2Tokoh-Tokoh pada zaman TopikTokoh-Tokoh pada zamankegemilangan IslamIbn TufaylIbn Khaldun
3Ibn Tufayl“If there is a Being Whose Perfection is infinite,….then to lose hold of such a Being …must mean infinite torture. Likewise to preserve constant awareness of Him is to know joy without lapse, unending bliss, rapture and delight”
4Spanish Scholar Medieval era NameAbu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Abd Al-Malik Ibn Muhammad Ibn Tufayl al-QaysiBirth1106 in Guadix (Granada)Death1185/ 581 AH in MarrakeshHis workPhysician, Qadi & Vizier to Caliph Abu Yaqub YusufMain InterestsPhilosophy, Poetry, Astronomy, MedicineNotable WorkHayy Ibn Yaqzan = (The Living one, Son of the Vigilant)
5Ibn Tufayl’s Educational Philosophy What is education?What is personal development?How does human growth take place?How can a man attain fulfillment?
6Hayy Ibn Yaqzan A philosophical fiction Translated into Hebrew (14th C.), Latin (17th C.), English (1674) and most European languages.Daniel Defoe’s central idea in his ‘Robinson Crusoe’ was claimed to have been borrowed from Hayy Ibn Yaqzan
7Hayy Ibn YaqzanA baby boy, Hayy, was born in a deserted island (legend has it that he was thrown to the island by the sister of a king in order to keep her marriage to Yaqzan a secret)He was nourished and cared for by a deerAs a result of dissecting the deer, on its death, he becomes to understand – through his powers of observation and reflection – that death results from the dissolution of the union of spirit and body
8Hayy Ibn YaqzanHe then compares the objects around him, and discriminates between them, and classifies them into minerals, plants and animals.Each of them has a common factor = bodyEach class of objects has a specific form or soulBut soul is imperceptible, so there must be an eternal and necessary Being that creates these souls
9Hayy Ibn YaqzanHayy met Asal (a contemplative and meditative soul) from a neighbouring inhabited island who wanted to be in solitudeAsal informs Hayy about Quranic conceptions of God, His Angels, prophets, etc.Hayy immediately accept Asal’s explanations as truthsHe followed Asal to his island in the hope of reforming the people there
10Hayy Ibn YaqzanHayy endeavours hard to enlighten the masses through pure conceptsIn the end, he finds these concepts to prove to be too difficult for the masses to understandHe realises the wisdom of the Prophet in giving them sensuous forms instead of full lightHe returns to his lonely island and is absorbed in contemplation
11Hayy Ibn YaqzanWithout the help of tradition and revelation, man can attain knowledge of the natural world and reality and, through this to knowledge of God.Even if God has not revealed Himself through His prophets, He would have been discovered by scientists, mystics and philosophers through their studies of nature, the human self and the universe.
12Ibn Khaldun“Intelek masih belum boleh dianggap intelek sehinggalah ianya dikongsi dan menyumbang kepada kebaikan masyarakat”
14Arab Scholar Medieval era NameIbn Khaldun [Abū Zayd ‘Abdu r-Raḥman bin Muḥammad bin Khaldūn al-Ḥaḍramī]Birth27 May, 1332/1 Ramadan 732 AH in TunisDeath19 March, 1406/26 Ramadan 808 AH in CairoScholarly TitleWali-ad-din - “Guardian of the Religion”School / TraditionAsh'ariMain InterestsSociology, History, Historiography, Demography, Economics, Philosophy of History.Notable IdeasAsabiyah
15Education & Early Years Family social and political activistreceived a classical Arabic educationstudying the Qur'an and Arabic linguistics, the basis for an understanding of the Qur'an, Hadith  and Fiqh mathematics, logic and philosophylost both his parents to an epidemic of the plague which hit Tunis, when he was 17 years oldIn a typical Muslim family, follow family tradition is common, that is where he strove for a political careerAnd he life adventure begin, in which he spends time in prison, reaches the highest offices and falls again into exile.
16His travelsHe had lived (due to work and studies) in Tunisia, Fez (Morocco), Granada (Spain) & EgyptHe made acute observation of the societies he visited & he wrote MuqaddimahHe worked on Muqaddimah & finished it in November 1377
17Educational Influence Khaldun’s analysis concludes that science & education & teaching determine cultural prosperity & that “open minded thinking” about unknown principles and crossing disciplines is key; advocates comprehensive but staged education using simple humane (non-aggressive) methods combining balanced mix of theory & practice.
18Educational Approach Students should not be forced to memorize Subjects should not be taught in a broken sequenceTwo subjects should not be taught togetherAppropriate length of subjects taughtIt is harmful to be very strict on a studentTraveling and conferencing with scholars is useful for educationEducation should be practicalLearning science requires skill
19Pedagogi Ibn KhaldunKanak-kanak didedahkan terlebih dahulu dengan ilmu Al-Quran.Mempelajari Al-Quran dari segi mengeja dan membaca hendaklah dijadikan asasUntuk menguasai sesuatu ilmu, asas bahasa mestilah kuat dan mantap
20Pedagogi Ibn KhaldunMenegah guru menggunakan kekasaran lisan dan fizikal terhadap muridKekasaran dan kekerasan boleh meninggalkan kesan buruk:Rosak jiwaSifat dendamAgresifHilang keyakinanPenakut
21Pedagogi Ibn KhaldunPendidikan hendaklah dilaksanakan dengan kasih sayang, kelembutan dan dengan mendekati merekaGuru hendaklah menjadi teladan utama dan contoh yang baikUntuk tekun belajar, hendaklah belajar jauh dari kampung halaman sendiri, mengembara untuk mencari ulama-ulama besar
22Pedagogi Ibn Khaldun Mempelajari satu ilmu melalui tiga tahap: Tahap PertamaTahap permulaanIlmu diberi secara sederhanaBelum terperinciii) Tahap KeduaUlang kembali pelajaran tahap pertamaHuraian diperluaskanPerbezaan pendapat mulai disentuh
23Pedagogi Ibn Khaldun iii) Tahap Ketiga Tahap akhir Murid sudah lebih cerdasPelajaran diulang dari awal hingga akhirMasalah2 dan cabang2nya dihuraikanGuru mengajar kanak2 dengan membawa contoh benda-benda maujud yang boleh dirasa
24Kepentingan Mempelajari Akal Manusia Persepsi (Al-Idrak)Persepsi menggunakan pancainderaPersepsi menggunakan daya fikirAkal manusia ada 3 peringkat:Discerning intellectExperimental intellectSpeculative intellect
25Meaning of Human Reality Discerning intellect: perceptions of things in outside worldExperimental intellect: apperceptions of rules for behavior (in social context)Speculative intellect: beyond sense perception; road to perfection; meaning of human reality
26ResourcesAbdullah Al-Amin Al-Na’miy. [translated by Mohd Ramzi Omar]. (1994). Kaedah dan teknik Pengajaran Menurut Ibn Khaldun dan Al-Qabisi. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.Hasan Langgulung. (2003). Asas-Pendidikan Islam. Jakarta: Pustaka Al Husna Baru.Gamal Abdul Nasir Zakaria. (2003). Prinsip-Prinsip Pendidikan Islam : Ibn Sahnun, al-Qabisi dan Ibn Khaldun. Pahang: PTS Publications & Distributor Sdn Bhd.Ghazali Darusalam. (2001). Pedagogi Pendidikan Islam. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications & Distributors.Goodman, L.E. (1991). Ibn Tufayl’s Hayy Ibn Yaqzan. Los Angeles: Gee Tee Bee.Ibn Khaldun. [translated by Rosenthal, F. (1986). The Muqaddimah: Introduction to History (3 Volumes). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.