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10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak1 New Neutrino Detectors for Astro and Particle Physics...a “Bright” Future …a selected overview... L.

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Presentation on theme: "10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak1 New Neutrino Detectors for Astro and Particle Physics...a “Bright” Future …a selected overview... L."— Presentation transcript:

1 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak1 New Neutrino Detectors for Astro and Particle Physics...a “Bright” Future …a selected overview... L. R. Sulak CPPM Marseille and Boston University

2 now in a new era, well past the 1998 advent of neutrino mass and oscillations next a panoply of key, very difficult, experiments measuring precision neutrino oscillation parameters Kayser, Farine...the search for CP violation in the second sector of nature Kobayashi, Lasserre, Wong absolute mass scale...the problem of mass zero neutrino double β decay...neutrino = antineutrino? Thomas neutrino astronomy Connolly, Houghey, Kouchner, Olinta,Tomas all point to high energy scale, possibly Grand Unification scale each physics goal has very different challenges neutrino sources...flux, energy, baseline Blondel, Wagner detectors...shielding, depth, volume neutrinos...physics, as critical as searching for electroweak scale...astronomy, may become important as light... neutrinos merit the many required new detectors

3 ...consider a few selected future operations... IceCube Km 3 Mediterranean astrophysical observatory...complement to IceCube 12 string Antares detector well underway...counterpart to Amanda first data from Nestor prototype “star” Km 3 design study in approval process (10 M Euro request) 3 sites and 2 technologies SNOLab... a “new” international lab, in transition expansion program to accommodate many experiments ($50 M) SNO detector, and KamLAND...have done there duty Frejus Lab...a home for Megaton? next step in search for proton decay...key to early universe, 10 16 GeV...grand unification with potential ideal oscillation distance, energy, and beams from CERN Neutrino facilities planning in the US

4 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak4...the future... Evolution of Major Neutrino Research Worldwide Facility Detectors Neutrino Source SNOLab SNO → SNO+ → SNO++ Bruce Reactor + , Dark Matter,... Soudan Lab Minos→NO A NuMI → p driver+ Kamioka Lab K2K → T2K KEK → JPARC SK→ Hyper-K Gran Sasso Lab Opera, Icarus CNGS → SPL Modane Lab → Megaton CERN → SPL+ South Pole Amanda → IceCube cosmic Radio Č → Anita Mediterranean Antares/Nemo/Nestor → Km 3 cosmic → Acoustic Detection

5 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak5...viewing the heavens below each detector... AMANDA (South Pole) ANTARES (43° North) Never seen PSR B1706-44 RXJ 1713.7-39 Mkn 421 Mkn 501 PKS 2155-30 SN1006 VELA CRAB CasA 1ES2344+514 galactic center only seen by Antares 60% overlap in coverage...systematic checks...neutrino telescopes necessary in both hemispheres ~Never seen PSR B1706-44 RXJ 1713.7-39 Mkn 421 Mkn 501 PKS 2155-30 SN1006 VELA CRAB CasA 1ES2344+514

6 “Proc. Dumand Summer Workshop,” 1976, LRS with Markov & Zheleznykh’s inspiration, ultra high energy neutrino signatures for Dumand (and successors) 1) long penetrating muon tracks, mostly with minimal light 2) short bright hadronic showers if vertex “nearby” signature, & light attenuation length, set spacing & size of light sensors

7 Dumand array concept: ~ as realized in Amanda the same in Antares...but 4 km depth “Proc. Dumand Summer Workshop,” 1976

8 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak8 Amanda technology 80 strings / 60 OM’s each 17 m OM spacing 125 m between strings 1 km 2 hexagonal pattern Surface array: 2 OMs each string top calibrate angular response 100 tagged TeV  /day installation, operation 2005-2010

9 E µ =6 PeV, 1000 hits Amanda II IceCube Simulation 0.6° resolution 20m scattering length

10 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak10 Antares: install, operate ‘05-’07, 60 m sea water, 2.1-2.4 km depth 900 pms, 12 lines, 25 stories/line, 3 pms/story, ~0.1 km 2, 0.2° above 10 TeV, x2-3 energy resolution above 1 TeV ~70 m 350 m 100 m 14.5 m Submarine links Junction Box 40 km to shore Line anchor

11 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak11...deployment of Antares preproduction prototype string, 5 storys 2002

12 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak12 underwater connections for prototype: manned sub, 1 of 4 from Ifremer, based at shore station, Toulon

13 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak13 plugging line for prototype string into the junction box

14 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak14 junction box at depth, with prototype string cable connected

15 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak15 Antares: unreeling cable from junction box to string bottom...Cu for power fiber for signals

16 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak16 plugging-in the pre-production prototype at 2.4 km depth

17 master local control module LED beacon local control module string control module and string power module interlink cable with wet-mateable connector acoustic beacon acoustic receiver 3 optical modules acoustic receiver 12m 100m acoustic releases Antares preproduction prototype (2002-3)...redeploy in October

18 Nestor preprototype deployment rigid “star” architecture March 2003 4 km depth 6 blue optical modules 2 pm’s, up & down 6 yellow floats above pix: white lines to bouy red to LED beacon below, unseen: lines to junction box Kouchner

19 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak19 Run: 63_37 Event: 396 Track Candidate Number of Hits Number of Used Hits Number of Degrees of Freedom Zenith Angle (Degrees) Azimuth Angle (Degrees) Impact Parameter (m) Pseudovertex χ2χ2 -lnL ch Vx (m)Vy (m)Vz (m) 177230 (± 35) 82 ±3)11 (± 21) 30 (± 23) 42 (± 9) 336.5 2772101 (± 10) 33 (± 29) 943 (± 15) 32 (± 16) -4 (± 8) 2.730.3 Nestor: 800 events from 10 6 4-fold triggers

20 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak20 Zenith Angle (degrees) (1/N)dN/dcos(θ) M.C. Prediction Data Points Angular Fits to Nestor Raw Data

21 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak21 Nestor measurement of atmospheric muon flux with Dumand and Antares prototypes, 3 existence proofs for deep underwater technology

22 ...other neutrino detectors... beside geography, why so many facilities? for Megaton... the bigger cavity, the better. for solar and background sensitive exp’ts the deeper, the better e.g. impossible for IMB consider SNO at Sudbury, then Modane at Frejus

23 ...Letters of Intent, presentations from this May… Prospective Experiments at New SNOLab Int’l Facility 6 kmwe, deepest int’l facility: 70 muons/day vs. 26,000/day at Kamioka 2 new halls, 30m x 15m, approved (~1/2 size vs. Gran Sasso), $50 M upgrades potentially in new halls, starting ‘07: Dark Matter Searches Chardin CDMS vs Soudan, SNO depth minimizes muon-induced fast neutrons ZEPLIN dark matter with liquid scintillator, if Boulby is not deep enough CLEAN 1 T (10 T for solar ) self-shielded, scintillating liquid Ne/Xe* XENON drifting charge dark matter search - R & D DRIFT dark matter with pointing using low pressure TPC: PICASSO acoustic detection of nuclear recoil with superheated bubbles in gel Neutrino Experiments HALO SNO 3 He detectors with Pb, supernova neutrinos Noble Liquid Tracking Detectors for solar neutrinos with He or Xe

24 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak24 Double Beta Decay searches Majorana 500 kg of Ge detectors for  : scale up of known technology GERDA (~GENIUS) 1 T Ge crystals in clean Liq N 2, no housings, self-shielded EXO Xe TPC, with laser fluorescence tag of Ba upon decay COBRA CdZnTe...semiconductor, all 3  candidates recyling SNO Detector or Cavity after 3 He neutral current work is done, SNO Phase III over, D 2 O comes out in ’07 SNO+ geo and reactor neutrinos: fill with scintillator with n tag, get 700 kT fiducial SNO++  Decay: scintillator + 1 Ton of Te or Nb nanocrystals or + 2 Ton Xe dissolved gas SNO best facility in world for almost all experiments?...except potential cavity size too small for Megaton

25 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak25...the other lab with a rebirth... Modane Megaton detector: two possible sites, both ~130 km to CERN Fréjus I required second tunnel, near the present lab, ’05-’08 deep covering, 4800 mwe dry rock, good quality, well known question: 5m diameter safety tunnel or 10m roadway? Fréjus II 15 km experimental tunnel for new Lyon-Torino TGV train (actual train tunnel to be longest and deepest in Europe) endorsed by Chirac and Berlusconi on Monday covering of 7000 mwe rock expected to be hard, but not yet studied potentially water, since glaciers above problem: regional support for lab if no entry in France?

26 In Europe, build Megaton for proton decay and supernova while tunneling, super and beta beams later JPARC/T2K: Hyper-K and 2 MW proton source upgrade tentative, pending proton decay hint at Super-K, or favorable θ 13 measurement in T2K...Hyper-K could be much later

27 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak27...under study Modane “Megaton,” 2 detector technologies, 3 geometries 1 MT water Cherenkov à la Hyper-K 100 kT liquid argon Messina

28 ...meanwhile in the USA? Neutrino Physics Planning Processes American Physical Society Neutrino Study ( Kayser, co-chair) recommending high priority neutrino experiments: atmospheric and solar (pp?) astrophysical reactor superbeams neutrino factories and beta beams double beta decay NSF Initiative: A “Deep Engineering and Science Underground Laboratory” 7 potential sites: Henderson, Homestake, Icicle Creek, Kimbleton, San Jacinto, Soudan, WIPP 3 solicitations for proposals: 1) site independent physics justification and requirements (out) 2) site specific proposals, a few to be chosen 3) full proposals, limited to the NSF selected sites

29 ...conclusions... new recognition of importance of neutrino physics and astrophysics relative to electroweak symmetry breaking for pointing, where photons cannot penetrate necessity of coupled source / detector facilities to optimize S/B synergism other needs for proton drivers at CERN, FNAL, JPARC increased luminosity and intensity for other experiments radioactive ion beams...nuclear, biology, medicine all naturally lend themselves to hot neutrino beams within a few years...results expected from Antares, well as other experiments longer term: significant promise for IceCube...Km 3, Megaton...T2K...Hyper-K...bright future for neutrino detectors

30 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak30 this talk is dedicated to Tran hommage for all those Rencontres theory godfather to particle and astroparticle physics and the legacy of neutrino detectors that have followed...and to Kim...we all wouldn’t be here if it weren’t for them

31 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak31

32 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak32 …wither this next step in neutrino physics in Europe? Future European Neutrino Sources and Detectors Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe for Hi Intensity Proton Pulsed Injector CERN accelerator projects: Multi-MegaWatt Proton Linac RFQ preinjector 3MeV @ 50 mA... a project of CEA, CNRS, IN2P3 Linac 43 MeV → 160MeV…5-10 x more protons...R&D Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL at CERN, Proton Driver at FNAL) 160 MeV → 2 GeV x 2 mA = 4 MW goal for 2014 the promise for neutrino physics: Super-intense CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (SCNGS) 2 x more neutrinos (limited by other elements in complex) Super (but conventional) Neutrino Beams...many more neutrinos (Advantages for LHC (robust operation, hi luminosity for UltraLHC, rare K decays, etc 3-4 x more protons on target)

33 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak33...using the great depth... SNO+ as low energy solar neutrino detector 7 Be 0.86 MeV line 10% calculational, 40% experimental uncertainty...difficult pep 1.44 MeV line...a precision measurement 1% predicted uncertainty...3000/year oscillated muon-induced 11 C → e + gives 1 MeV within 20 minutes untenable background in KamLAND, Borexino SNO+ : with only 70 muons/day track muon and veto 1 m radius around it

34 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak34

35 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak35 Satellite-based Air Cherenkov telescopes EUSO and OWL >1000 GTon mass Radio Cherenkov seen by balloon above South polar cap Anita EeV neutrinos...e.g. from GKZ pions produced by protons on CMB photons

36 ...astro successes of water Cherenkov detectors... first physics beyond standard model from cosmic neutrinos mass and oscillation...most cited exp’tal paper of all time first extra-terrestrial neutrinos, imaging sun with them first extra-galactic neutrinos – SN 1987A the truly early universe, and grand unification still an ultimate goal,...but awaiting discovery annihilations of susy particles in sun, galactic center high energy point sources (e.g. active galactic nuclei, grbs)

37 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak37...potential future of SNO+ Detector, for geo and reactor neutrinos... A Closer Look at SNO+ infrastructure for low background work e.g. low Rn cover gas (N 2 ), 1 neutron capture/day from U&Th 1 kT of low background liquid scintillator, as in KamLAND w/ 10 -17 Geological electron anti-neutrinos energy = 3.4 MeV - 1.8 MeV Q = 1.6 MeV positron + 1 MeV e + e - annihilation = 2.6 MeV deposited for KamLAND: at 180 km from reactors, looking for geo at <2.6 MeV confused with 2nd oscillation minimum at 3 MeV...hard to extract geo since reactor spectrum distorted just there and only ~ 40 geo  neutrinos per year

38 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak38...but geo-neutrinos and reactor neutrinos difficult to separate consider geo signal to noise for KamLAND:

39 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. important is distance from reactor? SNO+ vs. KamLAND SNO+ is 240 km from 14 GW Bruce vs KamLAND at 180 km from 80 GW 2nd reactor oscillation minimum moves up x 1.5 to 5 MeV reactor flux is max no geo signal >3.4 MeV...clean for reactor neutrinos narrower dip  sharper spectral distortion a notch at 5 MeV 80 events / year, if no reactor oscillations note subtle difference in pattern with Casper’s Oscillator for geo-neutrinos, look < 2.6 MeV, at SNO+ many fewer reactor neutrinos (1 reactor, further away) oscillation pattern smeared out 64 geo-neutrino events / year vs. 29 at KamLAND & 10 at Borexino U/Th neutrino source thick continental crust, vs. the thin coastal crust in Japan SNO+... ideal to separate geo from reactor neutrinos

40 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak40 KamLAND D. Casper’s  Oscillator

41 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak41 D. Casper’s  Oscillator SNO+

42 10 August 2004Vth Rencontres du Vietnam - L. Sulak42 Advantages of either Frejus Site independent, horizontal access neutrino super-beams and beta beams likely upgrades to CERN at “magic distance” and right L/E (130 km/0.3 GeV) for those beams if LEP RF cavities recycled, 2.2 GeV protons give 0.3 GeV higher energy, muon/pion discrimination a problem lower energy, muons don’t make enough Cherenkov light in water (further away, higher E, as in US, e/  o /  separation a problem for Č French and Italian joint initiative “extension” of Gran Sasso Lab... water prevents a Megaton cavity preliminary study of large cavity (10 6 m 3 ) at both Fréjus sites maximum possible size of cavity for each of 3 shapes? cost and time of excavation?

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