Presentation on theme: "Digitale medier: formidling og design 19. april Online communities, identitet og repræsentation."— Presentation transcript:
Digitale medier: formidling og design 19. april Online communities, identitet og repræsentation
Oversigt Online communities Ingen kage :o( Foredrag i Audi 1 –Jeanette Blomberg 14.30- 15.30 –John King 15.30-16.30
Online communities Hvilken form for kommunikation? Hvilke sites er online communities? Fokus på –Identitet –Sprog –Køn –Relation online/offline
Hvad er online communities for en størrelse? Igen: De må pr. definition være medier af tredje grad Her er et eksempelet eksempel Er de en form for kommunikation (altså udveksling af meddelelser)?
Transmissionsmodellen Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (1963). The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Original Publication: 1949, ISBN: 0252725484. P. 7.
Eller? A ritual view of communication is directed not towards the extension of messages in space but toward the maintenance of society in time; not the act of imparting information but the representation of shared beliefs (Carey p. 18)
Er de en form for kommunikation som ritual? One must examine communication […] as the primary phenomena of experience and not as something ”softer” and derivative from a ”realer” existent nature (Carey p. 26). Hvordan opleves Arto af brugerne? Som en primær virkelighed, som en udvandet udgave af en udenforliggende virkelighed, eller som en kombination?
Hvilke sites er online communities? Online mødesteder –Dating: dating.dkdating.dk –Friending: arto.dkarto.dk –Knowledge sharing: slashdotslashdot User generated content –Fildeling Client/server: NapsterNapster Peer-to-peer (P2P): LimewireLimewire –Tagging: del.icio.usdel.icio.us Blogs (web logs) Husk etikken!etikken Baym, N. (1998). The emergence of online community. In S. G. Jones (Ed.), Cybersociety 2.0. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage. Baym, N. K. (2000). Tune in, log on: soaps, fandom, and online community. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN: 0761916490
Blogs (Nardi et al.) ”a series of archived Internet posts typically characterized by brief texts entered in reverse chronological order and generally containing hypertext links to other sites recommended by the author”
Hvad er en blog? Reverse chronological journaling (format) Regular, date-stamped entries [with permalink - CB] (timeliness) Links to related news articles, documents, blog entries within each entry (attribution) Archived entries (old content remains accessible) Links to related blogs (blogrolling) RSS or XML feed (ease of syndication) Passion (voice) Gill, K. E. (2004). How can we measure the influence of the blogosphere?, WWW2004. New York, NY, URL: http://faculty.washington.edu/kegill/pub/www2004_blogosphere_gill.pdf.
Short history April 1997: Scripting News begins September 1997: Slashdot launch Late 1997: Jorn Barger creates term ’weblog’ Early 1999: First blogging portal, EatonWeb August 1999: Launch of Blogger (free blogging tool) 2002: Blogger acquired by Google
Three levels of privacy Listed –On commercial blog-sites list of blogs Unlisted –Can be detected via ’referrer’ data in followed links Password protected –Must log in to view, but can still be quoted
Five reasons to blog Documenting the author's life Providing commentary and opinions Expressing deeply felt emotions Working out ideas through writing (blog as muse) Forming and maintaining communities or forums
Design recommendations Integration with online communication and document management tools Photoware Searching and indexing Audience specificity and privacy Group blogs Quality control Ease of use
Teenage blogs (Huffaker & Calvert) Blogs were retrieved using search strings such as "teens," "teen blogs," and "teenager," yielding 347 teen blogs. After reviewing each link, and removing inactive URLs or links to sites created by adults (including 18- and 19-year- olds), 184 blogs remained (males = 63, females = 121), which represents the final sample of active teenage blogs
Sampling method Because of the abundance of female blog results, the sample was separated by gender and a stratified random sampling method was employed to even the sample. The final sample consisted of a total of 70 weblogs, equally distributed across male and female authors
DOES AUTHOR REVEAL?? TOTAL (n=70)MALE (n=35)FEMALE (n=35) First name70% (49)36% (25)34% (24) Full name20% (14)13% (9)7% (5) Age67% (47)37% (26)30% (21) Birth date39% (27)21% (15)18% (12) Location59% (41)34% (24)25% (17) Contact information61% (43)27% (19)34% (24) Email44% (31)19% (13)25% (18) Instant Messenger name 44% (31)24% (16)20% (14) Home page URL30% (21)9% (6)21% (15) Disclosure of personal information by gender
Contingency table of sexual identity Mean Score MALE Mean Score FEMALE Certainty42.4440.33 Tenacity32.3131.65 Leveling8.567.89 Collectivity4.463.18 Insistence43.9037.57 Numerical Terms32.9933.09 Ambivalence17.4919.62 Self-reference35.4338.84 Variety0.53.55
Mean language scores for activity, aggression, and passivity Mean Score MALE Mean Score FEMALE Activity51.0450.06 Aggression3.032.14 Accomplishment5.144.60 Communication8.839.38 Motion4.943.67 Cognitive Terms7.828.68 Passivity3.963.83 Embellishment43.9037.57
Traditional language differences In other CMC contexts, studies have found that females use language that is polite, appreciative, and cooperative (Herring, 2000, 2001; Savicki, 1996) By contrast, males use language that is more confident (Arnold & Miller, 1999), more aggressive, and less concerned with politeness (Herring, 2000, 2001)
The role of identity In previous work, identity has been approached in terms of the relationships between the internal experience, such as personality and self-definition, and the external world, such as social relationships and shared values (Erikson, 1993; Freud, 1989; Jung, 1976; Lacan, 1986) The Internet has provided a new context for identity exploration, as the virtual world provides a venue to explore a complex set of relationships that is flexible and potentially anonymous
On the internet, everybody knows if you’re a dog! While this study supports the social interactionist perspective, in as much as language is being used to construct and reflect adolescent identity (Harter, 1998), multiple "public" faces were not the norm. Instead, our data suggest a tendency for adolescents to use language to create an anchor and a consistent public face as they engage in the very serious business of constructing a stable cohesive set of representations of who they are
Girlpower! Interestingly, the blogs created by young males and females are more alike than different. Perhaps the technical ease of use of blogs levels the differences between males and females, or perhaps this generation of Internet users is becoming more androgynous in its online communication and interaction
Blogs lige nu Mest populære blogs på Technorati Technorati Danske blogs –UrbanblogUrbanblog –NyhedsavisenNyhedsavisen –DRDR –TV2TV2 –ComputerworldComputerworld Shields, R. (2003). The virtual. London: Routledge. Turkle, S. (1984). The second self: computers and the human spirit. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN: 0671468480 Turkle, S. (1996). Life on the screen: identity in the age of the Internet. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. ISBN: 0297815148