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Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits.

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Presentation on theme: "Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits."— Presentation transcript:

1 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Evidence Based Practices for Phonological Awareness Intervention Susan Rvachew School of Communication Sciences and Disorders McGill University

2 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Phonological awareness The knowledge that spoken words can be segmented into abstract phonological units. Phonological Word σσσ O R Foot NNN C ð ə k l ɑ z ɪ t

3 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Evidence Based Practice Integrate your own clinical expertise, the patient’s values and preferences, and the best research evidence to make decisions about the care of individual patients. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004). Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders: An Introduction [Technical report]. Available at: members/deskref-journals/deskref/defaulthttp://www.asha.org/

4 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Application of EBP Underlying Theory Basic research Clinical trials Appropriateness of context Professional experience

5 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Underlying Theory and Basic Research 1. Why is phonological awareness so important? 2. What are the variables that are associated with the emergence of phonological awareness skills?

6 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. LITERACY ORAL LANGUAGE DECODING LETTER KNOW. PHON. AW. VOCABULARY SPEECH PERCEPTION INNATE LEARNING MECHANISMS LANGUAGE INPUT

7 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Basic Research

8 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. LANGUAGE INPUT

9 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Amount of Input Overall amount of parent speech accounts for a substantial amount of variation in vocabulary growth. The relative frequency of exposure to specific words is related to the order of acquisition of those words. Huttenlocher et al (1991) 48 M words 28 M words 12 M words

10 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Complexity of Input (Hoff) TIME ONE 18 TO 21 months TIME TWO 10 weeks later Data Providing Properties Utterances Word tokens Word types Mean length of utterance Social-Pragmatic Properties Joint attention Topic-continuing replies Behavior directives Conversation-eliciting questions Growth in: Lexical Diversity MLU

11 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Complexity of Input (Snow) Density of sophisticated words Embedding sophisticated words in helpful or instructive interactions INPUT AT AGE FIVE YEARS Predicted 50% of variance in Receptive Vocabulary OUTPUT AT AGE SEVEN YEARS Wow! What a big truck! Wow! What a large vehicle! Look at this truck on the road. That’s a large vehicle!

12 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. INNATE LEARNING MECHANISMS LANGUAGE INPUT

13 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Cognitive Learning Mechanisms: Categorization Skills In the first year of life, infants acquire language-specific speech perception skills. Visual categorization skills are associated with the acquisition of language specific knowledge of the maternal speech sound system. Speech perception and visual categorization both involve statistical learning.

14 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Visual Categorization: Habituation Stimuli

15 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Visual Categorization: Test Stimuli NOVEL CORRELATED UNCORRELATED

16 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Looking Time (sec) to Test Stimuli by Perception Status

17 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Social Learning Mechanisms Typically, infants prefer speech to any other type of auditory input Infants especially like their mother’s speech, produced in an infant directed register. Some infants appear to be born without this preference for speech input. Hearing impairment interferes with attention to speech.

18 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Preference for Speech

19 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Perceptual Learning Mechanisms: Newborns at-risk for Dyslexia Control Group At Risk Group

20 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. INNATE LEARNING MECHANISMS LANGUAGE INPUT

21 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. SES x PA Interaction

22 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Input x Group Interaction 1.5 words 2.5 words 0 words 2.5 words

23 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. VOCABULARY SPEECH PERCEPTION INNATE LEARNING MECHANISMS LANGUAGE INPUT

24 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Infant Speech Perception/ Toddler Language Phrases and words understood, 13 m Words produced, 13 m Words understood and produced, 16 m Regular and irregular words produced, 24 m Grammatical complexity, 24 m

25 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. VOCABULARY SPEECH PERCEPTION INNATE LEARNING MECHANISMS LANGUAGE INPUT ORAL LANGUAGE

26 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Semantic and Lexical Bootstrapping

27 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. VOCABULARY SPEECH PERCEPTION INNATE LEARNING MECHANISMS LANGUAGE INPUT PHON. AW. ORAL LANGUAGE

28 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Speech Perception Phonological Awareness Emergent Literacy Articulation Vocabulary

29 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Speech Perception, Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness

30 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Speech Perception, Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness

31 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Speech Perception, Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness

32 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Speech Perception, Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness

33 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. ORAL LANGUAGE PHON. AW. VOCABULARY SPEECH PERCEPTION INNATE LEARNING MECHANISMS LANGUAGE INPUT DECODING LETTER KNOW.

34 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. PA, Letter Knowledge, Decoding

35 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. ORAL LANGUAGE DECODING LETTER KNOW. PHON. AW. VOCABULARY SPEECH PERCEPTION INNATE LEARNING MECHANISMS LANGUAGE INPUT LITERACY

36 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. K Code Related Skills K Oral Language Skills Gr 1-2 (Word) Reading Gr 1-2 Oral Language Skills Gr 3-4 Oral Language Skills Gr 3-4 Reading Comprehension Gr 3-4 Reading Accuracy

37 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. ORAL LANGUAGE DECODING LETTER KNOW. PHON. AW. VOCABULARY SPEECH PERCEPTION INNATE LEARNING MECHANISMS LANGUAGE INPUT LITERACY

38 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Canadian Reading Levels A recent Statistics Canada report concluded that a one percent increase in the average literacy level in Canada would create a permanent increase in the GDP of more than 18 billion dollars per year. Statistics Canada, Literacy scores, human capital and growth.

39 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. PHON. AW. VOCABULARY SPEECH PERCEPTION

40 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Vocabulary Interventions I.Abecedarian Project II.Interactive Book Reading III.Focused Stimulation

41 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Abecedarian Project Context Minority (largely African-American) families Healthy newborns believed to be free of biological conditions associated with mental retardation “High-risk” score on checklist that included family income and maternal education Goal Assess the effects of early intervention on cognitive and academic outcomes using a prospective randomized controlled trial

42 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Study Design 111 infants recruited (1972 – 1977) random assignment INFANT TREATMENT INFANT CONTROL random assignment PRESCHOOL TREATMENT PRESCHOOL CONTROL PRESCHOOL TREATMENT FOLLOW-UP ASSESSMENTS AT 6.5, 8, 12, 15, AND 21 YEARS OF AGE OUTCOME ASSESSMENT AT 3 YEARS OF AGE

43 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Infant Treatment vs. Control Attended childcare center full-time Systematic language focused but comprehensive curriculum Low teacher:child ratio (1:3 to 1:6) Well-trained teachers Transportation provided Social work as needed Parent selected child care Iron-fortified formula Disposable diapers Social work services as needed

44 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Learning Games Curriculum

45 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds.

46 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds.

47 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Preschool Treatment vs. Control Home-school resource teacher assigned to each child Worked to increase parental involvement in their child’s learning Devised individualized curriculum packets based on child’s needs as identified by the teacher 15 minutes a day Regular preschool program

48 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Cognitive Growth Scores Infant Treatment Infant Control

49 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Young Adult Reading Outcome Gr 8 Gr IP 10.3 IC 9.6 CP 8.9 CC

50 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Young Adult Reading Outcome Gr 8 Gr 12 Significantly higher than CC control group

51 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Overall Benefits of Early Intervention Programs Children enrolled more likely to experience positive life outcomes such as: Enrolled in college Skilled trade or higher level employment Not teen parent Not smoker or illegal drug user Not incarcerated Cost benefit of preschool education estimated to exceed the average rate of return on investments in the stock market.

52 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Vocabulary Interventions I.Abecedarian Project II.Interactive Book Reading III.Focused Stimulation

53 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Interactive Book Reading Context Preschool aged children (3;10 to 4;10) from poor families, attending Head Start preschools 1 early intervention teacher and 1 assistant and 18 to 20 children in each classroom Goal To teach preschool teachers discourse and book reading strategies To assess the effect of these strategies on child vocabulary development

54 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Wasik et al.: Design Two Head Start Centres Random Assignment One centre: 10 teachers 139 children One centre: 6 teachers 68 children Full time attendance in Head Start program September to June Teacher Training Prop Boxes Books No Teacher Training No Prop Boxes Same Books Provided Pretests of Children’s Language and Literacy Skills Post-tests of Children’s Language and Literacy Skills

55 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Teacher Training Program Group training with all intervention teachers once a month for two hours plus a minimum of 2 hours of direct coaching per month For each strategy taught: Explanations (What is it? Why is it important? How to implement it in the classroom?) Modeling of strategy in the classroom After two week practice period, observe teachers and provide written and oral feedback

56 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Book Reading Strategies Introduce vocabulary, using props and questions, before reading the book Ask open-ended questions while reading the book Read the book once a day for a week Build connections through related art and centre activities

57 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Oral Language Strategies Practice and promote active listening Expand or recast what the child says and ask follow- up questions Encourage children to listen to each other and talk one at a time Model rich language More sophisticated vocabulary Elaborated instructions and explanations Provide feedback Informational talk

58 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Bi-weekly Prop Boxes

59 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Teacher Use of Open Questions

60 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Child Language Outcomes Blue: Intervention Orange: Control Solid: Receptive Language Dashed: Expressive Language

61 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Caution Other studies of efforts to improve preschool teacher’s language and literacy promotion skills have reported poor retention of skills during follow-up observations of teacher behaviors. Why? Possibly… Lower intensity of program Less direct coaching of teachers Less structured interventions

62 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Vocabulary Interventions I.Abecedarian Project II.Head Start Project III.Focused Stimulation

63 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Focused Stimulation Context Late Talkers Preschoolers with Specific or Nonspecific Language Impairment Goals Assess the impact of Focused Stimulation on the expressive vocabulary or expressive grammar, when administered by SLPs or parents.

64 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Girolametto: Study Design Recruited 25 toddlers with expressive vocabulary below 5 th percentile Random assignment Immediate Treatment Condition n = 12 Delayed Treatment Control n = 13 Post-test assessments 12 to 15 weeks later

65 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Intervention Procedures Parents Hanen program for parents was taught by SLPs 8 evening parent group sessions 3 home visits Lecture, videotaping, role play, group discussion Children 10 target words selected (comprehended but not used productively, first sound within child’s phonetic repertoire, motivating) Parents provided focused stimulation in natural environment Parents set up new routines to provide opportunities to model the target words repeatedly

66 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Girolametto: Expressive vocabulary outcome

67 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Fey: Study Design Recruited 19 children, aged 3;8 to 5;10 with DSS < 10 th percentile Random assignment SLP treatment n = 6 Parent treatment n = 5 Delayed treatment n = 8 Post-Treatment Assessment 4 ½ months later Recruited 10 more children + 8 delayed treatment children Random assignment SLP treatment n = Parent treatment n = Post-Treatment Assessment 4 ½ months later

68 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Goal Attack Strategy 4 targets per child, selected individually 2 or more targets represented a common grammatical principal or operation (e.g., will/is, I/she) Target changed from week to week in a cyclical fashion After first cycle completed targets could be combined or changed and new targets could be added

69 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Intervention Procedures Natural play activities were designed to provide many opportunities for the child to hear and attempt the specific target The target was modeled frequently, especially in highly salient contexts The child’s attempts at the target were expanded or recast

70 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Fey: DSS Outcome PretreatmentPost-treatment Control Clinician focused stimulation Parent focused stimulation % 36%

71 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Cost of Parent Intervention 40 hours/child 21 hours/child

72 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Conclusions Parent and ECE teacher language interventions can be efficacious and cost- effective, provided that: The intervention program has specific goals The intervention program is structured The intervention program is intensive The parent/teacher training program is intensive The parents/teachers learn and maintain the teaching strategies

73 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Speech Perception Intervention

74 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. PHON. AW. VOCABULARY SPEECH PERCEPTION

75 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Rvachew et al., 2004: Study Design EXPERIMENTAL Pretreatment Assessment Speech Therapy Dialogic Reading EXPERIMENTAL Post-treatment Assessment Follow-up Assessment EXPERIMENTAL Post-treatment Assessment Follow-up Assessment CONTROL Pretreatment Assessment Speech Therapy SAILS

76 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. SAILS: Perception and PA [ɹæt] [wæt] [jæt] Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System. See for more information.www.avaaz.com 1.Phonemic Perception 2.Letter Identification 3.Sound-Symbol Association 4.Onset identification

77 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. SAILS: 16 lessons One module per week: Toe /t/- Pea /p/- Man /m/- Coat /k/- Lamb /l/- Rope /r/- Feet /f/- Soap /s/- Mitt -/t/ Top -/p/ Ham -/m/ Book -/k/ Nail - /l/ Door -/r/ Knife -/f/ Bus -/s/

78 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Dialogic Reading Condition Click the mailbox. Where are Grandma and Little Critter going? What do you think is in Grandma’s basket? What might happen if Little Critter ran out on the road? See for RCT evidence of the effectiveness of this intervention: van Kleeck, A., Vander Woude, J., & Hammett, L. (2006). Fostering literal and inferential skills in Head Start preschoolers with language impairment using book-sharing discussions. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 15,

79 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Results: GFTA errors PretreatmentPost-treatmentFollow-up % resolved 50% resolved control experimental

80 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Results: Percent Consonants Correct

81 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Results: PA Test Scores PretreatmentPost-treatmentFollow-up control experimental

82 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Phonological Awareness Interventions 1.Monsters and Rhymes 2.Sound Foundations 3.Sound Foundations + Dialogic Reading

83 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. PHON. AW. VOCABULARY SPEECH PERCEPTION

84 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. National Reading Panel: Effective Programs Effective programs taught one or two skills to mastery Effective programs lasted between 5 and 18 hours Effective programs made explicit links between PA skills and letter knowledge and/or reading Effective programs taught children in small groups Effective programs were provided early, before or as the children were beginning to learn to read

85 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Levels of PA Vocabulary Speech Perception Large Unit Awareness Letter Sound Knowledge Small Unit Awareness Decoding

86 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Monsters and Rhymes Context Preschool aged children Spring of prekindergarten year Moderate or severe speech sound disorder Goals Ensure age appropriate onset and rime awareness prior to school entry

87 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Monsters and Rhymes Context 4-year-old children with a speech sound disorder but average or above-average vocabulary skills Goals Help the children achieve age-appropriate phonological awareness skills prior to kindergarten onset

88 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Study Design TREATMENT GROUP Pre-Treatment Assessment Treatment Program 8 weekly ¾ - hour sessions Rime Matching, SAILS (onset), Onset Matching Post-Treatment Assessment SPEECH DELAYED COMPARISON GROUP Assessment NORMAL SPEECH COMPARISON GROUP Assessment

89 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Sorting Activities mm

90 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. PAT Outcomes

91 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. PAT Outcomes

92 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. PAT Outcomes

93 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. PAT Outcomes

94 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Torgesen & Lonigan Test of Preschool Early Literacy Print knowledge Definitional vocabulary Phonological awareness C-TOPP Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing

95 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Phonological Awareness Interventions 1.Monsters and Rhymes 2.Sound Foundations 3.Sound Foundations + Dialogic Reading

96 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Byrne et al: Study Design Recruited 128 children from 4 preschool programs Random assignment Intervention n = 12 groups Control n = 12 groups Post-treatment assessment about 12 weeks later Follow-up assessment at end of kindergarten Follow-up assessment at end of grade 1 Follow-up assessment at end of grade 2 Follow-up assessment in grade 5

97 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Intervention vs. Control Rime and phoneme awareness Matching Sorting Identifying Semantic categories Matching Sorting Identifying

98 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Post-treatment Generalization

99 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Follow-up Assessments Nonword decoding significantly better in the experimental group through grade 5 No significant differences for real word reading, spelling, or reading comprehension 16% of experimental group and 28% of control group scored below 75 on one or more reading tests in grade 5

100 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Phonological Awareness Interventions 1.Monsters and Rhymes 2.Sound Foundations 3.Sound Foundations + Dialogic Reading

101 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Hindsen, Byrne et al Intervention: Not At-Risk n = 65 Intervention: At-Risk n = 69 Wait Risk: At-Risk n = 17 Pre-treatment Assessment 17 week intervention Sound Foundations Phonological Awareness Intervention Letter Knowledge Dialogic Reading Post-treatment Assessment

102 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Intervention Program 30 minute sessions (individual), 2 or 3 per week, each targeting (in order) Phoneme identity Visual and tactile exposure to the letter that represents the target phoneme Dialogic book reading Criterion test for the days target

103 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Sound Foundations Targets Initial /s/, /m/, /p/, /l/, /t/, and / æ / Final /s/, /m/, /p/, /l/, and /t/ / ʃ /, /g/, and / ɛ / were omitted from this study but are normally part of this program Procedures Worksheets for sound matching Posters for identifying target words Card games such as Snap Dominoes-like game Recorded jingles with alliteration

104 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Dialogic Reading Completion Dad and Amy drove to the _______. Recall Why were they going to the dump? Open-ended prompts You tell me about this page. Wh-questions What are they doing? Distancing Do you remember when we went to the dump?

105 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Phoneme Identity

106 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Letter Knowledge

107 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Concepts About Print

108 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Receptive Vocabulary (PPVT)

109 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Meaningful Outcome Measurement

110 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Death by Trauma …trauma is the number one cause of death for people under 49 in Canada, and is by far the leading cause of death in children… Mortality rate for most severe trauma cases in the Montreal area by year: 1993: 50% 1998: 18% 2002: 9%

111 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. What made the difference? Evidence based practice Specialization/centralization of experts and equipment Cross-disciplinary collaboration Inter-agency communication Rapid response Triage and prioritization Measuring the important outcome

112 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Critical Age Hypothesis Persistence of speech and language problems into school entry is a risk factor for significantly poorer literacy outcomes over the long term. Important indicators at school entry: Phonological awareness (risk factor) Vocabulary skills (protective factor)

113 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Speech normalization rates for children who received speech therapy for a speech sound disorder

114 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Phonological awareness at kindergarten entry

115 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Randomized trial of community based speech and language therapy in preschool children Treatment N = 71 Watchful Waiting N = 88 Still eligible for treatment receipt after one year 62% 77% > 2 SD below the mean in one or more areas of speech and language functioning after 6 years 38% collapsed across both groups Teacher rating of peer relationship difficulties 26%

116 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Normal speech and hearing by age as a goal for children with cleft palate Normalized performance at age 5: 93% for articulation 93% for resonance 88% for articulation and resonance 95% for receptive language 88% for expressive language 98% for hearing

117 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. What made the difference? Evidence based practice Specialization/centralization of experts and equipment Cross-disciplinary collaboration Inter-agency communication Rapid response Triage and prioritization Measuring the important outcome

118 Réseau canadien de recherche sur le langage et l’alphabétisation CANADIAN LANGUAGE & LITERACY RESEARCH NETWORK Partager la science. Éveiller les esprits. ● sharing the science. opening minds. Acknowledgments Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network. Alberta Children’s Hospital Foundation Alberta Children’s Hospital Jill Newman, Michele Nowak, Patty Delaney-Bernier, Susan Rafaat Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Dr. Robin Gaines McGill University Genevieve Cloutier, Myra Cox, Marie Desmarteau, Natalia Evans, Meghann Grawburg, Joan Heyding, Debbie Hughes, Alyssa Ohberg, Rishanthi Sivakumaran, Alysha Serviss, and Jessica Whitley


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