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Presentation on theme: "SEJARAH PENDIDIKAN ISLAM 2"— Presentation transcript:

Ukhti Diwi Abbas

2 Tokoh-Tokoh pada zaman
Topik Tokoh-Tokoh pada zaman kegemilangan Islam Ibn Tufayl Ibn Khaldun

3 Ibn Tufayl “If there is a Being Whose Perfection is infinite,….then to lose hold of such a Being …must mean infinite torture. Likewise to preserve constant awareness of Him is to know joy without lapse, unending bliss, rapture and delight”

4 Spanish Scholar Medieval era
Name Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Abd Al-Malik Ibn Muhammad Ibn Tufayl al-Qaysi Birth 1106 in Guadix (Granada) Death 1185/ 581 AH in Marrakesh His work Physician, Qadi & Vizier to Caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf Main Interests Philosophy, Poetry, Astronomy, Medicine Notable Work Hayy Ibn Yaqzan = (The Living one, Son of the Vigilant)

5 Ibn Tufayl’s Educational Philosophy
What is education? What is personal development? How does human growth take place? How can a man attain fulfillment?

6 Hayy Ibn Yaqzan A philosophical fiction
Translated into Hebrew (14th C.), Latin (17th C.), English (1674) and most European languages. Daniel Defoe’s central idea in his ‘Robinson Crusoe’ was claimed to have been borrowed from Hayy Ibn Yaqzan

7 Hayy Ibn Yaqzan A baby boy, Hayy, was born in a deserted island (legend has it that he was thrown to the island by the sister of a king in order to keep her marriage to Yaqzan a secret) He was nourished and cared for by a deer As a result of dissecting the deer, on its death, he becomes to understand – through his powers of observation and reflection – that death results from the dissolution of the union of spirit and body

8 Hayy Ibn Yaqzan He then compares the objects around him, and discriminates between them, and classifies them into minerals, plants and animals. Each of them has a common factor = body Each class of objects has a specific form or soul But soul is imperceptible, so there must be an eternal and necessary Being that creates these souls

9 Hayy Ibn Yaqzan Hayy met Asal (a contemplative and meditative soul) from a neighbouring inhabited island who wanted to be in solitude Asal informs Hayy about Quranic conceptions of God, His Angels, prophets, etc. Hayy immediately accept Asal’s explanations as truths He followed Asal to his island in the hope of reforming the people there

10 Hayy Ibn Yaqzan Hayy endeavours hard to enlighten the masses through pure concepts In the end, he finds these concepts to prove to be too difficult for the masses to understand He realises the wisdom of the Prophet in giving them sensuous forms instead of full light He returns to his lonely island and is absorbed in contemplation

11 Hayy Ibn Yaqzan Without the help of tradition and revelation, man can attain knowledge of the natural world and reality and, through this to knowledge of God. Even if God has not revealed Himself through His prophets, He would have been discovered by scientists, mystics and philosophers through their studies of nature, the human self and the universe.

12 Ibn Khaldun “Intelek masih belum boleh dianggap intelek sehinggalah ianya dikongsi dan menyumbang kepada kebaikan masyarakat”

13 Ibn Khaldun

14 Arab Scholar Medieval era
Name Ibn Khaldun [Abū Zayd ‘Abdu r-Raḥman bin Muḥammad bin Khaldūn al-Ḥaḍramī] Birth 27 May, 1332/1 Ramadan 732 AH in Tunis Death 19 March, 1406/26 Ramadan 808 AH in Cairo Scholarly Title Wali-ad-din - “Guardian of the Religion” School / Tradition Ash'ari Main Interests Sociology, History, Historiography, Demography, Economics, Philosophy of History. Notable Ideas Asabiyah

15 Education & Early Years
Family social and political activist received a classical Arabic education studying the Qur'an and Arabic linguistics, the basis for an understanding of the Qur'an, Hadith [1] and Fiqh [2] mathematics, logic and philosophy lost both his parents to an epidemic of the plague which hit Tunis, when he was 17 years old In a typical Muslim family, follow family tradition is common, that is where he strove for a political career And he life adventure begin, in which he spends time in prison, reaches the highest offices and falls again into exile.

16 His travels He had lived (due to work and studies) in Tunisia, Fez (Morocco), Granada (Spain) & Egypt He made acute observation of the societies he visited & he wrote Muqaddimah He worked on Muqaddimah & finished it in November 1377

17 Educational Influence
Khaldun’s analysis concludes that science & education & teaching determine cultural prosperity & that “open minded thinking” about unknown principles and crossing disciplines is key; advocates comprehensive but staged education using simple humane (non-aggressive) methods combining balanced mix of theory & practice.

18 Educational Approach Students should not be forced to memorize
Subjects should not be taught in a broken sequence Two subjects should not be taught together Appropriate length of subjects taught It is harmful to be very strict on a student Traveling and conferencing with scholars is useful for education Education should be practical Learning science requires skill

19 Pedagogi Ibn Khaldun Kanak-kanak didedahkan terlebih dahulu dengan ilmu Al-Quran. Mempelajari Al-Quran dari segi mengeja dan membaca hendaklah dijadikan asas Untuk menguasai sesuatu ilmu, asas bahasa mestilah kuat dan mantap

20 Pedagogi Ibn Khaldun Menegah guru menggunakan kekasaran lisan dan fizikal terhadap murid Kekasaran dan kekerasan boleh meninggalkan kesan buruk: Rosak jiwa Sifat dendam Agresif Hilang keyakinan Penakut

21 Pedagogi Ibn Khaldun Pendidikan hendaklah dilaksanakan dengan kasih sayang, kelembutan dan dengan mendekati mereka Guru hendaklah menjadi teladan utama dan contoh yang baik Untuk tekun belajar, hendaklah belajar jauh dari kampung halaman sendiri, mengembara untuk mencari ulama-ulama besar

22 Pedagogi Ibn Khaldun Mempelajari satu ilmu melalui tiga tahap:
Tahap Pertama Tahap permulaan Ilmu diberi secara sederhana Belum terperinci ii) Tahap Kedua Ulang kembali pelajaran tahap pertama Huraian diperluaskan Perbezaan pendapat mulai disentuh

23 Pedagogi Ibn Khaldun iii) Tahap Ketiga Tahap akhir
Murid sudah lebih cerdas Pelajaran diulang dari awal hingga akhir Masalah2 dan cabang2nya dihuraikan Guru mengajar kanak2 dengan membawa contoh benda-benda maujud yang boleh dirasa

24 Kepentingan Mempelajari Akal Manusia
Persepsi (Al-Idrak) Persepsi menggunakan pancaindera Persepsi menggunakan daya fikir Akal manusia ada 3 peringkat: Discerning intellect Experimental intellect Speculative intellect

25 Meaning of Human Reality
Discerning intellect: perceptions of things in outside world Experimental intellect: apperceptions of rules for behavior (in social context) Speculative intellect: beyond sense perception; road to perfection; meaning of human reality

26 Resources Abdullah Al-Amin Al-Na’miy. [translated by Mohd Ramzi Omar]. (1994). Kaedah dan teknik Pengajaran Menurut Ibn Khaldun dan Al-Qabisi. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Hasan Langgulung. (2003). Asas-Pendidikan Islam. Jakarta: Pustaka Al Husna Baru. Gamal Abdul Nasir Zakaria. (2003). Prinsip-Prinsip Pendidikan Islam : Ibn Sahnun, al-Qabisi dan Ibn Khaldun. Pahang: PTS Publications & Distributor Sdn Bhd. Ghazali Darusalam. (2001). Pedagogi Pendidikan Islam. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications & Distributors. Goodman, L.E. (1991). Ibn Tufayl’s Hayy Ibn Yaqzan. Los Angeles: Gee Tee Bee. Ibn Khaldun. [translated by Rosenthal, F. (1986). The Muqaddimah: Introduction to History (3 Volumes). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

27 Takeaways? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)


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