Page 2 Background Nursing, in any role, is a people business Nurses are becoming a part of a work group where members spend at least a third of their day interacting with each other Therefore, nurses must be prepared to use interpersonal, leadership, and management skills to be effective in their role as a provider of patient care
Page 3 Management versus Leadership What Is the Difference Between Management and Leadership? Although the terms management and leadership are frequently interchanged, they do not have the same meaning. A leader selects and assumes the role ; A manager is assigned or appointed to the role
Page 4 Management versus Leadership Managers have responsibility for organizational goals and the performance of organizational tasks Managers, as a providers of care, supervise a team of people who are working to help patients achieve their defined outcomes Leaders are effective at influencing others
Page 5 The Functions of Management Management is a problem-oriented process with similarities to the nursing process Management is needed whenever two or more individuals work together toward a common goal The manager coordinates the activities of the group to maintain balance and direction There are generally four functions the manager performs: planning, organizing, directing and controlling
Page 6 What Is Meant by Management Style ? The management style in nursing practice vary from autocratic to laissez faire style The autocratic manager uses an authoritarian approach to direct the activities of others This individual makes most of the decisions alone without input from other staff members The emphasis on the tasks to be done, with less focus on the individual staff members who perform the tasks.
Page 7 On the other end of the continuum is the laissez-faire manager, who maintains a permissive climate with little direction or control exerted This manager allows staff members to make and implement decisions independently and relinquishes most of his or her power and responsibility to them
Page 8 In the middle of the continuum is the democratic manager This manager is people-oriented & emphasizes effective group functioning The goals of the group are identified, & manager is perceived as a group member who is also its organizer & who keeps the group moving in the defined direction.
Page 9 In choosing a management style, the manager must decide on levels of control and freedom and then determine which trade-offs are acceptable in each particular situation. Leadership, in contrast, is a way of behaving; it is the ability to cause others to respond, not because they have to but they want to respond. Leadership is needed as much as management for effective group functioning but each role has its place. The leader focuses a group’s efforts on indentifying goals and carrying out the activities needed to reach those goals.
Page 10 According to Mannion (1998), the major differences between Manager & Leader are: Leaders focuses on effectiveness, and managers focus on efficiency Leader ask what and why, managers ask how Leaders deal with people and relationships, and Managers deal with systems, control, and policies Leaders initiate innovation, and Managers maintain the status quo Leaders look to the horizon, and Managers look to the bottom line
Page 11 Surviving And Thriving As A Leader 1.The leader must maintain balance 2.The leader must generate self-motivation 3.The leader must work to build self-confidence 4.The leader must listen to his/her constituent 5.The leader must have a positive attitude
Page 12 The Nurse as Leader Professional nurse assume leadership in relationship: With clients With peers With other colleagues With political leaders With public at large To influence change and To enable client to make optimal choices for health
Page 13 The Nurse As Leader Leadership Within the Workplaces Staff Nurse as Leader Nurse Manager as Leader Nurse executive as Leader Nurse Student as Leader Leadership in the Community
Page 14 Leadership is what gives nursing its vision and its abilities to transform clients’ health. This transformation occurs through the leaders’ translation of vision into reality with clients. In the transformational, the nurse leader is the coordinator of communication.
Page 15 Both participants influence each other Sharing of power rather than the wielding of power by the nurse over the client Transformational Leadership Leadership in relation with client
Page 16 Role of the Professional Nurse as Patient care Managers/Leaders Nurse enters Relationship AssessmentNursing diagnoses Evaluation Planning Implementing Intervention
Page 17 Peran dan Fungsi Kepemimpinan Dalam Manajemen Keperawatan 1.Planning 2.Organizing 3.Staffing 4.Directing 5.Controlling
Page 18 Leadership Roles in Planning 1.Assesses the organization internal & external environment 2.Demonstrates visionary, innovative, and creative thinking in organizational 3.Influences and inspires group members 4.Periodically completes value clarification to increase self- awareness
Page 19 5.Encourages subordinates toward value clarification by actively listening and providing feedback 6.Communicates and clarifies organizational goals and values to subordinates 7.Encourages subordinates to be involved in policy formation, policies, procedures, and rules
Page 20 Leadership Roles With Organizational Structure 1.Evaluates the organizational structure frequently to determine if management position can be eliminated to reduce the chain of command 2.Encourage employees to follow the chain of command 3.Supports personnel in advisory (staff) positions 4.Models responsibility and accountability for subordinates
Page 21 5.Assists nursing staff to see how their roles are congruent with and complement the common organizational task 6.Facilities informal group structure 7.Encourages upward communication 8.Counsels employees who do not follow chain of command 9.Uses committees to facilitate group goals, not delay decisions
Page 22 Leadership Roles in Organizing Patient Care 1.Periodically evaluates the effectiveness of the organizational structure for the delivery of patient care 2.Determines if adequate resources and support exist before making any change 3.Examines the human element in work redesign and supports personnel during adjustment to change 4.Inspires the work group toward a team effort
Page 23 5.Examines the unit philosophy to ensure it supports any changes in patient care delivery system 6.Uses scientific research to support changes in nursing care delivery model 7.Ensures that nursing care delivery model advances the professional nursing
Page 24 Staffing 1.Plans for future staffing needs proactively 2.Uses the interview process as a means to promote the organization’s image 3.Periodically review induction and orientation programs to ascertain they are meeting until needs 4.Ensures that each new employee understands appropriate organizational policies
Page 25 5.Infuses a team spirit among employees 6.Serves as a role model to all employees and a mentor to select employees 7.Observes carefully for signs of knowledge or skill deficit in new employees and intervenes appropriately
Page 26 Directing 1.Recognizes each worker as a unique individual 2.Maintains a positive and enthusiastic image as a role model to subordinates 3.Demonstrates through actions and words a belief in subordinates that they desire to meet organizational goals 4.Understands and appropriately uses the informal communication network in the organization 5. Appropriately observes and interprets verbal and nonverbal communication of followers
Page 27 Controlling 1.Encourages followers to be actively involved in the quality control process 2.Uses control as a method of determining why goals were not met 3.Supports/actively participates in research efforts to identify and measure “nursing-sensitive” patient outcomes 4.Uses the appraisal process to motivate employees and promote growth
Page 28 5.Develops employee trust by being honest and fair when evaluating performance 6.Provides ongoing support to employee attempting to correct performance deficiencies