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Pelatihan : Techniques in Active Tectonic Study Juni 20-Juli 2, 2013 Instruktur: Prof. J Ramon Arrowsmith (JRA) Dari Arizona State University (ASU) - US Tempat Pelaksanaan: Ruang Pangea, Laboratorium Gempabumi (LabEarth) – Puslit Geoteknologi LIPI dan Kuliah lapangan akan dilakukan disekitar Sesar Lembang, Jawa Barat. * Lebih jelas baca TOR/KAK dan daftar acara

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3D dislocations

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Idealized Elastic Material Linear relationship between force and extension (Hooke, 1676): –C e I I I n o s s s t t u u –Ut tensio sic uis –As extension so the force

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http://silver.neep.wisc.edu/~lakes/PoissonIntro.html

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a = f/A e a = (b-B)/B p = 0 e p = (w-W)/W = - e p / e a (Poisson ratio) Measures compressibility

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E (young’s modulus) = d a /d e a Units of stress

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Idealized Elastic Material -Jaeger, Cooke, Zimmerman

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Idealized Elastic Material

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Elastic constants Lame’s constant Describes effects of dilatation on tensile stress Shear modulus Relates shear strain to shear stress Bulk modulus Relates volumetric strain to mean stress E is Young’s modulus which is the ratio of axial stress to axial strain V is Poisson’s ratio which is the negative of the ratio of transverse to longitudinal strain --You only need two moduli to get the others

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Okada, 1992 and 3D dislocations “Industry standard” for boundary element 3D elastic deformation modeling Linear elastic half space Rectangular elements Displacement boundary conditions Stress boundary conditions come from equivalent strain and displacement discontinuity

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Displacement due to a point force -ith component of displacement due to the point force in the jth direction Part A: infinite medium terms Part B: surface deformation related term Part C: depth multiplied term Other elastic field components

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Definition of geometry for rectangular source

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Displacements due to discontinuity along finite rectangular source --Integrate point sources along strike and dip Strike direction Dip direction (C: image) Opening direction (C: image) Part A: infinite medium terms Part B: surface deformation related term Part C: depth multiplied term

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http://quake.usgs.gov/research/deformation/modeling/coulomb/index.html

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Coulomb

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3D normal fault with constant stress drop

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Poly3D color figure of the displacement Ux at both the free surface observation plane and the vertical observation plane Stress component Sxy at both the free surface observation plane and the vertical observation plane

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