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Where Innovation Is Tradition Military Alliance Program “MAP” An initiative to support student veterans.

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1 Where Innovation Is Tradition Military Alliance Program “MAP” An initiative to support student veterans

2 Where Innovation Is Tradition Why? Major Allison Black Fall 2010 “CCVC” Competently Communicating with Veterans in the Classroom VCU “Green Zone” project Reduce confusion and stigma Raise awareness of institutional services Better understanding of military culture “Ideas for Innovation”

3 Where Innovation Is Tradition Alliance members in the MAP program are encouraged to display the MAP Shield outside their office doors to let others know they are available to provide support and information about resources. Faculty Development Program

4 Where Innovation Is Tradition What is an Alliance? Staff and faculty who identify themselves as someone who knows something about the issues and concerns faced by student veterans/active military students as someone who is available to assist the veteran student They are NOT expected to be experts who can “solve” the problems a sympathetic ear someone who can help the student find the appropriate resources for problem resolution.

5 Where Innovation Is Tradition Overview Who are Mason’s military and veteran population Why is the population increasing The Military experience Transition from Military to Campus Scenarios 5

6 Where Innovation Is Tradition Commonly Used Terms Active Duty Service Members Generic term-encompasses all Active Duty and all branches of service National Guard and Reserves Traditional guard and reserves serve 2 days a month and 15 days Annual Tour per year Subject to activation and mobilization Veteran Any individual who served in the U.S. military OEF- Operation Enduring Freedom War in Afghanistan OIF- Operation Iraqi Freedom War in Iraq

7 Where Innovation Is Tradition Cont…. OEF (under the umbrella of GWOT) Began on October 7, 2001, Bush presidency US-led coalition action Focus on counterterrorism activities Taliban (government from ) Al-Qaeda (led by Osama) Afghanistan: areas include Kandahar, Bagram Kabul (Camp Eggers and Camp Phoenix)

8 Where Innovation Is Tradition Cont…. OIF (Iraqi War, Second Gulf War) Began on March 20, 2003, Bush presidency Led to occupation and eventual capture of Saddam 8 year occupation followed Feb 2009, President Obama announces 18 month drawdown Troops still remain to advise/train Iraqi SF

9 Where Innovation Is Tradition Restrepo The Sal Giunta Story A 2010 documentary by journalist Sebastian Junger and photojournalist Tim Hetherington. Assignment for Vanity Fair Embedded with 2 nd Platoon of Bravo Company, 2 nd Battalion, 503 rd Infantry Regiment, 173 Airborne Brigade Korengal Valley in Afghanistan Mission: Clear Korengal Valley of insurgency and gain trust of local population Outpost Restrepo, named for a platoon medic killed early in the campaign Mission Operation Rock Avalanche occurred late in the 15 month deployment ** Hetherington was killed in 2011 by mortar shells fired by Muammar Gaddafi’s forces while covering the 2011 Libyan Civil War

10 Where Innovation Is Tradition Who is a military or veteran student? Diverse group of individuals. They are: From all branches of the military Range in age, race/ethnicity, gender, and sexuality Have served during times of war and peace Have different education goals More likely to have families

11 Where Innovation Is Tradition Student Sample

12 Where Innovation Is Tradition Why? Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of GI Bill of Rights -To avoid mistakes following WWI -7.8 million unemployed vets 2009 – Post 9/11 GI Bill “ …have been compelled to make greater economic sacrifice and every other kind of sacrifice than the rest of us, and are entitled to definite action to help take care of their special problems.”

13 Where Innovation Is Tradition Why? Why not simply pay lump sum? Integrate veterans into the civilian community Full-time student-veterans > success

14 Where Innovation Is Tradition Education Benefits Education Benefits

15 Where Innovation Is Tradition Veteran Education Student Veteran Pop.

16 Where Innovation Is Tradition 16

17 Where Innovation Is Tradition The Military Experience

18 Where Innovation Is Tradition Military Experience Separation from family or loved ones Most are leaving home for the first time Separation from extended family and close friends Separation from boyfriends and girlfriends Relocate away from family and friends May be assigned to a base in a different part of the country Adjustments to new climates and culture

19 Where Innovation Is Tradition Military Experience Deployments Deployments last from 6-18 months Multiple deployments Some serve more than one deployment before being discharged from the military –Over 350,000 have experienced two or more deployments Emotional Cycle of Deployment: Pre-Deployment, Deployment, Sustainment, Re- Deployment, Post-Deployment ***(Savych, 2009)

20 Where Innovation Is Tradition Deployment Mixed emotions/relief Disoriented/overwhelmed Numb, sad, alone Sleep difficulties Security issues Sustainment New routines established New sources of support Feel more in control Independence Confidence: “I can do this!” Redeployment Anticipation of homecoming Excitement Apprehension Burst of energy/”nesting” Difficulty making decisions Post-Deployment Honeymoon period Loss of independence Need for “own” space Renegotiating routines Reintegration into family Pre-Deployment Anticipation of loss vs Denial Train-up/long hours away Getting affairs in order Mental/physical distance Arguments Emotional Cycle of Deployment *** (Franklin, 2009)

21 Where Innovation Is Tradition Emotional Cycle of Deployment: Pre-Deployment Training with long hours away Spending more time in the field to prepare for deployment Separation from family and friends before deployment Getting affairs in order Preparing a living will and assigning a power of attorney National Guard and Reservists Added stress during semester due to anticipation of deployment May be called to duty while enrolled in classes Having to file paperwork to withdraw from classes and stop G.I. Bill payments *** (Franklin, 2009)

22 Where Innovation Is Tradition Emotional Cycle of Deployment: Deployment Adjusting to being in a combat zone, on a ship, or aircraft Adjusting to new climate, terrain, and language Dealing with emotions regarding separation from family, friends, and partners Maintaining a strong sense of awareness “Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion. Other symptoms include: abnormally increased arousal, a high responsiveness to stimuli, and a constant scanning of the environment for threats” Must maintain some level of emotional control May not be able to react immediately to loss/trauma but are encouraged to deal with loss/trauma while deployed and upon return *** (Franklin, 2009)

23 Where Innovation Is Tradition Deployment Cont…. Persistent hypervigilance and arousal Sleep deprivation- fatigue Periods of intense boredom Some have experienced Firefights Friends wounded or killed RPGs: Rocket Propelled Grenades IEDs: Improvised Explosive Devices Car bombs Suicide bombings Crowd control ***(Hoge et al., 2004)

24 Where Innovation Is Tradition Emotional Cycle of Deployment: Post-Deployment Homecoming The “honeymoon” stage is when first returning home to family and friends Difficult adjustment phase for both member and family –Family has adapted to life without member –Everyone has to re-establish roles Adaptive behaviors for war are maladaptive at home –Aggressive driving = Road Rage –Tactical Awareness = Hypervigilance Develop a “New Normal” –Adjusting to life after it has changed Dealing with the emotions of war *** (Franklin, 2009)

25 Where Innovation Is Tradition Emotional Cycle of Deployment: Family members/Dependents Family members or dependents may also need support They may be experiencing –Separation from a loved one –Difficulty concentrating –Difficulty transitioning –Difficulty adjusting to role changes –Loss or injuries of a loved one

26 Where Innovation Is Tradition Transitioning from Military to Campus

27 Where Innovation Is Tradition Transition Strengths Veterans/Active Duty transitioning out of the military onto college campuses bring a unique perspective Military training Life experience Established Identity A more worldly view Skills taught in the military help students to be successful Leadership Motivation Time Management Work Ethic Stress Management

28 Where Innovation Is Tradition Transition Difficulties Issues that may arise during the transition process can become barriers to success Military Mindset … strength and weakness Difficulty translating their military skills into a new profession Difficulty switching gears with a new focus that is unrelated to military experience Defining College credits and transfer policy –Why? AARTS and SMARTS transcripts vs. College Credit –Credits from multiple universities with varying accreditation Difficulty using the GI Bill –Late fees due to late payment of VA Benefits –Late payment can prevent them from registering for classes, applying for graduation, and receiving transcripts

29 Where Innovation Is Tradition Transition Difficulties Being an older student –Freshman 20+ years old with 18 year old classmates Living off campus –Feeling isolated from classmates Alienation –Veterans/AD may find it difficult to integrate on campus because their life experiences within the military differ significantly from most other students and faculty. Insensitivity of classmates, faculty, and others on campus in regards to discussion of war and military –Veterans/AD may not agree with discussions or may feel attacked when asked about their experience

30 Where Innovation Is Tradition Cont... Things to keep in mind about Student Veterans in the classroom: Some may –Have difficulty relating to classmates –Find loud noises to be disturbing –Become anxious with changes in the classroom –Have excessive absences –Have PTSD or TBI A desire for highly structured environment and routine Injuries, seen and unseen ***(Pfeffer, 2010)

31 Where Innovation Is Tradition Considering the Needs of Student Veterans: Disabilities It is estimated that 23% to 31% of Veterans/AD of OIF/OEF have PTSD symptoms and 20% have mild TBIs. Some of those are coming to our campus. New Disability –Student Veterans/AD may be experiencing a disability for the first time in their life May be unaware of services on campus for persons with an identified disability May not want to identify as having a disability –May not want to disclose problems because of stigma –Identification of disability may have implications for future in the military for those who are still active service members *** (Jones, Young, & Leppma, 2010; Thomas et al., 2010)

32 Where Innovation Is Tradition Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) PTSD occurs after an individual has seen or experienced a traumatic event that involved the threat of injury or death PTSD is experienced by some, but certainly not all Student Veterans Have some knowledge of PTSD, BUT do not expect that every Student Veteran will have these symptoms ***(American Psychiatric Association, 2000)

33 Where Innovation Is Tradition PTSD Symptoms Repeated "reliving" of the event, which disturbs day-to-day activity Flashback episodes, where the event seems to be happening again and again Avoidance Emotional "numbing," or feeling as though you do not care about anything Arousal Excess awareness (hypervigilance) ***(American Psychiatric Association, 2000)

34 Where Innovation Is Tradition PTSD in the Classroom Exhibited Behaviors: Sit in the back of the classroom so they can have a clear view of everything around them Be easily startled by noises (pens dropping, shuffling in a backpack, whispering or other noises from classmates) Be withdrawn from class discussion Have difficulty maintaining emotional control during difficult topics

35 Where Innovation Is Tradition Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Remember: although many Veterans may have stressful or traumatic experiences, not all develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

36 Where Innovation Is Tradition Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) A blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the function of the brain. Severity of injury can vary –Mild: brief change in mental status or consciousness –Severe: extended period of unconsciousness or amnesia after the injury Some, but certainly not all Student Veterans, may have experienced a TBI Have some knowledge of TBI, BUT do not expect that all Student Veterans/ASMs will have experienced a TBI ***(Traumaticbraininjury.com, 2010)

37 Where Innovation Is Tradition Traumatic Brain Injury Combat experience is one of the main risk factors for sustaining a TBI Exposure to blasts through explosions and roadside bombs Improvements in body armor and helmets have increased the occurrence of TBI Likelihood of survival from blasts due to sophisticated equipment, unlike from previous wars TBI often goes undiagnosed because symptoms may not appear until weeks later Especially emotional or personality changes which are difficult for strangers to identify Difficult to differentiate between TBI and PTSD because they have several overlapping symptoms ***(Traumaticbraininjury.com, 2010)

38 Where Innovation Is Tradition TBI Symptoms Cognition Motor/Sensory Disturbances Impairments in: –Language –Communication –Attention –Concentration –Memory –Learning New Information –Speed of Information Processing –Judgment –Decision-Making –Problem-Solving –Insight ***(Traumaticbraininjury.com, 2010)

39 Where Innovation Is Tradition TBI Symptoms Mood Apathy/Depression Anxiety Irritability Emotional Liability Insensitivity Egocentricity Behavior Lack of Initiation Disinhibition Impulsivity Restlessness Aggression Agitation ***(Traumaticbraininjury.com, 2010)

40 Where Innovation Is Tradition TBI in the Classroom Behaviors Exhibited: Have difficulty expressing themselves (tongue tied) Show restless behaviors –Example: Constant fidgeting and tapping pens or feet Show inappropriate reactions to discussion –Example: Becoming aggressive, easily irritated, agitated, or insensitive to others in the classroom Be withdrawn or not participating in class discussion

41 Where Innovation Is Tradition Other Wounds of War Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) A spinal cord injury occurs when trauma or disease damages the spinal cord and results in partial or complete paralysis Military Sexual Trauma (MST) Includes sexual assault, sexual threats, bullying, and unwanted touching or grabbing that occurred while in the military ***(Spinal Cord Injuries, 2010; VA MST, 2010)

42 Where Innovation Is Tradition Considering the Needs of Student Veterans

43 Where Innovation Is Tradition Easing the Transition What Student Veterans want faculty to know: “ We are having normal reactions to an abnormal experience.” “No two veterans are alike.” “Each of us has had different experiences.” “Do Not assume that you know my politics or beliefs just because I was in the military.” “I may or may not be ready to talk about my experiences.” “Trust can be an issue for me.” “Being friendly and listening can go a long way toward building trust.” “Do Not be afraid of me.” “We are accustomed to being successful and may be too proud to ask for help.” ***(Pfeffer, 2010)

44 Where Innovation Is Tradition Easing the Transition Have an open dialogue about frustrations Discuss career goals Provide them with information about various services and resources available as seems appropriate Office of Military Services University Career Services Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS) Office of Disability Services Virginia Department of Veterans Affairs Fairfax Field Office, Dept of VA National Center for PTSD Virginia Wounded Warrior Program “We are Virginia Veterans” Remember that each student is unique in their experiences

45 Where Innovation Is Tradition Considering the Needs: Disability Services What the MAP volunteer should know: Do not ask or suggest that the Student Veteran has a disability, but inquire about the issues they are experiencing to better provide the appropriate resources “Academic Services” sheet to guide discussion Become familiar with information provided on Disability Support Service website for those who may request such services –Students may need extra help navigating the system and understanding what help is available to them –Provide the student with contact information if requested for Disability Support Service Office –Assist in making an appointment, if needed

46 Where Innovation Is Tradition Suggested Questions To Ask a Student Veteran Express appreciation for their service What branch of service How long they were in the military What was your job or specialty How many deployments When, where, how long How has your experience at the university been Could you be called back to active duty Can you still be deployed Do not ask if they have killed someone Do not ask how they were injured

47 Where Innovation Is Tradition Communication IF A SERVICE MEMBER OR VETERAN OPENLY DISCUSSES HIS OR HER EXPERIENCE: DO NOT INTERRUPT, DO NOT MINIMIZE, DO NOT INJECT YOUR POLITICAL BELIEFS ABOUT THE WAR. JUST LISTEN

48 Where Innovation Is Tradition Things to Remember Students veterans are a unique population with different experience There are numerous ways to help Student Veterans just as there are for other student populations Developing trust with this population is important Following-up with the Student Veterans and carrying out what you say you will do is essential.

49 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Scenario A Student Veteran approaches you because she is struggling in her classes. She goes to class every day, takes notes, and allots time each day to study. She feels frustrated because no matter how much time she puts into it, she is not getting the grades she wants. How do you help her?

50 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Ask the veteran if she has always had difficulties with school work, or if this is new Assist the veteran in searching for classroom help −Tell her about Learning Services and The Writing Center −Ask her if she is in a study group or would want to join one −Recommend talking to her instructor or T.A. If she acknowledges that she has a disability, ask if she has gone to the Office of Disability Services (ODS) Suggest peer mentoring in the “Battle Buddies” program Have a discussion about her well being −Is she sleeping and eating well? Have a discussion about her academic success and implications for her GI Bill

51 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Scenario A Reservist sees the “MAP” shield on your door and comes in because she has received orders for a week long training that will occur during the middle of the semester. She has an exam during that week and her professor states in the syllabus that there are absolutely no make-up exams.

52 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Inform the student that she must provide documentation of her orders to the professor as soon as she receives them Encourage her to talk to her professor Encourage her to meet with her academic/faculty Review the policy related to attendance

53 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Scenario A student comes to your office because he is experiencing problems with his G.I. Bill. Because of his unpaid tuition, there is a hold on his account and he is unable to register for classes he needs to graduate.

54 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Encourage the student to visit The Office of Military Services Explain Student Accounts, Office of the Registrar, and The Office of Military Services have a collaborative relationship Encourage him to talk to his academic/faculty to see if they could hold a spot in the classroom for him

55 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Scenario A student Reservist comes to your office and is anticipating being deployed. He is unsure whether it will be before the end of the semester and is unaware of how he should proceed.

56 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Review with the student the university policy regarding options for activity duty military students who are deployed Mason Military Activation Policy Encourage him to talk to his academic/faculty and professor Discuss options for incomplete grades Discuss available online courses Discuss completing work early Military Withdraw or Military Incompletes are available and need to be taken care of before he leaves

57 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Continued Talk with the student about the upcoming deployment Discuss his or her fears and hopes of the deployment Understand that the student is under a lot of pressure and time restraints –It may seem more important to faculty members to discuss withdrawing from classes, but remember the student is preparing for war There are other things that take greater importance Stay in contact and ensure he receives the needed assistance

58 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Scenario A Student Veteran comes to your office to discuss her GPA. When deployed, she did not withdraw from classes and received failing grades. Since restarting school and no longer being in the military, she has consistently received good grades but due to the past, her GPA is affecting her financial aid status.

59 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Encourage her to talk to Financial Aid Encourage her to talk to her academic/faculty Encourage her to learn about the appeals process If needed, help her draft an appeals letter

60 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Scenario A Student Veteran comes to you because he is frustrated about his classes. The material he is learning is exactly what he learned while he was in the military. He does not understand why he has to repeat the course. What do you do?

61 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Empathize with his frustrations Treat this student like any other advisee who has come to you with an issue Explain the advantages of already having the experience and knowledge Explain how he can help others in his class and take a leadership role Ask questions about his major and experience in the military Help him schedule an appointment with his academic/faculty

62 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Scenario A Student Veteran comes to you because he feels very alone on campus. He was use to being constantly surrounded by individuals who share his goals and values. Since he has come to campus, he has not met anyone like that. He feels isolated and alone. How do you help this student?

63 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Inform him of what resources are available on campus Help link the Veteran to other Veterans The Veterans Society of George Mason University –Introducing the Veteran to other Student Veterans may allow him to develop a social network on campus Ask the Veteran what interests him or her Suggest joining student groups on campus that have similar interests Follow-up with student

64 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Scenario A Student Veteran sees the “MAP” sticker on your door and decides to stop in to chat. She is having difficulty deciding on a major. She has a lot of skills from her military experience but is not sure she wants to stay on that path. How do you help her?

65 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Under the G.I. Bill requirements, Student Veterans must declare a major within two semesters, which may cause additional stress Listen to Student and ask questions about her military training Ask what she enjoyed the most; encourage her think about whether or not she is interested in transitioning those skills into her education and future career Ask her “Where do you see yourself in 10 years?” Suggest to her the Career Center on campus Websites have been created to assist translating military skills to civilian jobs Civilian-Language/

66 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Scenario A Student Veteran comes to you for his scheduled academic advising appointment. During the session he mentions that he did two tours in Iraq. How do you respond?

67 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Show interest If the Veteran wants to talk about his experience, listen and provide a safe environment to the student. Listening to the Veteran can go a long way toward building rapport. If you have limited time to be with the Veteran, express your interest in his service and set up another appointment to further discuss his experiences Ask how his experiences may be helping or hindering his student experience Remember that every situation is going to be different

68 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Scenario A Student Veteran comes to you because he is nearly on academic probation. He has trouble getting to class because it is a struggle for him to get out of bed most days. How do you help him?

69 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Have an open dialogue about the classes that he can not wake up for It may simply be that he does not have an interest in the classes and can not wake up for them Is he struggling with these same issues in other areas of his life? Discuss with the student Student Health ServicesStudent Health Services Provide information about available resources Encourage student to meet with his academic/faculty advisor Follow up with the Veteran to see how he is doing

70 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Scenario A Student Veteran who has a spinal cord injury comes to your office. He read in his syllabus that special accommodations can be made for students who have a disability. He currently does not have any issues in his classes but wants more information on how they can help him in the future. How do you help him?

71 Where Innovation Is Tradition Discussion Refer to the Office of Disability Services (ODS) ODS Website Link Director, Linn Jorgenson,

72 Where Innovation Is Tradition Resources

73 Where Innovation Is Tradition Resources on Campus Office of Military Services George Mason University 4400 University Drive, MS 3A4 Fairfax, Virginia Phone: Fax: Office of the Registrar Veteran Enrollment Certification George Mason University 4400 University Drive, MS 3D1 Fairfax, Virginia Phone: Office of Disability Services George Mason University 4400 University Drive Fairfax, Virginia Phone: Website: Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS) George Mason University 4400 University Drive, MS 2A2 Fairfax, Virginia Phone: Website:

74 Where Innovation Is Tradition VA Resources Veteran Administration Website Student Veterans need their DD-214 forms List of VA hospitals and community outreach centers Connects Veterans to health benefits –5 year eligibility for no-cost health care for conditions related to service –Mental health treatment –Vet Centers for outpatient mental health treatment

75 Where Innovation Is Tradition Veterans Resources Virginia Wounded Warrior Program Post 9/11 GI Bill website Virginia Department of Veterans Services

76 Where Innovation Is Tradition Veteran Associations Wounded Warrior Project Mission “To honor and empower wounded warriors.” Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW) Its mission is to "honor the dead by helping the living" through veterans' service, community service, national security and a strong national defense American Legion veterans service organization, committed to mentoring and sponsorship of youth programs in our communities, advocating patriotism and honor, promoting a strong national security, and continued devotion to our fellow servicemembers and veterans.

77 Where Innovation Is Tradition Veteran Associations Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans of America Providing assistance, advocacy, educations, and support to veterans of both conflicts Disabled Veterans Association DAV is an advocacy group that helps ensure that active duty and veterans receive the benefits and compensations that were guaranteed to them when they enlisted

78 Where Innovation Is Tradition Community Resources Aurora Foundation In support of the Aurora Foundation’s mission, they will assist student veterans with the identification of internship opportunities in various fields & industries. Support Our Troops “Civilians stepped forward and founded the permanent national nonprofit Support Our Troops as a concrete statement of thanks to our troops. They look out for our families, let's look out for theirs.”

79 Where Innovation Is Tradition Community Resources PTSD The National Center for PTSD After Deployment is a mental wellness resource guide for soldiers. PTSD and Women

80 Where Innovation Is Tradition Community Resources TBI Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center National Center for Injury Prevention and Control information on TBI Soldiers with Traumatic Brain Injury brochure

81 Where Innovation Is Tradition Community Resources SCI VA Spinal Cord Injury National Spinal Cord Injury Association

82 Where Innovation Is Tradition Community Resources Substance Abuse National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Alcoholics Anonymous National Institute on Drug Abuse National Clearinghouse on Alcohol and Drug Information Army Center for Substance Abuse Programs with links to world-wide ASAP locations Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration HELP

83 Where Innovation Is Tradition Community Resources MST VA MST information MyDuty.mil Provides information and guidance on reporting MST Military Rape Crisis Center Has a chart for off-base rape crisis centers located near military bases

84 Where Innovation Is Tradition Community Resources Suicide The National Suicide Prevention Hotline TALK (8255) Press 1 for Veterans American Foundation for Suicide Prevention Suicide Prevention Resource Center

85 Where Innovation Is Tradition References American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. (2010). American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author. Gewirtz, A., DeGarmo, D., Polushy, M., Khaylis, A., & Erbes, C. (2010). Post-traumatic stress symptoms among National Guard soldiers deployed to Iraq: Associations with parenting behaviors and couple adjustment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(5), Franklin, K. (2009). Understanding the challenges of marriage, parenting, and family life for returning veterans and military families: The Deployment Cycle and Reintegration Challenges. Hoge, C., Castro, C., Messer, J., McGurk, D., Cotting, D., & Koffman, R. (2004). Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan: Mental health problems and barriers to care. New England Journal of Medicine, 35(1), Hoge, E.A., Austin, E.D. & Pollack, M.H. (2007). Resilience: Research evidence and conceptual considerations for posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 24, Jones, K., Young, T., & Leppma, M. (2010). Mild traumatic brain injury and post traumatic stress disorder in returning Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans: Implications for assessment and diagnosis. Journal of Counseling and Development, 88(3),

86 Where Innovation Is Tradition References Mundt., J. (2009). PTSD in the new generation of combat veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan: What the non- VA clinician needs to know. Medical Educational Services Ins. Professional Development Network. Eau, WI. Pfeffer, D. (2010). Quality Instructional Services for Veterans And Military Family Members, Webinar. Santrock., J. (2005). Adolescence. McGrawHill. New York, NY. Savych, B. (2009). Effects of deployment on spouses of military personnel. Humanities and Social Sciences, Schupp., J. (2010). SERV VCU. Supportive education for the returning veteran. Helping Virginia’s Best, Brightest, and Bravest get their degree, Webinar. Spinal Cord Injuries. (2010). Thomas, J. Wilk, J. Riviere, L., McGurk, D., Castro, C., Hoge, C. (2010) Prevalence of mental health problems and functional impairment among active component National Guard soldiers 3 and 12 months following combat in Iraq. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(6), TraumaticBrainInjury.com. (2010). VA MST. (2010). VCU. (2010). Veteran’s Census; Fall 2010.


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