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Post-2015 debate, Agenda 2063 and the EU-Africa roadmap Linking African, European and international debates and align positions and priorities for implementation.

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Presentation on theme: "Post-2015 debate, Agenda 2063 and the EU-Africa roadmap Linking African, European and international debates and align positions and priorities for implementation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Post-2015 debate, Agenda 2063 and the EU-Africa roadmap Linking African, European and international debates and align positions and priorities for implementation James Mackie, Senior Adviser EU Development Policy & Faten Aggad, Head of Programme Africa’s Change Dynamics 31 October 2014

2 Content ECDPM Process & Priorities  Post-2015 debate  Convergence? EU-Africa Roadmap , Agenda 2063 and the Post-2015 goals Financing  The Pan African envelope  Alternative sources of financing  Post-2015 financing debate: Universality and Differentiation In Conclusion: Medium-term perspectives in the EU

3 The Post Debate

4 ECDPM Towards a Post-3015 Development Agenda: A Complex process…

5 Financing for Development Summit in Addis (July 2015)  Will conference facilitate agreement on goals in September 2015?  Financing discussions likely to focus on LDCs and fragile states  Interests of MICs will also be important UN General Assembly (September 2015)  Agree goals and targets Climate negotiations in Paris in 2015 (December 2015)  Adopt new international climate change agreement that will cover all countries  Protocol, another legal instrument or 'an agreed outcome with legal force’  Ideally pplicable to all Parties. Three key moments in 2015 ECDPM

6 ●Proposed SDGs: 17 goals targets ●30 OWG constituencies (70 governments incl: 11 AU MS + 13 EU MS) supported Outcome Document ● G77 pushed for adoption of the document by the UNGA SDG Open Working Group (OWG) & UNGA 69 ECDPM UN Member State negotiations: Sept Sept will lead to agreement on a new framework to be implemented Jan. 1st 2016

7 ●Discussion around 17 goals ●SG Report (November) will acknowledge OWG outcome  Likely to endorse goals with additions and recommendations (Means of Implementation discussion; negotiation process etc.) Example Goal 16:  Included: ‘Peaceful societies’ and ‘Access to Justice’  Excluded: ‘Rule of Law’ and target ‘Freedom of the Media’ 69th UN General Assembly ECDPM Discussions all about positioning topics – Still unclear if number of goals will be reduced

8 ●LDCs:  Strong emphasis on poverty reduction (through inclusive growth)  Financing for development  In Climate discussions focus on adaptation finance but demand more mitigation action and responsibilities also from emerging powers ●g7+: Focus on meaningful goal and targets on peaceful societies ●MICs:  Equity and CBDR (with more responsibilities for developed countries)  National sovereignty  Reform of global governance for more inclusive decision-making Different Interest Groups…

9 1. End poverty 2. Achieve food security and improved nutrition 3. Ensure healthy lives and well-being 4. Inclusive and equitable education 5. Gender equality and empower women and girls 6. Availability of water & sanitation 7. Affordable, reliable & sustainable energy 8. Inclusive & sustainable growth 9. Resilient infrastructure, inclusive industrialisation 10. Reduce inequality within & among countries 11. Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient & sustainable 12. Sustainable consumption & production 13. Urgent action to combat climate change 14. Sustainable use of oceans, seas & marine resources 15. Sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems 16. Peaceful & inclusive societies, justice for all, inclusive institutions 17. Strengthen finance, Means of Implementation, global partnership & PCSD ECDPM Goals proposed by OWG

10 Positioning of proposed SDGs: ECDPM

11 ●Shortcomings of MDG accountability  Duplication, incoherence, no clear responsibilities  Lack of ownership in some areas ●Discussions on post-2015 accountability in infancy still but need for a coherent framework  Role of Review Mechanism of HL Political Forum  Clearer lines of reporting (among all stakeholders)  Data revolution Post-2015 Accountability Framework

12 ●High level of interest & strong commitment to MDGs ●Push for a common EU position by Commission (DEVCO+ENV) A Decent Life for All – 2 June 2014 [COM 335] Earlier policy papers in February & December 2013 Forthcoming EU Council Conclusions (December 2014 ) ●The EU and MS supported the adoption of the OWG proposals Now discussing implications with ministries Also considering how to possibly implement at national level ●Outstanding challenges Goals & targets – some differences over coverage vs. number e.g. NL in favour of current goals while UK wants to reduce the number of goals Global partnership – Finance and other Means of Implementation Universality and differentiation Where does the EU Stand?

13 Common African Position and the OWG ECDPM Common African Position’s 6 Pillars OWG report integrated all CAP priorities Largely a case of convergence

14 EU-Africa Roadmap Priorities ( ). The JAES and Post In pursuit of the same objectives? ECDPM 1. Peace & Security 2. Democracy, Good Governance & HR 3. Human development 4. Sustainable & inclusive development, growth & continental integration 5. Global & emerging issues 1.End poverty - JAES Priority 3 2.Achieve food security and improved nutrition – JAES 4 3.Ensure healthy lives and well-being – JAES 3 4.Inclusive and equitable education - JAES 3 5.Gender equality and empower women and girls – JAES 2 6.Availability of water & sanitation – JAES 3 7.Affordable, reliable & sustainable energy – JAES 3 8.Inclusive & sustainable growth – JAES 1 & 4 9.Resilient infrastructure, inclusive industrialisation – 4&5 10.Reduce inequality within & among countries – JAES 4 11.Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient & sustainable – 3 & 4 12.Sustainable consumption & production - JAES 3, 4 & 5 13.Urgent action to combat climate change – JAES 3 & 5 14.Sustainable use of oceans, seas & marine resources - 4&5 15.Sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems – JAES 5 16.Peaceful & inclusive societies, justice for all, inclusive institutions – JAES 1 & Strengthen finance, MoI, global partnership & PCSD –5

15 Convergence or divergence? Agenda 2063, JAES and Post-2015 ECDPM

16 Financing

17 EU allocation: The Pan-African envelope ECDPM

18 ●On-going debate on alternative sources of financing to finance continental development programs (i.e P&S, infrastructure, etc.): Obasanjo Report Mbeki Report on illicit financial flows Assessments by UNECA & NPCA & AfDB 9th African Development Forum, Marrakesh, October 2014 ●Some instruments already established Africa 50 Fund (Infrastructure), African Solidarity Fund (P&S) African Discussions on Financing

19 ECDPM

20 ●UN Financing for Development Conference, Addis Ababa, July 2015 ●Past experience - MDGs became very focused on ODA  Financing gap notion – Jeffrey Sachs  But have to think ‘Beyond Aid’ (ERD2013) ●There are a lot other types of finance:  Domestic resources  Domestic capital  Foreign direct investment  Remittances  South-South cooperation ●Finance cannot solve everything  Policies important – national & international  How to make most effective use of finance? ●So need to discuss: Finance and other Means of Implementation Post-2015: The Financing Debate

21 Low Income Countries Source: ERD2014 (forthcoming) Trends in development finance (2011 US$Bn) All developing countries ECDPM

22 Financial flows by income level (% of GDP) ECDPM Source: ERD2014 (forthcoming)

23 ●Post-2015 targets defined as aspirational global targets, with each government  Setting its own national targets  Guided by the global level of ambition  But taking into account national circumstances ●Translation of universal goals/targets into  National actions, commitments and responsibilities  Big challenge ●Need to find a balance for all parties between  National adaptation vs. global ambition  “Fair” commitments and responsibilities Post-2015: Universality and Differentiation ECDPM

24 ●Will be difficult to find political agreement on framework  if differentiated responsibilities not adequately addressed ●OECD and G77 – differences over differentiated responsibilities in changing geopolitical landscape  EU will have to translate targets to commitments, including in areas such as consumption/production and food waste  Will emerging economies and MICs in Africa take on increased responsibilities ?  Will developed countries need to take the lead ? Post-2015: Universality and Differentiation ECDPM

25 ● Economic Partnership Agreements: Objectives: promote regional integration & help integrate in global economy Signed: 2 full regions (ECOWAS+EAC) + some countries not N Africa Challenges for regional integration (i) some regions are split; (ii) complicated trade regimes with EU; (iii) makes intra- regional trade more difficult ● TTIP - Transatlantic Trade & Investment Partnership (EU+USA) WTO deadlock: big players want to reshape global trade as globalisation deepens Strategic interest: rise of China as a new leader in global trade EU+USA seek to join forces to maintain access to key markets ● Impact on EU-Africa relations (just as first EPAs concluded) Erosion of preferences & new standards might apply to African countries EU–Africa trade agenda: convergence or divergence

26 In light of post-2015 agreements, EU likely to: ●Review Agenda for Change ? ●Formulate proposals for post-Cotonou - including:  Focus ODA support to LDCs, fragile and vulnerable states  Partnership arrangements with LMICs ?  Aid for Trade package ?  Acquis of Cotonou (joint mgmt, essential elements?)  Seek to align with Values from Lisbon Treaty ●Improve coordination: EU & bilateral programmes  Take joint programming further ? In Conclusion: Medium-term perspectives in EU

27 Thank you Faten Aggad James Mackie


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