can and should be stated in advance by the ID in terms of behavioral outcomes relies on a rational process of the ID to determine the instructional content and the relationships among items of content Instructional content has its own organization and structure separately from any student’s perception of it Purpose Overview Assumptions Procedure Example Evaluation

Procedure How to Conduct a Master Design Chart Analysis 1.Construct the behavior axis that forms the horizontal dimension 2.Identify the specific items of content that form the content axis 3.Decide on the relative amount of emphasis to place on each cell Recommended follow up: 4.Determine the relationships, if any, between pairs of content items Purpose Overview Assumptions Procedure Example Evaluation

Purpose Overview Assumptions Procedure Example Evaluation Example EDIT 526 Web Accessibility and Design 3*…extremely heavily emphasized 3…heavily emphasized 2…major emphasis 1…minor emphasis 0…mentioned but not emphasized -…not mentioned

Evaluation Purpose Overview Assumptions Procedure Example Evaluation AdvantagesDisadvantages Allows the instructional designer and the students to see the ”big picture” Lacks external basis in needs assessment or job analysis Emphasizes learning of the structure of the content Lacks empirical basis Reduces omission of important content Dependent on the knowledge and skill of an individual analyst Encourages higher level objectivesIs identical for all students Guides the development of lesson objectives and tests May not reflect knowledge or skill that is relevant Provides information for sequencing objectives Is time consuming to construct Allows the instructional emphasis on a topic to match the importance of the topic

Matrix Analysis Chapter 22 Lori Nuth | EDIT 730 | Fall 2005

Purpose Overview Assumptions Procedure Example Evaluation Matrix Analysis: –identify and represent relationships between concepts –examines and identifies every possible relationship between paired concepts to be taught –basis for sequencing the instruction

Overview Evans, Homme and Glaser identified content and instructional sequence when developing programmed instruction Classified all verbal subject matter in two types of statements: rule statements & example statements The purpose of instruction is to teach both the specific content items and the relationships among the content Matrix analysis consists of three analytical processes: 1.Identifying the concepts of the task 2.Explore the relationships among the concepts identified 3.Constructing a relational matrix of these concepts Purpose Overview Assumptions Procedure Example Evaluation

Assumptions –Knowledge can be represented as a set of relationships between many concepts –Human performance is driven by knowledge base of concepts and the relationships among the concepts –In order to teach a person how to perform a task you must teach the concepts and relationships –Knowledge is assumed to consist of content nodes and the relationships among them Purpose Overview Assumptions Procedure Example Evaluation

Procedure Purpose Overview Assumptions Procedure Example Evaluation 1.Specify task criterion behavior 2.Brainstorm major task concepts of the criterion behavior 3. Determine if matrix analysis can be used 4.Complete a list of task concepts 5.Organize and order the task concepts 6.Arrange all concepts into a matrix 7.Choose a relational operator to compare concepts 8.Describe the conceptual relationship represented by each cell. 9.Review the matrix 10.Decide if another matrix is necessary

Example Distance in miles to Different Cities Purpose Overview Assumptions Procedure Example Evaluation Distance From Distance To D.C.AtlantaLos Angeles D.C.Definition of D.C. 6503000 Atlanta650Definition of Atlanta 2000 Los Angeles30002000Definition of Los Angeles

Evaluation Purpose Overview Assumptions Procedure Example Evaluation AdvantagesDisadvantages Useful when learning a network of complex content Not suitable for some types of nonconceptual tasks May contain facts, concepts, principles, rules Less applicable for motor skill learning Good for classification skillsDoes not detail the specific task to be accomplished Useful as preliminary task analysis method to identify content Weak for procedural or algorithmic tasks Can be used with procedural analysis to identify the underlying knowledge Not appropriate for many instructional outcomes that do not rely on conceptual knowledge as their basis, like attitudes Easy to learn and apply Matrices be used as job aids or for refresher training

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