Presentation on theme: "1) Japan, 1600-1850, under Tokugawa Shoguns: ISOLATIONISTS (with some limited trading with China, and the Dutch) 2) By the mid-1800’s, the [industrialized]"— Presentation transcript:
1) Japan, 1600-1850, under Tokugawa Shoguns: ISOLATIONISTS (with some limited trading with China, and the Dutch) 2) By the mid-1800’s, the [industrialized] world was seeking more engagement with Japan… …due to an increasing desire for more TRADE, markets, and economic expansion by the industrial nations of the West.
3) Japan succumbs to foreign demands for trade: In 1853, the U.S. Navy “visits” Japan, coercing and threatening Japan into accepting a trade treaty, using a show of military force. The Tokugawa government signs unequal treaties, similar to those forced onto China by Europe. This style of “negotiation” is called: “GUNBOAT DIPLOMACY”
4) Treaties of Kanagawa (Japan) & Nanjing (China): - Force open more trading ports to foreign nations. - Give foreigners extraterritorial rights. - Create unbalanced trade that favors foreign industrial nations. 5) Reaction of Japanese people: - Nationalism! - Change in government (Tokugawa seen as responsible for signing treaties… triggering a civil war!)
6) Political change comes to Japan: - Fearing a fate similar to China, the Tokugawa are overthrown in 1868 (Boshin War). - A new (15-year-old!) emperor, Mutsuhito, comes into power, beginning a period of “enlightened rule”, called the Meiji Era.
7) Japan’s Meiji government actively pursues a dramatic modernization program in response to Western imperialism, by studying, borrowing from, innovating, and adapting Western knowledge to Japanese society: 1. Politically → copied Germany’s model of a “strong, centralized government” (constitutional monarchy) 2. Militarily → copied German army, British navy 3. Socially → copied U.S. system of public education (labor force!); sent students overseas to learn from Western industrial nations. 4. Economically → Rapid industrialization (railroads, factories, coal mining, shipbuilding), along with major “state-supported companies” that invested in “thousands of factories” (= strong government support for economic growth & development).
8) Japan vs. China, 19 th century: Japan → rapidly modernized, industrialized, militarized in order to resist the West, by learning and borrowing ideas from them... adapts western economic, political, technological expertise to their own culture. China → rejects the ways of the West, holds on to pride in traditional culture, and continues to be exploited by industrial nations... refuses to modernize until the late 20 th century (late 1970’s, after Mao Tsetung dies). Moral of the story?
9) Success of Japanese modernization? Extremely successful: - Rapid industrial & economic growth - By 1890, had Asia’s most powerful military - By 1894, had eliminated unequal, imperial treaties & extraterritorial rights… was now being treated as an equal [sovereign] nation. - By 1904, was defeating other traditional “great powers” in war. 10) Japan was nationalistic, became industrial… … and naturally also became imperialistic (just like the West… needs more resources & markets!)
11) Sino-Japanese War (1894): - China v. Japan (“Sino” = Chinese) - Fought for control of Korea as a sphere of influence (importance of trade, resources, military security) - Japan wins decisively, due to a superior industrialized military; drives the Chinese out of Korea, destroys the Chinese navy… joins other Western nations in exploiting China
12) Russo-Japanese War (1904): - Fought between Russia and Japan for control of Manchuria (northern Chinese province) AND Korea (which the Russians also wanted control of). - Japan wins… decisively! (more industrialized than Russia!) - Japan proves itself an equal among Western imperial nations, able to defeat other ‘Great Powers’; also disproves Western assumptions of racial superiority.
13) Japan in Korea: - Japan initially makes Korea a protectorate (1907), ultimately annexes it and makes it a direct colony of Japan (1910). - Japanese inflict very harsh treatment on the Koreans, and see them as ethnically inferior; deny them equal citizenship rights, property rights, economic opportunity, or educational rights. Force Japanese culture on them. Postscript: Japan’s military & imperial successes, combined with their increasing need for resources to fuel their growing industrial economy & empire, will continue well into the 1900’s. The U.S. will experience the culmination of this on December 7 th, 1941…