Presentation on theme: "Kepemimpinan Dalam Keperawatan Debie Dahlia, SKp., MHSM., ETN"— Presentation transcript:
1Kepemimpinan Dalam Keperawatan Debie Dahlia, SKp., MHSM., ETN
2Background Nursing, in any role, is a people business Nurses are becoming a part of a work group where members spend at least a third of their day interacting with each otherTherefore, nurses must be prepared to use interpersonal, leadership, and management skills to be effective in their role as a provider of patient care
3Management versus Leadership What Is the Difference Between Management and Leadership?Although the terms management and leadership are frequently interchanged, they do not have the same meaning.A leader selects and assumes the role ; A manager is assigned or appointed to the role
4Management versus Leadership Managers have responsibility for organizational goals and the performance of organizational tasksManagers, as a providers of care, supervise a team of people who are working to help patients achieve their defined outcomesLeaders are effective at influencing others
5The Functions of Management Management is a problem-oriented process with similarities to the nursing processManagement is needed whenever two or more individuals work together toward a common goalThe manager coordinates the activities of the group to maintain balance and directionThere are generally four functions the manager performs: planning, organizing, directing and controlling
6What Is Meant by Management Style ? The management style in nursing practice vary from autocratic to laissez faire styleThe autocratic manager uses an authoritarian approach to direct the activities of othersThis individual makes most of the decisions alone without input from other staff membersThe emphasis on the tasks to be done, with less focus on the individual staff members who perform the tasks.
7On the other end of the continuum is the laissez-faire manager, who maintains a permissive climate with little direction or control exertedThis manager allows staff members to make and implement decisions independently and relinquishes most of his or her power and responsibility to them
8In the middle of the continuum is the democratic manager This manager is people-oriented & emphasizes effective group functioningThe goals of the group are identified, & manager is perceived as a group member who is also its organizer & who keeps the group moving in the defined direction.
9In choosing a management style, the manager must decide on levels of control and freedom and then determine which trade-offs are acceptable in each particular situation.Leadership, in contrast, is a way of behaving; it is the ability to cause others to respond, not because they have to but they want to respond.Leadership is needed as much as management for effective group functioning but each role has its place.The leader focuses a group’s efforts on indentifying goals and carrying out the activities needed to reach those goals.
10According to Mannion (1998), the major differences between Manager & Leader are:Leaders focuses on effectiveness, and managers focus on efficiencyLeader ask what and why, managers ask howLeaders deal with people and relationships, and Managers deal with systems, control, and policiesLeaders initiate innovation, and Managers maintain the status quoLeaders look to the horizon, and Managers look to the bottom line
11Surviving And Thriving As A Leader The leader must maintain balanceThe leader must generate self-motivationThe leader must work to build self-confidenceThe leader must listen to his/her constituentThe leader must have a positive attitude
12The Nurse as LeaderProfessional nurse assume leadership in relationship:With clientsWith peersWith other colleaguesWith political leadersWith public at largeTo influence change andTo enable client to makeoptimal choices for health
13The Nurse As Leader Leadership Within the Workplaces Staff Nurse as LeaderNurse Manager as LeaderNurse executive as LeaderNurse Student as LeaderLeadership in the Community
14Leadership is what gives nursing its vision and its abilities to transform clients’ health. This transformation occurs through the leaders’ translation of vision into reality with clients.In the transformational, the nurse leader is the coordinator of communication.
15Leadership in relation with client Transformational Leadership Sharing of power rather than the wielding of power by the nurse over the clientBoth participants influence each other
16Role of the Professional Nurse as Patient care Managers/Leaders Nurse enters RelationshipAssessmentNursing diagnosesPlanningEvaluationImplementing Intervention
17Peran dan Fungsi Kepemimpinan Dalam Manajemen Keperawatan PlanningOrganizingStaffingDirectingControlling
18Leadership Roles in Planning Assesses the organization internal & external environmentDemonstrates visionary, innovative, and creative thinking in organizationalInfluences and inspires group membersPeriodically completes value clarification to increase self-awareness
19Encourages subordinates toward value clarification by actively listening and providing feedback Communicates and clarifies organizational goals and values to subordinatesEncourages subordinates to be involved in policy formation, policies, procedures, and rules
20Leadership Roles With Organizational Structure Evaluates the organizational structure frequently to determine if management position can be eliminated to reduce the chain of commandEncourage employees to follow the chain of commandSupports personnel in advisory (staff) positionsModels responsibility and accountability for subordinates
21Assists nursing staff to see how their roles are congruent with and complement the common organizational taskFacilities informal group structureEncourages upward communicationCounsels employees who do not follow chain of commandUses committees to facilitate group goals, not delay decisions
22Leadership Roles in Organizing Patient Care Periodically evaluates the effectiveness of the organizational structure for the delivery of patient careDetermines if adequate resources and support exist before making any changeExamines the human element in work redesign and supports personnel during adjustment to changeInspires the work group toward a team effort
23Examines the unit philosophy to ensure it supports any changes in patient care delivery system Uses scientific research to support changes in nursing care delivery modelEnsures that nursing care delivery model advances the professional nursing
24Staffing Plans for future staffing needs proactively Uses the interview process as a means to promote the organization’s imagePeriodically review induction and orientation programs to ascertain they are meeting until needsEnsures that each new employee understands appropriate organizational policies
25Infuses a team spirit among employees Serves as a role model to all employees and a mentor to select employeesObserves carefully for signs of knowledge or skill deficit in new employees and intervenes appropriately
26Directing Recognizes each worker as a unique individual Maintains a positive and enthusiastic image as a role model to subordinatesDemonstrates through actions and words a belief in subordinates that they desire to meet organizational goalsUnderstands and appropriately uses the informal communication network in the organization5. Appropriately observes and interpretsverbal and nonverbal communication offollowers
27ControllingEncourages followers to be actively involved in the quality control processUses control as a method of determining why goals were not metSupports/actively participates in research efforts to identify and measure “nursing-sensitive” patient outcomesUses the appraisal process to motivate employees and promote growth
28Develops employee trust by being honest and fair when evaluating performance Provides ongoing support to employee attempting to correct performance deficiencies
29Be A Good Leader and Manager Thank YouBe A Good Leader and Manager