Presentation on theme: "FREEDOM OF SPEECH ON THE INTERNET BY: RAYMOND, NIKHIL, JAY, MARIO, MADHU."— Presentation transcript:
FREEDOM OF SPEECH ON THE INTERNET BY: RAYMOND, NIKHIL, JAY, MARIO, MADHU
Video Jay Rockefeller - Prelude To Internet Kill Switch esults_main&playnext=1&list=PL DC2198B4 esults_main&playnext=1&list=PL DC2198B4
What Companies Can Do Global issues Censorship is a problem in many countries Resistance – e.g. Google refused services in China unless China stopped censoring searches Pope handout, page 7 engine?_s=PM:TECH
What Companies Can Do Make it clear that every action taken on a given site is monitored – would cause people to be more cautious
What Companies Can Do Facebook is allowing hateful/racist comments The First Amendment protects these statements While Facebook’s rules prohibit these posts, they’re not enforced groups
What Companies Can Do If private companies don’t regulate freedom of speech, then the government would have to step in, and that has widespread opposition
What constitutes being “responsible” on the internet? Some examples of being responsible: 1. Not uploading inappropriate content 2. Not spreading viruses 3. Not stealing other people’s information and identity Two forms of user responsibility: 1. Personal responsibility 2. Mandated responsibility
federal developments regarding cybersecurity President Obama proposed a national cybersecurity education program He also proposed increased penalties for computer criminals Cybersecurity is key in federal government policy
Personal developments regarding security Users have to be more aware of the websites they are visiting: Do business with credible companies Avoid submitting credit card information online Avoid using debit cards for online purchases Limit exposure of private information
Religious developments regarding cybersecurity [The Church seeks] “honest and respectful dialogue with those responsible for … communications” Fundamental fact of the Church about Internet responsibility: “Young people in particular need to be taught … ‘to be good Christians’ … So, young people will be true citizens of that age of social communications which has already begun” s_doc_ _church-internet_en.html#_ftn11http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/pccs/documents/rc_pc_pcc s_doc_ _church-internet_en.html#_ftn11; church.jpg church.jpg
Worldwide Censorship Blue=no censorship Yellow=some censorship Red= countries under surveillance from reporters without borders. Black-most heavily censored nations. (legend wording found on Wikipedia) Reporters without borders )http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Internet_blackholes.svg
Worldwide Censorship )
US Statistics Percentage of cyberbullying victims among high school students in the US: 5.7%-18.3%. Percent of cyberbullies: 9.1%-23.1%
Chinese Statistics Percentage of cyberbullying victims among high school students in China: 17.8%. Percent of cyberbullies: 32.1%
Conclusions Both these studies were conducted over approximately 2000 teenage students. The conclusion drawn is that government censorship may not be the solution.
Exceptions to the First Amendment Speech that is likely to lead to imminent lawless action may be prohibited.
Exceptions to the First Amendment "Fighting words" -- i.e., words so insulting that people are likely to fight back -- may be prohibited.
Exceptions to the First Amendment Obscenity -- i.e., erotic expression, grossly or patently offensive to an average person -- may be prohibited.
Exceptions to the First Amendment Child pornography may be banned whether or not it is legally obscene and whether or not it has serious artistic or social value.
Exceptions to the First Amendment Defamatory statements may be prohibited.
Exceptions to the First Amendment Commercial Speech may be banned only if it is misleading, pertains to illegal products
Threats When does speech become a threat? When does a communication over the Internet inflict -- or threaten to inflict -- sufficient damage to be considered illegal?
“Jake Baker” Case Abraham Jacob Alkhabaz fabricated a story of how he tortured, abused, and killed a young woman, who was given the name a classmate.
“Jake Baker” Case Jake corresponded with another person over the internet to fabricate plans for kidnapping and torturing another of his classmates
“Jake Baker” Case DECISION? ILLEGAL Anybody implying any threat to kidnap or to injure a person, shall be fined or imprisoned not more than five years
The American Coalition of Life Activists (ACLA), an anti-abortion group, created a poster featuring a group of doctors dubbed “the Dirty Dozen” who performed abortions. “Nuremberg Files” Case
An expanded list of abortion providers, now dubbed the "Nuremberg files," was posted on the Internet with the home addresses of the doctors “Nuremberg Files” Case
The list was color-coded as follows: 1)People who had been murdered were crossed out 2)People who had been wounded were printed in grey “Nuremberg Files” Case
The doctors named and described on the list feared for their lives. They believed that the ACLA was implicitly encouraging their being targeted. “Nuremberg Files” Case
“Nuremberg Files” Case DECISION? LEGAL Although there were violent tinges to the ACLA’s methods, it was ruled that there was no explicit threat to kidnap or injure.
Intellectual Property Intellectual property MAY NOT be republished via the internet without the consent of the original author.
Implications of anonymity “Suppose I receive an anonymous note asserting that I have been betrayed by a friend. I will not know what to make of it – is it a joke, a slander, a warning, a test? “