7QuestionTell whether the following statement is true or false: Abdominal muscles are used during forced urination.
8AnswerSympathetic nervous systemThe micturition center in the pons and the spinal reflex respond to stretch receptors in the bladder to stimulate urination. The parasympathetic nervous system neurons are stimulated by the spinal reflex to cause urination. Sympathetic NS (fight-or-flight) decreases activity in both the excretory and digestive systems.
9AnswerTrue Passive urination occurs when the bladder’s detrusor muscle contracts, and both internal and external sphincter muscles are relaxed. Abdominal muscles contract in order to force the excretion of urine.
10Parasympathetic Nerves bladder fillsstretchspinal reflexwith urinereceptorsstimulateddetrusorparasympatheticmuscleM3 receptorsneuronscontractsM3 receptorsinternal sphincterrelaxes and is pulledopen
11Micturition Center Allows Conscious Control center instretchbladder fillsponsreceptorswith urinestimulateddetrusormusclecontractsexternalinternal sphinctersphincterrelaxes and is pulledrelaxesopen
12QuestionAll but which of the following stimulates urination?Parasympathetic nervous system neuronsMicturition centerSympathetic nervous centerSpinal reflex
13AnswerSympathetic nervous systemThe micturition center in the pons and the spinal reflex respond to stretch receptors in the bladder to stimulate urination. The parasympathetic nervous system neurons are stimulated by the spinal reflex to cause urination.SNS (fight-or-flight) decreases activity in both the excretory and digestive systems.
14ScenarioA 63-year-old woman complains of stress incontinence, and her 60-year-old husband complains of difficulty voiding.Question:Why do people of the same age and lifestyle have opposite problems with urination?
15Male vs. Female Urethra Female is urethra 2.5–3.5 cm long Allows urine to pass more freelyMale urethra 16.5–18.5 cm longPasses through prostate
16QuestionTell whether the following statement is true or false: Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) has no effect on the elimination of urine.
17AnswerFalse Because the male urethra passes through the prostate gland, if the gland increases in size the urethra may become compressed or obstructed. This decreases the diameter of the urethra’s lumen, and the ability to urinate is diminished.
18ScenarioSix months later, the husband develops urgency and incontinence…The doctor explains that it is due to his muscle strength.Question:Which muscles is the doctor talking about?How did they cause incontinence?
19Bladder Wall Hypertrophy The bladder may also pouch outward in diverticuli